ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
— «ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ» ᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠪᠠ —
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠤᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ)</br>ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
 -  ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠯᠢᠽᠡᠪᠡᠢᠰ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠡᠪᠲ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠯᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ ᠵᠣᠩᠰᠣᠲᠤᠨ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠸᠧᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠫᠧᠷ
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 8.92
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ () 34,191,000[1] 
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ () 31,241,030[2] 
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ($) )
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ -3.5 ᠍ ᠰ -8
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ +1

ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ (ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Canadaᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Canada᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠢᠡᠷ 加拿大 ) ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠭ[3]᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ  ᠢᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠮᠢᠩ᠋ᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤ᠌ᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠍ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ 1763 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠶᠢᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1867 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)  ᠢᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃[4][5][6] ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ᠂ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 1931 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠸᠡᠰᠲᠦᠮᠢᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠢᠡᠷ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1982 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠺᠲ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠠᠯᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ᠂ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠢᠽᠡᠪᠡᠢᠰ ᠠᠩᠭ᠍ᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠬᠥᠭ᠍ᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠯᠣᠷᠧᠨᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠣᠺᠧᠽᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ "ᠲᠣᠰᠬᠣᠨ" ᠪᠤᠶᠤ "ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠲᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ 1535 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠍ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠵᠠᠺ ᠺᠠᠷᠲᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠳᠠᠺᠣᠨᠠ ᠲᠣᠰᠬᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃[7] ᠺᠠᠷᠲᠧᠷ 'ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ' ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠣᠰᠬᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠳᠠᠺᠣᠨᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠣᠩᠨᠠᠺᠣᠨᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠲᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1545 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠣᠮ᠂ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃[8]

ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠍ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠯᠣᠷᠧᠨᠰ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)  ᠢᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1841 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠢᠢᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1867 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠨᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠣᠯᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠵᠠᠢ᠃[9] 1950 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠨᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌᠂ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1982 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠺᠲ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ "ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ (ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ) ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1982 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠨᠢᠣᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ  ᠢᠢᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠳᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ 19 ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ

ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠨᠤᠢᠢᠲ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠤ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠠᠷᠬᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ 26,500 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠶᠤᠺᠤᠨᠳ᠋᠂ 9,500 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠣᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃[10][11] ᠮᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ 1000 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠯᠠᠩᠰᠠᠮᠡᠳᠡᠦᠽᠡᠳ᠋ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ 1497 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠨ ᠺᠠᠪᠣᠲ ᠠᠨᠭᠭᠯᠢ  ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ[12] ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1534 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠺ ᠺᠠᠷᠲᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[13] ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠺ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠤ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤᠴᠢᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ᠂ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠳᠦᠶᠢᠰᠢᠶᠠᠺ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃[14]

ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠰᠠᠮᠤᠡᠯᠠᠳᠡ ᠱᠠᠮᠫᠯᠡᠨ 1603 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ᠂ 1605 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠣᠸᠠ ᠰᠺᠣᠲ᠋ᠢᠶᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠷᠣᠢᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ᠂ 1608 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠍ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭ᠋ᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠺᠠᠳᠢᠶᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ Canadiens ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠯᠣᠷᠧᠨᠰ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠠᠺᠠᠳᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠯᠢᠭ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠮᠢᠰᠰᠢᠣᠨᠧᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠬᠠᠳ᠋ᠰᠣᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨᠭ᠌ ᠮᠢᠰᠢᠰᠢᠫᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠯᠤᠪᠢᠽᠢᠶᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠦᠰᠦᠯᠢᠭ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ-ᠢᠷᠣᠺᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ 1759 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠬᠣᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠷᠠᠬᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠸᠣᠯᠹᠧ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠠᠨᠭᠭᠯᠢᠴᠤᠳ 1610 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠨᠢᠤᠹᠸᠨᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1689-1763 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠸᠠ ᠰᠺᠣᠲ᠋ᠢᠶᠠ 1713 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠲᠷᠧᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠢᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1763 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠫᠠᠷᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠴᠡᠢ᠃

1763 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ᠂ ᠺᠢᠶᠢᠫ ᠪᠷᠧᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠣᠸᠠ ᠰᠺᠣᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ᠎ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ᠂ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1769 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠧᠨᠲ-ᠵᠣᠩᠰᠣ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ (ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠫᠷᠢᠨᠰ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠸᠠᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ) ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺᠲ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ 1774 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠣᠬᠠᠶᠣ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠂ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺᠲ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠩ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠯᠬᠢᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[15] 1783 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠫᠠᠷᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠥᠭᠴᠡᠢ᠃ 50,000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠯᠢᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠵᠦ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠪᠠ᠃[16] ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠦᠳ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠯᠢᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ  ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠶᠤ-ᠪᠷᠠᠨᠰᠸᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠣᠸᠠ ᠰᠺᠣᠲ᠋ᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠠᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢ ᠠᠩᠭ᠍ᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠯᠢᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ᠂ 1791 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠺᠲ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠲᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ᠂ ᠠᠩᠭ᠍ᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ (ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ᠂ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠲᠤ) ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠢᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 1812 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠹᠷᠣᠨᠲ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠡᠪ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1815 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠢᠢᠷᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ 19 ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠵᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠷᠣᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠬᠠᠷᠷᠢᠰ᠂ ᠴᠢᠷᠠᠯ᠎ ᠳᠤᠲᠠᠤᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ

ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ 1837 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠪᠡ᠃ ᠳᠥᠷᠦᠭᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨᠭ᠌ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠢᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃[17] 1840 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠺᠲ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ᠂ ᠠᠩᠭ᠍ᠯᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠽᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠠᠰᠰᠧᠮᠪᠯᠧᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 1849 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠢᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

1846 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠢ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠧᠭᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠧᠭᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ 49 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠷᠢᠭ᠌  ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠸᠠᠩᠺᠦᠪᠠᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠷᠢᠲᠡᠰᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠠᠮᠪᠤ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠢᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠷᠦᠢᠧᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠡᠺᠰᠫᠧᠳᠢᠼ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭ᠋ᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠨᠭᠭᠯᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢᠬᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ 1867 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠺᠲ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 1867 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 ᠍ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺᠨᠣᠸᠠ ᠰᠺᠣᠲ᠋ᠢᠶᠠᠨᠶᠤ ᠪᠷᠠᠨᠰᠸᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠨᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃[18] ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠷᠦᠶᠢᠧᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠰᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠤ 1870 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠨᠢᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠠ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠷᠢᠲᠡᠰᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠠᠮᠪᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠸᠠᠩᠺᠦᠪᠠᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ (1866 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠴᠦ ᠸᠠᠩᠺᠦᠪᠠᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠷᠢᠲᠡᠰᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠠᠨᠪᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ)᠂ ᠫᠷᠢᠨᠰ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠸᠠᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ 1871᠂ 1873 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠵᠣᠨ ᠮᠠᠺ ᠲᠤᠨᠠᠯᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠥᠩᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠳᠠᠮᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ (ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠠᠮ) ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠨᠢᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠠᠺᠲ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠥᠭ᠍ᠭᠦᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠳᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ-ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠲᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1898 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠯᠣᠨᠳᠠᠶᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠶᠢᠺᠦᠩ  ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠸᠢᠹᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠯᠣᠷᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠳ 1905 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ᠋ᠠᠰᠰᠺᠠᠽᠧᠸᠠᠩ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

1917 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠸᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

1914 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠠᠲ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠹᠷᠣᠨᠲ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠸᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠷᠣᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠪᠣᠷᠳᠧᠨ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 1917 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠡᠪᠡ᠃ 1919 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠯᠪᠤᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1931 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠸᠡᠰᠲᠦᠮᠢᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠢᠡᠷ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ᠋ᠠ᠂ ᠰᠰᠺᠠᠽᠧᠸᠠᠩ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠬᠣᠷᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ) 1940-1950 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠮᠢ ᠳᠤᠭᠯᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠥᠩᠨᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠸᠢᠯᠤᠮ ᠯᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠺᠺᠧᠨ᠋ᠽᠢ ᠺᠢᠨᠢ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ 1939 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠭᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[19] ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1942 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠦᠶᠢᠶᠢᠫ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠᠳ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨᠣᠷᠮᠠᠨᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ᠂ 1944 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠢᠯᠳᠦᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠼᠢᠰᠲ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠩᠯᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠷᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠳ᠋᠂ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠢ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠭ᠍ᠵᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺᠲ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠳᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[19] 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

1949 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠶᠹᠠᠤᠨᠳᠯᠠᠨᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ᠃ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠭ᠍ᠵᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠵᠠᠢ᠂ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠪᠡᠭ᠍ᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃[20]

ᠯᠦᠰᠲᠡᠷᠪ ᠫᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨᠫᠢᠶᠧᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠲᠤᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠴᠢᠷᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠮᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠪᠴᠢᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ 1965 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ 1969 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠠᠺᠲ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ 1967᠂ 1976 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ 1971 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠴᠢᠷᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠬᠦᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠡᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠳᠧᠮᠣᠺᠷᠠᠲ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ 1960-1970 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠢᠢᠳ ᠍ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠨ 1982 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠺᠲᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ᠂ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠤᠱᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠬᠠᠷᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃[21]

ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ 1960 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠯᠧᠰᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[22] ᠷᠠᠳᠢᠺᠠᠯ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠹᠷᠣᠨᠲ 1970 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠠᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠷᠧᠨ᠋ᠧ ᠯᠸᠧᠰᠺ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺᠦ᠋ᠠ ᠨᠠᠮ 1976 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ᠂ 1980 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠣᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠪᠷᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠯᠤᠷᠦᠨᠢ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠡᠲᠦ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ 1989 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠡᠶᠢᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠯᠴᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠢ "ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠴᠠᠳᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠯᠶᠤᠶᠢᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠱᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠯᠣᠺ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺᠦ᠋ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠫᠷᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠮᠡᠩᠨᠢᠨᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠡᠲᠦ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠪᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ 1993 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠣᠩ᠋ᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠤᠬᠤᠷᠢᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠥᠭᠴᠡᠢ᠃ 1995 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠬᠢ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ 50.6 : 49.4 ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠥᠴᠥᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠢ᠃[23] 1997 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠩ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠱᠷᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ "ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠺᠲ" ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠪᠠ᠃[23] ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠡᠲᠦ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠪᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠢ 2003 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 2006 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠣᠩ᠋ᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠪᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠸᠧᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠫᠧᠷ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠡᠷ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺᠦ᠋ᠭ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[24]

ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠧᠨᠲ᠋ᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤᠷᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ 1960 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1990 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠣᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠫᠫᠧᠷᠸᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯᠭᠤᠰᠳᠠᠹᠰᠧᠨ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ 1999 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠨᠤᠨᠠᠪᠲ ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠨᠤᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠷᠢᠲᠡᠰᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠠᠮᠪᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢ ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃ 2008 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠭᠤᠶᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ᠂ ᠣᠲ ᠲᠪᠠ

ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠯᠢᠽᠡᠪᠡᠢᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[25][26] ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ᠂ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ᠃[27] ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠨᠼᠧᠫᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[28][29] ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃[30][27] ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ[31][28] ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠩ᠋ᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠰᠧᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠴᠢᠳ᠋᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭ᠍ᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠣᠷᠫᠣᠷᠠᠼᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠧᠨᠲ᠋ᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠣᠩ᠋ᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃[32] ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠨᠴᠠ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[33]

ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠬᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ 2007 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 27 ᠍ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠮᠢᠺᠠᠪᠡᠯ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ᠂ 2006 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 6 ᠍  ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠸᠧᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠫᠧᠷ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ᠂ 2006 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 2 ᠍ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠹᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ

ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ (ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠰᠧᠨᠠᠲ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[34][35] ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ (ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠯᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ) ᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠢᠲᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠰᠣᠩ᠋ᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠰ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠧᠨᠠᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠰᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ 75 ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

2006 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ: ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠨᠠᠮ (ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠮ)᠂ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠮ (ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ)᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ (ШАН)᠂ ᠪᠯᠣᠺ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺᠦ᠋ᠠᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ᠂ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ (ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠨᠤᠨᠠᠪᠠᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠯᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ)᠃

ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠦᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠳᠲᠠᠪ ᠲᠤᠫᠠᠷᠠᠯᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠰᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ

ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ[36] ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃[37] ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠺᠲ᠂ 1867 ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠸᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠮᠢᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ 1982 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠺᠲ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ᠂ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ᠂ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ᠂ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ 33 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠣᠷ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[38]

ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠦᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠪᠢᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭ᠍ᠴᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠪᠦᠷᠯᠢ ᠮᠠᠺᠯᠠᠺᠯᠢᠨ 2000 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠥᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ᠂ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠵᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭ᠍ᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭ᠍ᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭ᠍ᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ᠂ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺᠲ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠣᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠲᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠲ ᠲᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ

ᠺᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠩᠱᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠦᠪᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠺᠣᠹᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ (ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ) ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠢ᠂ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠡᠬᠢ᠂ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠰᠠᠭ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨᠨᠲ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠴᠤ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨᠵᠤᠯᠠ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃

ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ 64,000 ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠩᠬᠢᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢ᠂ 26,000 ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨᠲᠡᠢ᠃[39] ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ (ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠣ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ) ᠠᠷᠮᠢᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠣ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ᠌᠋᠋᠋ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠪᠠᠯ 1,400 ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠭᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠂ 34 ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠭ ᠣᠩ᠋ᠭᠣᠴᠠ᠂ 861 ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃[40]

ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠢᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠠᠨᠭᠭᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠢᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠷᠮᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[41][42] ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ 1949 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ North Atlantic Treaty Organization ᠍ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠠᠨᠳ᠋ (NORAD) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1956 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠯᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠪ ᠫᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠴᠠᠳᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃[43] ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ 50 ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ 1989 ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠵᠠᠢ[44]᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠷᠤᠸᠠᠩᠳᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠶᠣᠭᠣᠰᠯᠠᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭ᠋ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ 1990 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ (ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ) ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ 2000 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠠᠰᠰᠧᠮᠪᠯᠧᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠸᠢᠨ᠋ᠽᠣᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠢᠯᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 2001 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠯᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ-ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠹᠣᠷᠣᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ (Asia Pacific Economic Coopration ) ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠢᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ  ᠳᠤ

2001 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ  ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠵᠤ᠂ North Atlantic Treaty Organization ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠠᠨᠳᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ-ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠬᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠧᠨᠲ᠋ᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠷᠮᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[45] ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠮᠰᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠭ (DART) ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠷᠪᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ᠌ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ᠂ 2005 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠠᠲᠷᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠯᠬᠢ᠂ 2005 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠠᠰᠮᠢᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 200 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

2007 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ᠂ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ᠂ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠢ᠂ ᠨᠣᠷᠸᠧᠢᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠸᠠᠺᠼᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ 1.5 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[46] 2007 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠺᠰᠫᠧᠳᠢᠼ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠳᠬᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠪᠠ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ 1925 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃[47]

ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ᠂ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠧᠣᠫᠣᠯᠢᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ᠂ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠷᠢᠲᠡᠰᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠠᠮᠪᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ (ᠠᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ᠋ᠠᠰᠰᠺᠠᠽᠧᠸᠠᠩᠮᠠᠨᠢᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠠ) ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠺᠡᠪᠡᠺᠣᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ (ᠨᠶᠤ-ᠪᠷᠠᠨᠰᠸᠢᠭᠫᠷᠢᠨᠰ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠸᠠᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠨᠣᠸᠠ ᠰᠺᠣᠲ᠋ᠢᠶᠠ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠶᠹᠠᠤᠨᠳᠯᠠᠨᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠯᠠᠪᠷᠠᠳᠣᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ᠂ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ (ᠶᠢᠺᠦᠩᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷᠨᠤᠨᠠᠪᠲ) ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠍ ᠵᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ᠂ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃

ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ (ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ᠂ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ) ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠠᠺᠲ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠴᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠫᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨ᠂ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ᠂ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩ᠋ᠭᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠳᠡ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷᠲ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠩ᠋ᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭ᠋ᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠦᠳ ᠳᠠᠩ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮᠳᠤ ᠫᠠᠷᠠᠯᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠯᠳᠦᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠮᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠡᠯᠬᠢᠶᠡᠰᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. Canada's population clock. Statistics Canada. 2019-07-15 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  2. Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories – 20% sample data. Statistics Canada (2008-01-04). 2009-10-19 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  3. Central Intelligence Agency (2006-05-16). The World Factbook: Canada. Central Intelligence Agency. 2007-05-06 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  4. Territorial evolution (html/pdf). Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. 2007-10-09 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 《In 1867, the colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are united in a federal state, the Dominion of Canada....》
  5. Canada: History (html/pdf). Country Profiles. Commonwealth Secretariat. 2007-10-09 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 《The British North America Act of 1867 brought together four British colonies ... in one federal Dominion under the name of Canada.》
  6. Hillmer, Norman; W. David MacIntyre. Commonwealth (html). Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Project. 2007-10-09 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 《With CONFEDERATION in 1867, Canada became the first federation in the British Empire ...》
  7. Trigger, Bruce G.; Pendergast, James F. (1978). “Saint-Lawrence Iroquoians”, Handbook of North American Indians Volume 15. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 357–361. OCLC 58762737. 
  8. Jacques Cartier (1545). Relation originale de Jacques Cartier. Tross (1863 edition). 2007-02-23 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  9. J. E. Hodgetts. 2004. "Dominion". Oxford Companion to Canadian History, Gerald Hallowell, ed. (ISBN 0-19-541559-0) Toronto: Oxford University Press; p. 183: "The title conferred on Canada by the preamble to the Constitution Act, 1867, whereby the provinces declare 'their desire to be federally united into one Dominion under the Crown of the United Kingdom'."
  10. Cinq-Mars, J. (2001). "On the significance of modified mammoth bones from eastern Beringia". The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
  11. Wright, J.V (2001-09-27). A History of the Native People of Canada: Early and Middle Archaic Complexes. Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. 2006-05-14 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  12. "John Cabot =", Encyclopᠵdia Britannica Online, Encyclopᠵdia Britannica, <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9018457/John-Cabot>
  13. "Cartier, Jacques", World book Encyclopedia, World Book, Inc., ISBN 0-7166-0101-X
  14. "Basques", The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica, 2007, <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0000550>
  15. Wars on Our Soil, earliest times to 1885. 2006-08-21 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  16. Moore, Christopher (1994). The Loyalist: Revolution Exile Settlement. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-6093-9. 
  17. David Mills. Durham Report. Historica Foundation of Canada. 2006-05-18 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  18. Farthing, John (1957). Freedom Wears a Crown. Toronto: Kingswood House. ASIN B0007JC4G2. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 Stacey, C.P. (1948). History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War. Queen's Printer. 
  20. Harold Troper (2000-03). History of Immigration to Toronto Since the Second World War: From Toronto 'the Good' to Toronto 'the World in a City'. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. 2006-05-19 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  21. Bickerton, James & Gagnon, Alain-G & Gagnon, Alain (Eds). (2004). Canadian Politics, 4th edition, Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-595-6. 
  22. Bᠢlanger, Claude (2000-08-03). Quiet Revolution. Quebec History. Marionopolis College, Montreal. 2008 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  23. 23.0 23.1 Dickinson, John Alexander; Young, Brian (2003). A Short History of Quebec, 3rd edition, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2450-9. 
  24. Quebecers form a nation within Canada: PM. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (2006-11-22). the original on 2006-12-06 ᠍ ᠰ ᠠᠷᠬᠢᠸᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 2008-07-27 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  25. Heritage Canada (2005-04-21). The Queen and Canada: 53 Years of Growing Together. Heritage Canada. 2006-05-14 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  26. Governor General of Canada (2005-12-06). Role and Responsibilities of the Governor General. Governor General of Canada. 2006-05-14 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  27. 27.0 27.1 Canada's System of Justice: The Canadian Constitution. Department of Justice Canada. 《The executive power in Canada is vested in the Queen. In our democratic society, this is only a constitutional convention, as the real executive power rests with the Cabinet.》
    Constitution Act 1867; III.9. Queen's Printer for Canada. 《The Executive Government and Authority of and over Canada is hereby declared to continue and be vested in the Queen.》
    By Executive Decree: The Governor General. Library and Archives Canada. 《The governor general holds formal executive power within the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, and signs orders-in-council.》
  28. 28.0 28.1 Responsible Government: Clarifying Essentials, Dispelling Myths and Exploring Change. Canada School of Public Service. 《Under the constitutional convention of responsible government, the powers of the Crown are exercised by Ministers, both individually and collectively.》
  29. Ray T. Donahue. Diplomatic Discourse: International Conflict at the United Nations. Greenwood Publishing Group. 《As Head of State ... Elizabeth II has no political power, only symbolic power》
    David Stewart. Introduction: Principles of the Westminster Model of Parliamentary Democracy. Module on Parliamentary Democracy. Commonwealth Parliamentary Association, Athabasca University. 《the Crown now serves as the ceremonial executive》
    By Executive Decree:. Library and Archives Canada. 《As Canada is a constitutional monarchy, the symbolic head of the executive is the governor general.》
  30. McWhinney, Edward (2005). The Governor General and the Prime Ministers. Vancouver: Ronsdale Press, 25. ISBN 1-55380-031-1. 
    By Executive Decree: The Cabinet. Library and Archives Canada. 《TheCabinet as selected and directed by the prime minister constitutes the active seat of executive power in Canada.》
    Joseph Magnet. Separation of Powers in Canada. Constitutional Law of Canada. University of Ottawa Faculty of Law. 《... democratic principles dictate that the bulk of the Governor General's powers be exercised in accordance with the wishes of the leadership of that government, namely the Cabinet. So the true executive power lies in the Cabinet.》
    By Executive Decree: The Cabinet. Library and Archives Canada. 《The Cabinet as selected and directed by the prime minister constitutes the active seat of executive power in Canada.》
    W.A. Matheson. Prime Minister. The Canadian Encyclopedia. 《The prime minister is the chief minister and effective head of the executive in a parliamentary system ...》
    The Prime Minister. By Executive Decree. National Archives of Canada. 《While the modern governor general has only a nominal influence on the operation of the Canadian government, the prime minister's influence is decisive.》
  31. Canadian Cofederation: Responsible Government. Library and Archives Canada. 《The Executive Council would be governed by the leader of the political party that held an elected majority in the Legislative Assembly. That same leader would also appoint the members of the Executive Council. The governor would therefore be forced to accept these "ministers", and if the majority of the members of the Legislative Assembly voted against them, they would have to resign. The governor would also be obliged to ratify laws concerning the internal affairs of the colony once these laws had been passed to the Legislative Assembly.》
    The Canadian Encyclopedia: Responsible Government. Historica Foundation of Canada. 《This key principle of responsibility, whereby a government needed the confidence of Parliament, originated in established British practice. But its transfer to British N America gave the colonists control of their domestic affairs, since a governor would simply follow the advice (ie, policies) of responsible colonial ministers.》
    Responsible Government and Checks and Balances: The Crown. 《Responsible government means that the Crown no longer has the prerogative to select or remove Ministers. They are selected and removed by the first Minister—the Prime Minister.》
  32. Responsible Government and Checks and Balances: The Crown. Responsible Government: Clarifying Essentials, Dispelling Myths and Exploring Change. Canada School of Public Service. 《Ministers are thereby accountable to the Prime Minister who, in the Canadian tradition, has the sole power to appoint and dismiss them.》
  33. Forsey, Eugene. How Canadians Govern Themselves: Parliamentary Government (pg. 2). Queen's Printer for Canada. 《In very exceptional circumstances, the Governor General could refuse a request for a fresh election.》
    Forsey, Eugene. How Canadians Govern Themselves: The Institutions of Our Federal Government (pg. 2). Queen's Printer for Canada. 《But they almost invariably must act on their Ministers’ advice, though there may be very rare occasions when they must, or may, act without advice or even against the advice of the Ministers in office.》
    Forsey, Eugene. How Canadians Govern Themselves: Canadian and American Government (pg. 2). Queen's Printer for Canada. 《Yes: in Canada, the head of state can, in exceptional circumstances, protect Parliament and the people against a Prime Minister and Ministers who may forget that "minister" means "servant," and may try to make themselves masters. For example, the head of state could refuse to let a Cabinet dissolve a newly elected House of Commons before it could even meet, or could refuse to let Ministers bludgeon the people into submission by a continuous series of general elections.》
    Zolf, Larry (2002-06-28). CBC News: Boxing in a Prime Minister. CBC News. the original on 2004-04-12 ᠍ ᠰ ᠠᠷᠬᠢᠸᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 《The Governor General must take all steps necessary to thwart the will of a ruthless prime minister prematurely calling for the death of a Parliament.》
    By Executive Decree: The Governor General. Library and Archives Canada. 《In exceptional circumstances, the governor general may appoint or dismiss a prime minister.》
    Governor General of Canada: Role and Responsibilities of the Governor General. Office of the Governor General of Canada. 《One of the governor general’s most important responsibilities is to ensure that Canada always has a prime minister and a government in place. In the case of the death of a prime minister, it is the governor general’s responsibility to ensure the continuity of government.》
    McWhinney, Edward (2005). The Governor General and the Prime Ministers. Vancouver: Ronsdale Press, 16-17; 34. ISBN 1-55380-031-1. 
    MacLeod, Kevin S.; A Crown of Maples: Constitutional Monarchy in Canada; The Queen in Right of Canada; 2008
  34. Constitution Act, 1867; IV. Queen's Printer for Canada. 《There shall be One Parliament for Canada, consisting of the Queen, an Upper House styled the Senate, and the House of Commons.》
  35. Parliament of Canada: About the Governor General of Canada. Queen's Printer for Canada. 《Parliament is the legislative branch of Government, composed of the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General), the Senate and the House of Commons.》
  36. The Constitution Act, 1982. Department of Justice Canada. 《"52.(1) The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of Canada, and any law that is inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution is, to the extent of the inconsistency, of no force or effect.》
  37. Department of Justice. Constitution Acts 1867 to 1982. Department of Justice, Canada. 2006-05-14 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  38. The Constitution Act, 1982. Department of Justice Canada. 《"38.(1)》
  39. Assistant Deputy Minister (Public Affairs). The National Defence family. Department of National Defence. 2006-05-14 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  40. Assistant Deputy Minister (Public Affairs). Canadian Forces Equipment. Department of National Defence. 2006-05-14 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  41. Government of Canada (2005). Canada's international policy statement : a role of pride and influence in the world. Ottawa: Government of Canada. ISBN 0-662-68608-X. 
  42. Cooper, Andrew Fenton; Higgot, Richard A.; Nossal, Kim R. (1993). Relocating Middle Powers: Australia and Canada in a Changing World Order. Vancouver: UBC Press. ISBN 0-7748-0450-5. 
  43. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (2006). [CBC.ca - The Greatest Canadian - Top Ten Greatest Canadians - Lester B. Pearson at www.cbc.ca Lester B. Pearson]. CBC.ca. 2006-05-22 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  44. Morton, Desmond (1999). A Military History of Canada. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, pg. 258. ISBN 0-7710-6514-0. 
  45. Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative at www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca
  46. "Rich Nations Launch Vaccine Pact". Reuters. February 10, 2007.
  47. Blomfield, Adrian (2007-08-03). Russia claims North Pole with Arctic flag stunt. Telegraph. 2007-09-10 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Commons
Викимедиа дуу дүрсний сан: Canada
ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ
ᠲᠢᠲᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠺᠣᠷᠫᠣᠷᠠᠼᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ
ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ
http://wiki.uhaan.com/index.php?title=ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ&oldid=470517》 ᠍  ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ