ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ

ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠫᠷᠣᠭᠷᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠯᠢᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦ᠂ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ 20 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ (1940 - 1941 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ) ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠨ ᠥᠷᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠦᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠫᠧᠷᠰᠤᠨᠠᠯ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃[1] ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ [2]ᠥᠨᠥ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠢᠭᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠫᠧᠷᠰᠤᠨᠠᠯ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ "ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ" ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠥᠳᠠᠭ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠵᠢᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠫᠫᠠᠷᠠᠲᠤᠳ᠂ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠭᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠷᠣᠭᠷᠠᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠴᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠴᠢᠷᠴᠢ-ᠲᠤᠷᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ:

"ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠠᠯᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃"

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠫᠧᠷᠰᠤᠨᠠᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠵᠢᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠪᠬᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠰᠤᠫᠧᠷᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠠᠯᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠱᠠᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠱᠠᠲᠤ (computer generation) ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ 4 ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠱᠠᠲᠤ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠴᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃

I ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ (1946-1958) – ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠯᠠᠮᠫᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠦᠰᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠥᠷᠲᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ 1946 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠫᠷᠧᠰᠫᠧᠷ ᠡᠺᠧᠷ ᠲᠦ (Presper Eckert), ᠵᠣᠩ ᠮᠣᠬᠣᠯ (John Mauchly) ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ 10 ᠍ ᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠬᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠯᠠᠮᠫᠠ (vacuum tube) ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠸᠠᠺᠦ᠋ᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠭᠣ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠳ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠴᠡᠨᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠨ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠰᠬᠡᠭᠴᠢ (amplifier) ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠯᠣᠭᠢᠭ ᠲᠦᠯᠬᠢᠭᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ (switch) ᠭᠣᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠥ᠃ᠬ᠃ ᠰᠤᠯᠠ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠬᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠥᠰᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠭᠱᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ/ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ENIAC ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 18 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠯᠠᠮᠫᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠯᠠᠮᠫᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ENIAC ᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠥᠷᠦᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃

ENIAC ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) , UNIVAC (UNIVersal Automatic Computer) ᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠦ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠯᠠᠮᠫᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ENIAC ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠹᠣᠨ ᠨᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠍ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ (2 ᠍ ᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠫᠷᠣᠭᠷᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠦ). ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 10-20 khz.

II ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ (1959-1964) – ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠯᠠ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠥᠰᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠤᠤ ᠯᠣᠭᠢᠭ ᠲᠦᠯᠬᠢᠭᠦᠷ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠯᠠᠮᠫᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠪᠠᠯ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠨ᠂ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠷᠲᠡᠭ ᠬᠢᠮᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 40 ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠯᠠᠮᠫᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠢ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠭ᠃ᠮ᠃ᠠᠪᠠᠪᠠ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨᠪᠠᠪᠠᠪᠠᠠᠪ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ¼ ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠡᠯᠪᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠢᠮᠳᠠ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃ ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠯᠠᠮᠫᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠪᠠᠯ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠯᠠᠮᠫᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠯᠠ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

III ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ (1965-1970) – ᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠷᠡᠯ ᠰᠾᠧᠮ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠰᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠤᠮ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠬᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠵᠤ ᠭᠠᠩᠨᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠬᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠰᠾᠧᠮ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠦᠰᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

ᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠷᠡᠯ ᠰᠾᠧᠮ (Integrated Circuit - IC) ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠰᠾᠧᠮ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠨᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠯ ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ (ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠰᠮ2) ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠯᠲᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠰᠾᠧᠮ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠴᠢᠫ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠯ ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠾᠧᠮ ᠦᠨ (ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ) ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠯᠲᠠᠰᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ 《ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠬᠦ》 ᠥ᠃ᠬ᠃ 《ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ》 ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠯᠣᠭᠢᠭ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠢ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰᠴᠦ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠧᠺᠦᠶᠢᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠴᠤ᠂ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠴᠤ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠴᠣ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠡᠮᠪᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠩ (motherboard) ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪ ᠢ ᠮᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃

IV ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ (1971 ᠍ ᠣᠳᠣ) – ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ 4 ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠷᠡᠯ ᠰᠾᠧᠮ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

1970 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ Intel ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠪᠠᠷᠳᠠ ᠬᠣᠹᠹ (Edward Hoff) ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠯᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠯᠣᠭᠢᠭ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠾᠧᠮ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ Intel-4004 ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠫ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ 2300 ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠧᠺᠦᠶᠢᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠦ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 108 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠬᠢᠳᠡᠭ ᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ Intel-4004 ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ Intel-8008 ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃

1974 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ Intel-8080 ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠢᠫᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ 4500 ᠲᠷᠠᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠣᠨᠧᠨᠲ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠢ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠦᠦ 1974 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠪᠠᠷᠳᠠ ᠷᠣᠪᠧᠷᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷ Altair-8800 ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠮᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠡᠷᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠲᠦ Intel-8080 ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠥᠭᠴᠡᠢ᠃

1976 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠸᠣᠵᠣᠨᠢᠺᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠵᠣᠪᠰ ᠨᠠᠷ Apple ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ Apple-I ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1977 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ Apple-II ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

1981 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ IBM ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ᠂ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Intel ᠍ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ Intel-8088 ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ IBM PC ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠫᠧᠷᠰᠤᠨᠠᠯ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. In 1946, ENIAC consumed an estimated 174 kW. By comparison, a typical personal computer may use around 400 W; over four hundred times less. (Kempf, Karl (1961). "Historical Monograph: Electronic Computers Within the Ordnance Corps". Aberdeen Proving Ground (United States Army). 1961)
  2. Early computers such as Colossus and ENIAC were able to process between 5 and 100 operations per second. A modern "commodity" microprocessor (as of 2007) can process billions of operations per second, and many of these operations are more complicated and useful than early computer operations.

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