ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Suomen tasavalta (ᠹᠢᠨ)
Republiken Finland (ᠰᠸᠸᠳᠡᠨ)
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ:
ᠹᠢᠨ᠃ "Maamme"
«ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ»
ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ (ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ)
ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ (ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ)
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ 
(ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ)
Helsinki.vaakuna.svg ᠬᠧᠯᠰᠢᠨᠺᠢ
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠹᠢᠨ (90.0%)
ᠰᠸᠸᠳᠡᠨ (5.4%)
ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠹᠢᠨᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ[1]
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠰᠠᠦ᠋ᠯ ᠨ ᠤᠨᠢᠰᠲᠡ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠶᠦᠺᠢ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠶᠢᠨᠧᠨ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠹᠢᠨ᠃ "eduskunta"
«ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ»
ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ
 -  ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ 1809 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 3 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 29 
 -  ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1917 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 12 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 6 
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ
 -  ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ 338,424 km2 (64)
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 10 %
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (2012) 5,404,956[2] (112)
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (2000) 5,180,000 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ 16 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km2 
GDP (ХАЧТ) 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $195.723 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ[3] 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $36,236[3] 
GDP (ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $266.553 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ[3] 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $49,349[3] 
Gini (2000) 26.9 (ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠧᠺᠰ (2011)  0.882[4] (ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ) (22)
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣ (€) (EUR)
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ДЕЦ (GMT+2)
 -  ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ ДЕЗЦ (GMT+3)
ᠳ᠋ᠦᠮᠠᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ .fi1
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ +372
1ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ .eu ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ, ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠹᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠠᠷ: Suomi, ᠰᠸᠸᠳᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ: Finland) ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠹᠧᠨᠨᠣᠰᠺᠠᠨᠳᠢᠶᠠ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠰᠺᠠᠨᠳᠢᠨᠠᠪ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠸᠸᠳᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠷᠸᠸᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠩ ᠢᠶᠠᠷᠡᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠧᠯᠰᠢᠨᠺᠢ

ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠤ 5.3 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[5] ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ  ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠰᠢᠯ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠭᠷᠣ-ᠹᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠡᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ-ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ 4 ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠰᠸᠸᠳᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 5.5 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[6] ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠧᠯᠰᠢᠨᠺᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ 415 ᠬᠣᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠧᠯᠰᠢᠨᠺᠢᠡᠰᠫᠣᠣᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨᠺᠠᠤᠨᠢᠶᠠᠨᠧᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠧᠯᠰᠢᠨ᠋ᠺ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ GDP ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠮᠫᠧᠷᠧᠲᠦᠺᠦ᠋ᠣᠢᠯᠤ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃

ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠸᠸᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1809 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢᠲᠤ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1917 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠨᠠᠼᠢᠰᠲ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ 1955 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠳᠦ᠂ 1995 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ-ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠽᠦᠩᠳᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠨᠤᠷᠸᠸᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[7]

ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ᠂ GDP ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤ᠂ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ᠃[8]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it's now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University, who in his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008), quotes Jaakko Nousiainen in "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government" in Scandinavian Political Studies 24 (2) p95–109 as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister, and not by its president, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitution reduced the powers of the president even further.
  2. VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ – REKISTERITILANNE – 29.02.2012 (Finnish). Population Register Centre. 29 March 2012 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Finland. International Monetary Fund. 2012-04-18 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  4. Human Development Report 2010. United Nations (2010). 5 November 2010 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ and Human Development Index trends, 1980–2010. United Nations (2010). 7 November 2010 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  5. The current population of Finland. Population Register Center.. 2007-08-16 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  6. The population of Finland in 2006. Statistics Finland (2006-12-31). 2007-09-04 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  7. The Failed States Index 2008
  8. Finland: World Audit Democracy Profile. WorldAudit.org. 2007-06-11 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Commons
Викимедиа дуу дүрсний сан: ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ
http://wiki.uhaan.com/index.php?title=ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ&oldid=469500》 ᠍  ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ