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ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ; ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ; ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠂ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ; ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠨᠡᠭᠴᠢ6.5 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ (ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ)
ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢ
ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ
1. ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ (ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ–ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ–ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ)
4. ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ (ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ–ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢᠨ)
ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ1. ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ (1204–ᠥᠨᠥ)
2. ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ (1941–ᠥᠨᠥ)
3. ᠲᠣᠳᠣ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ (1648–ᠥᠨᠥ)
4. ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ (1939–ᠥᠨᠥ)
5. ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ (1941–ᠥᠨᠥ)
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ
ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ«ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ» → ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ)
ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ«ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ» → ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ (ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ)
«ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ» → ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ (БНБурУ)
«ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ» → ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ (БНХалУ)
ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ– ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ: ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ[1]
– ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ: ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
   ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ[2]
ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ  (ᠠᠩᠭᠯ᠃)
ISO 639-1mn
ISO 639-2mon
ISO 639-3mon – inclusive code
Individual codes:
khk – Khalkha Mongolian
mvf – Peripheral Mongolian
Linguistic map of the Mongolic languages.png
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ
ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠶᠢᠮᠣ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ
Atlas Mongolica.jpg

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠭᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠲ᠋ᠦᠩᠬᠦᠰ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ᠂ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩᠮᠣᠭᠣᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ 13-15 ᠂ 16 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ᠂ 16-18᠂ 19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ 20 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ «ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ» ᠍ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮᠰᠠᠨᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ᠂ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠰ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ 1959 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠱ·ᠯᠤᠪᠰᠠᠩᠸᠠᠩᠳᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

Mongol atlas.jpg

1206 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠣᠭᠳᠠ᠂ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ (1204?–)᠂ ᠲᠣᠳᠣ (1648–) ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ (1941–) ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ (1939–) ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ (1941–) ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ (ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠨᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠵᠠᠢ) ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠤᠰᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨᠰᠣᠶᠣᠮᠪᠣᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭᠸᠠᠭᠢᠨᠳᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠭᠡ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠯ᠂ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ᠂ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

Mongolic Lang-map.jpg

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠪᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ «ᠹ»᠂ «ᠺ» ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ «ᠹ» ᠍ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ «ᠪ»᠂ «ᠸ» ᠦᠰᠦᠭ᠂ «ᠺ» ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ «ᠭ»᠂ «ᠬ» ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ «ᠺ» ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ «ᠺ» ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ «ᠯᠠ»᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ «ᠷ» ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠴᠤᠳ «ᠯᠠ» ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ «ᠷ» ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ «ᠷ» ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ «ᠯᠠ» ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠴᠤᠳ «ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ» ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ «ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠷᠤ» ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

China linguistic map.jpg

ᠠᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠯᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠯᠬᠣ

1959 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ ᠱ·ᠯᠤᠪᠰᠠᠩᠸᠠᠩᠳᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠠ·ᠷᠤᠳ᠋ᠨᠸ᠂ ᠪ·ᠶ·ᠸᠯᠠᠳᠢᠮᠢᠷᠼᠣᠸ᠂ ᠭ·ᠳ·ᠰᠠᠨᠵᠧᠸ᠂ ᠨ·ᠫᠣᠫᠫᠧ᠂ ᠨ·ᠴᠡᠩᠭᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠭᠦᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ:[3]

  • ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ: — ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ (60 000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ)᠂ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ (100 000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ)
    • ᠲᠥᠪ᠂ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠪᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ — ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ᠂ ᠠᠯᠠᠱᠠ᠂ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠂ ᠬᠣᠪᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ
  • ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ: — ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ (ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ≈300,000)
    • ᠲᠥᠪ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠪᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ — ᠰᠡᠯᠡᠩᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ
  • ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ: — ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ (1 000 000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ)᠂ ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ (100 000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ)᠂ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ (60 000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ)
  • ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ: — ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ (540 000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ)᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢᠨ (350 000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ)
    • ᠲᠥᠪ᠂ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠪᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠪᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠨ᠂ ᠠᠷᠤ ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ᠂ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠨ᠂ ᠣᠩᠨᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ》 ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
Linguistic map of the Altaic, Turkic and Uralic languages.png

ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠯᠬᠣ

ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 2 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ 700 ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 84 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ᠂ 8 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠢᠵᠢᠯᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ 1941 ᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ «ө»᠂ «ү» ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

Mongolic.jpg

ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠯᠬᠣ

ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ (ᠰᠢᠯᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ) ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠥᠪᠥᠷᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠯᠬᠣ

ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠩ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠡᠲᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ᠂ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ (ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ-ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ᠂ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ᠂ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠱᠠ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[4]

БНХАУ - үндэстнүүдийн тархалт.png

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠯᠬᠣ

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠣᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ 1939 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ «ө»᠂ «ү»᠂ «h» ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠤᠷᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ-ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ-ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠂ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ 4 ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ (ᠡᠬᠢᠷᠢᠳ᠂ ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠤ)᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ (ᠠᠯᠠᠶᠢᠷ᠂ ᠲᠦᠩᠬᠡᠨ)᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ (ᠬᠣᠷᠢ)᠂ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ (ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠠᠯ᠂ ᠰᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭᠤᠯ) ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠯᠬᠣ

ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ 3 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠵᠢᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 1938 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ-ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ «ә»᠂ «һ»᠂ «җ»᠂ «ң»᠂ «ө»᠂ «ү» ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ᠂ «ъ» ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠰᠣᠵᠣ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠮᠭ ᠺᠧᠯᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠯᠬᠣ

ᠢᠪᠴᠤᠤ ᠤᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠂ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ 5.2 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ 2005 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[5]᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠤᠲᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 5.8 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠭᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠴᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠮᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠴᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[6] ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[7] ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ (1989 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ) 376 ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ 86,6 % ᠍ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ᠂ 13,3 % ᠍  ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 1991 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠮᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠯᠬᠣ

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠬᠤ᠂ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠬᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠂ ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠳ ᠮᠠᠨᠢ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠶᠠᠨᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠴᠤ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠭᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠯᠢᠵᠡᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠤᠩᠭᠢᠳᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠭᠣᠯ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠷ᠂ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩ᠂ ᠪᠠᠠᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠣ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠢᠷᠠᠳᠣᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[8] ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠨᠡᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠴᠠᠮᠢᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠴᠤ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠴᠢᠶᠡᠨ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨᠲᠡ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠯᠬᠣ

ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭ
ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
a ᠎ А
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
e ᠎ Э
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
i, yi И,Й, Ы, Ь
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
o, u О, У
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ö᠂ ü Ө, Ү
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
n Н
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ng Н, НГ
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
b Б, В
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
p П
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
q П
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
γ Х
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
k Х
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
g Г
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
m М
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
l Л
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
s С
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
š Ш
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
t, d Т, Д
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
č Ч, Ц
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
j Ж, З
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
y -Й, Е*, Ё*, Ю*, Я*
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
r Р
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
v В
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
f Ф
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
К
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
(c) (ц)
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
(z) (з)
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
(h) (г, х)
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
(zh) (-,-)
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
(ř) (-,-)
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
(chi) (-,-)

</div>

ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ
ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ
(1941–)
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
(1941–)
ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ
(1939–)
Аа Аа Аа
Әә
Бб Бб Бб
Вв Вв Вв
Гг Гг Гг
Һһ
Дд Дд Дд
Ее Ее Ее
Ёё Ёё Ёё
Жж Жж Жж
Җҗ
Зз Зз Зз
Ии Ии Ии
Йй Йй Йй
Кк Кк Кк
Лл Лл Лл
Мм Мм Мм
Нн Нн Нн
Ңң
Оо Оо Оо
Өө Өө Өө
Пп Пп Пп
Рр Рр Рр
Сс Сс Сс
Тт Тт Тт
Уу Уу Уу
Үү Үү Үү
Фф Фф Фф
Хх Хх Хх
Һһ
Цц Цц Цц
Чч Чч Чч
Шш Шш Шш
Щщ Щщ Щщ
ъ ъ
Ыы Ыы Ы
ь ь ь
Ээ Ээ Ээ
Юю Юю Юю
Яя Яя Яя
38 ᠦᠰᠦᠭ 35 ᠦᠰᠦᠭ 36 ᠦᠰᠦᠭ

ᠮᠥᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠯᠬᠣ

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠯᠬᠣ

  1. Törijn alban josny helnij tuhaj huul'. MongolianLaws.com (2003-05-15). 2009-03-27 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ The decisions of the council have to be ratified by the government.
  2. "Mongγul kele bičig-ün aǰil-un ǰöblel". See Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 204.
  3. ᠭ·ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠽᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠱ·ᠯᠤᠪᠰᠠᠩᠸᠠᠩᠳᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ (1959)
  4. 《Öbür mongγul ayalγu bol dumdadu ulus-un mongγul kelen-ü saγuri ayalγu bolqu büged dumdadu ulus-un mongγul kelen-ü barimǰiy-a abiy-a ni čaqar aman ayalγun-du saγurilaγsan bayidaγ᠃《 (Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 85).
  5. Svantesson et al. 2005: 141, 143. On the other hand, Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 206 (an Inner Mongolian source) assumes four million Inner Mongolians to be proficient in Mongolian.
  6. Janhunen 2003d: 178.
  7. Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 565.
  8. ᠯᠠ᠃ ЧУлуунбаатар: ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠮ ᠥᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠯᠬᠣ