ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ

ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ᠂ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ (ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ (打印机)᠂ ᠺᠠᠮᠧᠷ (相机)) ᠺᠠᠪᠧᠯ (光缆) ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠣᠯᠭᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠰᠬᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠳᠡᠭ᠃

1960 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠮᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠭᠧᠨᠲᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, ARPANET) ᠍(高级研究项目局-NET) ᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ:

  • ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ: ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠮᠸᠯ᠂ IM(即时通信工具)᠂ ᠴᠠᠲ ᠥᠷᠥᠭᠡ᠂ ᠣᠳᠠᠰᠣ(ᠳ᠋ᠢᠶᠠᠩᠬᠤᠸᠠ) ᠂ ᠸᠢᠳᠢᠣ᠋ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠸᠢᠳᠢᠣ᠋ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ᠂ ᠬᠢᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  • ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ: ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠺᠦ᠋ᠮᠧᠨᠲ (文档) ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠃
  • ᠹᠠᠶᠢᠯ(文件)᠂ ᠥᠭᠭᠥᠭᠳᠡᠯ᠂ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ: ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ (认证用户) ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠥᠭᠭᠥᠭᠳᠡᠯ᠂ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃
  • ᠫᠷᠦᠭᠷᠠᠮ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ: ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠫᠷᠦᠭᠷᠠᠮ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃
  • ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ
  • ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ
  • ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤ

ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ᠂ ᠫᠷᠦᠭᠷᠠᠮ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠨᠡᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠠᠪ(Hub,集线器)᠂ ᠰᠸᠢᠴ(Switch,交换机)᠂ ᠪᠷᠢᠵ(Bridge,网桥)᠂ ᠷᠦᠦᠲᠦᠷ(Router,路由器) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ LAN ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠷᠠᠳᠢᠣ᠋ ᠳᠣᠯᠭᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠯᠭᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣ᠋ ᠳᠣᠯᠭᠢᠶᠠᠨ – ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣ᠋ ᠳᠣᠯᠭᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣ᠋ ᠳᠣᠯᠭᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ᠃
  • ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ – ᠬᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ (反射) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣ᠋ ᠳᠣᠯᠭᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠷᠠᠳᠢᠣ᠋ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ 35'500 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠬᠦ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤ᠂ ᠲᠧᠯᠧᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃
  • ᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ(蜂窝技术) ᠪᠠ PCS ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠦᠳ – ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠷᠠᠳᠢᠣ᠋ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃
  • ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ LAN 

ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠸᠮ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠬᠢᠲ᠋ᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ(框架) ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ:

1. ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ(Server) — ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ᠃
2. ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ(Client) — ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ᠃
3. ᠬᠡᠯᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ (Circuit) — ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

  • ᠯᠣᠭᠢᠭ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ(逻辑网络): ᠯᠣᠭᠢᠭ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠺᠠᠪᠧᠯ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠳᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ РС ᠍ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ Hub ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃
  • ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠸᠮ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ: ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ-ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ(Client-server) ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠸᠮ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ(Host-based) ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ(Client-based) ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ-ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ(Client-server) ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ-ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠥ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠳᠠᠩ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠵᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ peer-to-peer(P2P) ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ peer-to-peer ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ(拓扑结构)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ(拓扑结构): ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ(总线型拓扑)᠂ ᠮᠣᠳᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ(树形拓扑结构)᠂ ᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ(星形拓扑结构)᠂ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ(环型拓扑)᠂ ᠲᠣᠣᠷ ᠲᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ(网状拓扑)᠃ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠯᠣᠭᠢᠭ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠪ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠴᠠ᠂ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠴᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠴᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ (local area network, LAN᠂ 局域网), wide area network (WAN 广域网) ᠂ personal area network (PAN᠂ 个人局域网), virtual private network (VPN᠂ 虚拟专用网络), campus area network (CAN᠂ 校园局域网), storage area network (SAN᠂ 存储区域网络) ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ᠂ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷᠪᠠ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ᠂ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ WAN ᠍ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠤᠰᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃


ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ(Local area network)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ (local area network, LAN᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ 局域网) ᠨᠢ ᠭᠡᠷ᠂ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ᠂ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠰᠣᠭ᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ᠂ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ [1]

ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠨᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ᠂ ᠲᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ᠂ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

WAN ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ᠂ LAN ᠍  ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠭᠥᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤ᠂ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠴᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠲᠧᠯᠧᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ IEEE ᠨᠢ 40, 100 GB/S‍ ᠍  ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[2]


ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ (Personal area network)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Personal area network ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ (PAN) ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ᠂ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠃ PAN ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ᠂ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠹᠠᠺᠰ(传真机)᠂ ᠲᠧᠯᠧᠹᠣᠨ ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠸᠢᠳᠢᠣ᠋ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠭᠠᠮ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ PAN ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ᠂ ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ PAN ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ 10 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[3] ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ PAN ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ USB, Firewire ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ PAN ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ Bluetooth(蓝牙)᠂ ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠯᠭᠢᠶᠠᠨ(红外线) ᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ(Wide area network)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Wide area network ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ (WAN) ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠳᠠᠮᠨᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠧᠯᠧᠹᠣᠨ ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ᠂ ᠺᠠᠪᠧᠯ᠂ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠴᠠᠴᠤᠬᠤ ᠳᠣᠯᠭᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ WAN ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠧᠯᠧᠹᠣᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ)᠂ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ WAN ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ OSI ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠣᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ: ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ(物理层)᠂ ᠥᠭᠭᠥᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ(连接传输层)᠂ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ(网络层)᠃


Frame relay WAN ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ dialup remote access ᠍ ᠰ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ EPN ᠍ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ

ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ(Enterprise private network)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Enterprise private network ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠃

3 ᠣᠹᠹᠢᠰ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ VPN ᠍ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ

ᠸᠢᠷᠲᠤᠸᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ(Virtual private network)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Virtual private network ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠸᠢᠷᠲᠤᠸᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ (VPN) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠸᠢᠷᠲᠤᠸᠠᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠸᠢᠷᠲᠤᠸᠠᠯ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠭᠭᠥᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠺᠣᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠤᠩᠨᠧᠯᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ (tunnel) ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

VPN ᠍ ᠦ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠨᠡᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ (authentication)᠂ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠢᠹᠷᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ (content encryption) ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ VPN ᠍ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠭᠭᠥᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠨᠧᠲ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠨᠧᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ TCP/IP ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠨᠡᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠮᠤᠨ ᠤ DARPA(Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)  ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ARPANET ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ World Wide Web (WWW) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠨᠡᠲ ᠲᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ TCP/IP ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠴᠡᠵᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠵᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠺᠣᠯ(协议) ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, ᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠨᠡᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ) ᠪᠠ IP ᠬᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠺᠠᠷᠲ (network interface card, NIC)᠂ ᠪᠷᠢᠵᠢ /ᠭᠦᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ᠂ ᠬᠠᠪ᠂ ᠰᠸᠢᠴ᠂ ᠷᠦᠦᠲᠦᠷ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠵᠠᠮᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠯᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠃

ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠺᠠᠷᠲ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠺᠠᠷᠲ (网卡) ᠨᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ MAC ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠷᠢᠫᠢᠲᠡᠷ/ᠳᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠴᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠷᠢᠫᠢᠲᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠱᠤᠤᠭᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ (ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦ ᠳᠣᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ) ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠤᠰᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠠᠪᠧᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠨᠡᠲ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ (局域网) ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ 100 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠺᠠᠪᠧᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠷᠢᠫᠢᠲᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠷᠢᠫᠢᠲᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ OSI ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠬᠠᠪ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠪ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ(port, 端口) ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠫᠠᠺᠸᠲ (packet, 包) ᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠴᠠᠴᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ᠃

ᠪᠷᠢᠵᠢ /ᠭᠦᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠷᠢᠵᠢ(网桥) ᠨᠢ OSI ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠭᠥᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠷᠢᠵᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠥᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠴᠠᠴᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠪ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ MAC ᠬᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨᠲᠡ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ᠂ ᠬᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠴᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠭᠥᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠸᠢᠴ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠸᠢᠴ(交换机) ᠨᠢ OSI ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠹᠷᠡᠶᠢᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠢ MAC ᠬᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠢ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[4]

ᠰᠸᠢᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠪ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠯᠠ ᠹᠷᠡᠶᠢᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠰᠸᠢᠴ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠴᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠹᠷᠡᠶᠢᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠢ MAC ᠬᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ [5]

ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠰᠸᠢᠴᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ 3 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠯᠣᠭᠢᠭ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠷᠦᠦᠲᠢᠩ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠸᠢᠴ (multi-layer switch) ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠸᠢᠴ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠂ ᠠᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ᠂ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠭᠥᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠷᠦᠦᠲᠦᠷ᠂ ᠪᠷᠢᠵᠤ᠂ URL ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠷᠦᠦᠲᠦᠷ/ᠵᠠᠮᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ/ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠷᠦᠦᠲᠦᠷ(路由器) ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠵᠠᠮᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ OSI ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ 3 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠫᠠᠺᠧᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠰᠦᠨᠦᠭᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ (routing table, ᠮᠥᠨ forwarding table) ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠷᠦᠦᠲᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠦᠰᠦᠨᠦᠭᠲᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠫᠠᠺᠸᠲ ᠢ ᠴᠠᠰᠢ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. New global standard for fully networked home, ITU-T Press Release
  2. IEEE P802.3ba 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s Ethernet Task Force
  3. http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid40_gci546288,00.html
  4. Define switch.. www.webopedia.com. 2012-04-08 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  5. Basic Components of a Local Area Network (LAN). NetworkBits.net. 2008-04-08 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

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