ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ

ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ (moralitas ᠨᠢ 《ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠠᠭᠠᠰᠢ᠂ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ 》 ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ) ᠪᠣᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ (ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪ), ᠮᠠᠭᠤ (ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠮᠠᠭ) ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ (ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ: ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ) ᠪᠠ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠠᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠵᠥᠪ ᠰᠢᠳᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ (ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠵᠥᠪ ᠰᠢᠳᠤᠷᠭᠤ) ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ᠂ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠧᠣᠷᠧᠮ᠂ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠧᠣᠨᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢᠭ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ: ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠺᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ᠂ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠣᠷᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ (ᠬᠡᠪ ᠦᠨ)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ᠂ "ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ" ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃
  • ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠣᠷᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ᠂ "ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ" ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳ᠃ ᠨᠣᠷᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠷᠧᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠷᠧᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ (ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠳ) ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ 2 ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

  • ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠷᠧᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠵᠢᠩᠬᠢᠨᠢ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ "ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ" ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ , ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠷᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠰᠬᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠷᠧᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃
  • ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠷᠧᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ᠂ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠣᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠣᠷᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ; ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯ ᠤᠳ ; ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ

ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ , implied ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ , ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ (ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠦᠭᠦᠷᠡᠩ) ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ , ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ universalism ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠷᠧᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Celia Green ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ: ᠥᠮᠴᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ , ᠶᠠᠭᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ , ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ , ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ , ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠣᠷᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠭᠧᠢᠰᠯᠧᠷ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠺᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠍ ᠤᠨ 《categorical imperative》 ᠰᠢᠭ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ universal ᠪᠠ absolute ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ cᠣᠶᠣᠯ ᠲᠡᠳᠬᠦᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠶᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ , ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠮᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨᠠᠬᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ "ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ" ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ "ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨᠠᠬᠢ" ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ ᠪᠠᠭᠴᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢᠴᠢ , ᠠᠨᠲᠷᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢᠴᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨᠠᠬᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠷᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ Gary R. Johnson ᠪᠠ Falger ᠨᠠᠷ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠨᠴᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ Jonathan Haidt ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠭᠦᠷ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠥᠭᠴᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠫᠧᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠧᠯᠢᠭᠮᠠᠨ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠭᠧᠣ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ , ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠣᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠨᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ transcendence ᠪᠠ ; ᠲᠡᠪᠴᠢᠶᠡᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ; ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ; ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ; ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭ ; ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ / ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ identified –ᠰᠠᠩ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ Fons Trompenaars , ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠴᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ tested ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ , Pedestrian Die ᠍ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠣᠨᠣᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯᠤᠭᠤᠳᠴᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠢᠯᠣᠭᠣᠴᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ , ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠯᠣᠭᠣᠴᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ , ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ Trompenaars ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠨᠢᠩᠵᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ Sociocultural ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ tied ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢᠴᠢᠳ , (ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ) ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ sociobiologists , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠬᠤ᠃ (ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ) ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ sociobiologists ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠠ/ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠬᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ (ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ) ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ , ᠮᠥᠷᠥᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠭ , ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ "pro-social" ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ , ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ideologic ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠬᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠷᠤ ᠰᠢᠷᠭᠤᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ , ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠨᠴᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ , ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ Human ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ , ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠴᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ , ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠮᠠᠭᠤᠳᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠬᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ , ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠦ selected ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠨᠥᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠥᠨᠥᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ : ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠰᠠᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠭᠤᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ genetically ᠡᠷᠦᠰᠳᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠴᠢᠰᠤ ᠬᠤᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ , ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠰᠧᠺᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ , Westermarck ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ; ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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  20. ^ doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.03.003
  21. ^ Haidt, Jonathan and Graham, Jesse (2006). When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize (DOC) Social Justice Research.
  22. ^ Morality: 2012: Online Only Video: The New Yorker
  23. ^ Why conservatives and liberals talk past each other on moral issues. | Dangerous Intersection
  24. ^ Chomsky, Noam (2002-07-02). "Terror and Just Response". ZNet.
  25. ^ Schivone, Gabriel Matthew (2007-08-03). "On Responsibility, War Guilt and Intellectuals". CounterPunch. Interview.
  26. ^ Paul, Gregory S. (2005). "Cross-National Correlations of Quantifiable Societal Health with Popular Religiosity and Secularism in the Prosperous Democracies: A First Look". Journal of Religion and Society (Baltimore, Maryland) 7.
  27. ^ Gerson Moreno-Riaño; Mark Caleb Smith, Thomas Mach (2006). "Religiosity, Secularism, and Social Health". Journal of Religion and Society (Cedarville University) 8.
  28. ^ Gary F. Jensen (2006) Department of Sociology, Vanderbilt University Religious Cosmologies and Homicide Rates among Nations: A Closer Look http://moses.creighton.edu/JRS/2006/2006-7.html http://moses.creighton.edu/JRS/pdf/2006-7.pdf Journal of Religion and Society, Volume 8, ISSN 1522-5658 http://purl.org/JRS
  29. ^ KERLEY, KENT R., MATTHEWS, TODD L. & BLANCHARD, TROY C. (2005) Religiosity, Religious Participation, and Negative Prison Behaviors. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 44 (4), 443–457. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2005.00296.x
  30. ^ SAROGLOU, VASSILIS, PICHON, ISABELLE, TROMPETTE, LAURENCE, VERSCHUEREN, MARIJKE & DERNELLE, REBECCA (2005) Prosocial Behavior and Religion: New Evidence Based on Projective Measures and Peer Ratings. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 44 (3), 323–348. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2005.00289.x
  31. ^ Regnerus, Mark D. & Burdette, Amy (2006) RELIGIOUS CHANGE AND ADOLESCENT FAMILY DYNAMICS. The Sociological Quarterly 47 (1), 175–194. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.2006.00042.x
  32. ^ eg a survey by Robert Putnam showing that membership of religious groups was positively correlated with membership of voluntary organisations
  33. ^ As is stated in: Doris C. Chu (2007). Religiosity and Desistance From Drug Use. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 2007; 34; 661 originally published online Mar 7, 2007; DOI: 10.1177/0093854806293485

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