ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
— «ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹᠢ» ᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠪᠠ —
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
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ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ is located in ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ
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{{{ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ}}}</br>
ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ</br>ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ᠂ ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠪᠧᠨ᠋ᠵᠠᠮᠢᠨ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠺᠯᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠡᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠩᠬᠣᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠦᠽᠧᠢᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ</br>
ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ ᠲᠤᠭ
ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ
ᠲᠤᠭ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
</br>ᠫᠧᠨᠰᠢᠯᠪᠠᠨᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ
ᠰᠣᠯᠪᠢᠴᠠᠯ: 39°57′12″N, 75°10′12″W
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ {{{ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ}}}
ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ {{{ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ 1}}}
ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ {{{ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ 2}}}
ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ  
 - ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ {{{ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ}}} km²
ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ 12 m
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ  
 - ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ (2010) {{{ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ}}}
 - ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠷᠠᠯ {{{ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠰᠢᠯ}}}/km²
 - ᠬᠦᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ 5,965,343
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ UTC-5
 - ᠵᠤᠨ   UTC-4
ᠵᠠᠫᠴᠡᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ᠂ ᠢᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠦ᠋ᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠢ ᠫᠷᠢᠨᠠᠳᠯᠠᠵᠨᠣᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ 191xx
ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠮ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ: http://www.phila.gov

ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ (ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Philadelphia) ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ 5 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ᠂ ᠫᠧᠨᠰᠢᠯᠪᠠᠨᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[1] ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ᠂ ᠳᠧᠯᠢᠪᠦᠷᠰᠺᠦ᠋ᠬᠢᠯ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ᠂ ᠫᠧᠨᠰᠢᠯᠪᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 1,526,006 ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃[2] ᠳᠧᠯᠢᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ 6 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠢᠨ 5 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠣᠯᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[3] ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠹᠢᠯ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠷᠬᠡ (ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ Φιλαδέλφεια) ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ (philos (φίλος) "ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ", adelphos (ἀδελφός) "ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠦ") ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃[4]

1682 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠸᠢᠯᠤᠮ ᠫᠧᠨ ᠫᠧᠨᠰᠢᠯᠪᠠᠨᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ 1750 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠪ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃[5][6] ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ 1776 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ᠂ 1787 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠸᠠᠰᠢᠩᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ 19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠴᠢᠳᠬᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠰᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ᠂ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ-ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1950 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 2 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃

ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠩᠬᠣ ᠍ ᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 2 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠷᠬᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[7] ᠳᠧᠯᠢᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠹᠣᠷᠴᠠᠨ 500 ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ 12 ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ 4 ᠨᠢ ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠳᠧᠯᠹᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃[8] ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ $388 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠢᠨ 4 ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 9 ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠb.[9]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. Gammage, Jeff. "Against all odds, Philadelphia retakes No.5 spot among largest U.S. cities", March 11, 2012. March 12, 2012 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 
  2. American Fact Finder. United States Census Bureau. May 4, 2012 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  3. Population and Housing Occupancy Status: 2010 – United States – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico more information 2010 Census National Summary File of Redistricting Data. 2010 United States Census. United States Census Bureau, Population Division (April 14, 2011). April 14, 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  4. (1767) The popular educator. Oxford, England: Oxford University. Retrieved on July 14, 2011. 
  5. Lew, Alan A. (2004). “Chapter 4 – The Mid-Atlantic and Megalopolis”, Geography: USA. Northern Arizona University. 
  6. Rappleye, Charles (2010). Robert Morris: Financier of the American Revolution. New York City: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 1-4165-7091-8. 
  7. Park Statistics, National Park Service.
  8. Fortune 500. CNN Money. 26 July 2012 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  9. Global city GDP rankings 2008–2025. Pricewaterhouse Coopers. November 20, 2009 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

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