ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲᠤ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠤᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ: Te Mauri, Te Raoi ao Te Tabomoa
(ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ᠂ ᠡᠩᠬᠡᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ᠂ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ)
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠨᠨᠣᠲ᠋ᠧ ᠲᠣᠩ ᠢ
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 0
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ () 105,432 
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ () 92,533 
ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠧᠺᠰ  0.515 
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ
ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ )
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ +12, +13, +14
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ 686

ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲᠤ (ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Kiribati), ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ, ᠨᠢ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠺᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ 3,500,000 ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 32 ᠱᠢᠷᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠱᠢᠷᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠣᠯᠲᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ "ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ᠋ᠰ" ᠍ ᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰᠢᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ 1788 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠤᠨ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ ᠲᠣᠮᠠᠰ ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠤᠩᠭᠠᠷᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ "ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲᠤ" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠠᠢ[1]

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ

ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 3000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ 1300 ᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠨᠧᠽᠢᠢ ᠠᠴᠦᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ[2]᠃ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ ᠲᠣᠩᠭ᠋ ᠠᠰᠠᠮᠤᠠᠹᠢᠵᠢᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢᠮᠧᠯᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ[3]

ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠢ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠭ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ 18 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ᠂ 19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1820 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠣᠯᠲᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠳᠮᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠳᠠᠮ ᠹᠣᠨ ᠺᠷᠦᠽᠧᠨ᠋ᠱᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠠᠨ᠂ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ ᠯᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠶᠫᠧᠷᠷᠧᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠠᠰ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ 1788 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠯᠲᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠤᠨ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ ᠲᠣᠮᠠᠰ ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠶᠢᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ[4]

ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ

19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠤ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ᠂ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠬᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[5]᠃ 1837 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1892 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠯᠯᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠪᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠹᠢᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠺᠣᠮᠮᠢᠰ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠥᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ[4]. ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ 1916 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠯᠯᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠢᠲᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ 1919 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠢᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠢ (ᠵᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ), ᠮᠥᠨ 1937 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠹᠢᠨᠢᠺᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠍ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨᠲᠠᠷᠪᠠ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠴᠤᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠠᠷᠪᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠷᠯᠣᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠰᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 1943 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 11 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ᠂ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠣᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠯᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠠᠳᠠ 1960 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠰᠤᠲᠥᠶᠢᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠯᠯᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ 1971 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠣᠨᠢᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1975 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 2 ᠰᠠᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1978 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠯᠯᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠸᠠᠯᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠩ ᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ 1979 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 7 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 12 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠵᠤ᠂ 1983 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠹᠢᠨᠢᠺᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠯᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ 1988 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 4,700 ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠧᠪᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠷᠣ ᠲᠢᠲ᠋ᠣ 1994 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ 2 ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ 1995 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠢᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠥᠬᠥᠮ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠭᠲᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠲᠢᠲ᠋ᠣ 1998 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1999 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠢᠲ᠋ᠣ 2003 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠣᠨ ᠤ 3 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠥᠭᠴᠦ᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠭᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠂ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠯᠢᠳᠧᠷ ᠠᠨᠨᠣᠲ᠋ᠧ ᠲᠣᠩ ᠢ 7 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ 2007 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

2008 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠸᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲᠤ᠋ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡᠳ ᠨᠡᠷᠪᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠪᠠᠲᠢᠭ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ[6]᠃ 2008 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠨᠨᠣᠲ᠋ᠧ ᠲᠣᠩ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ "ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠡᠭ" ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠴᠣᠬᠣᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ: "ᠡᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠷᠢ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠪᠡᠴᠦ᠂ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠵᠤ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ[7][8][9][10][11]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. Reilly Ridgell. Pacific Nations and Territories: The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. 3rd Edition. Honolulu: Bess Press, 1995. p. 95
  2. "Cinderellas of the Empire", Barrie Macdonald, IPS, University of the South Pacific, 2001, p. 1
  3. I-Kiribati Ministry of Finance and Economic Development: "History"
  4. 4.0 4.1 BBC Timeline:Kiribati. BBC (15 May 2008). 2008-07-29 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  5. see reference note n°3
  6. Kiribati News | World | Page 1
  7. "Leader of disappearing island nation says climate change an issue of survival, not economics", International Herald Tribune, June 5, 2008
  8. "Kiribati leader warns the world that it may already be too late", TV3, June 5, 2008
  9. "Kiribati's President: 'Our Lives Are At Stake': For the Islands of Kiribati, Global Warming PosesImmediate Dangers", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, April 2, 2007
  10. "Paradise lost: climate change forces South Sea islanders to seek sanctuary abroad", The Independent, June 6, 2008
  11. "Tiny atoll in Pacific cries out for help", The Times of India, June 6, 2008

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