ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
800px-Jakarta slumhome 2.jpg

ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ (ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Poverty; ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 贫困) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠤᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠬᠤᠪᠴᠠᠰᠤᠭᠡᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠤᠲᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠴᠢᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ︵ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠵᠢᠯ︶᠂ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠮᠯᠡᠬᠦᠢ (绝对) ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠦᠨᠡᠮᠯᠡᠬᠦᠢ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠦᠨᠡᠮᠯᠡᠬᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ (ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ 2000-2500 ᠺᠠᠯᠤᠷᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ) ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠦ 1 ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

1 ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠦ 1 ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (1981-2001 ᠣᠨ)

ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

2001 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 11 ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤ᠂ 27 ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[1] ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠢ 1990 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 28 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ 2001 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 21 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ 1990 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 69 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 2007 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 27 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[1][2]

ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠥᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢᠬᠢ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ 1981 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 41 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 2001 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 46 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠥᠰᠴᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ 231 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ 318 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ  ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[3]

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠰᠡ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1990 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ᠂ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ 6 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠴᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃[4]

1990 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠵᠠᠢ[5]:

ᠪᠥᠰᠡ 1990 1996 1999 2002 2005
ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ 54.72% 36.00% 35.51% 27.59% 16.78%
ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ 1.96% 4.61% 5.13% 4.59% 3.56%
ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠺᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ 11.32% 10.97% 10.89% 10.69% 8.19%
ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ 4.31% 4.10% 4.22% 3.56% 3.60%
ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ 51.71% 47.05% 44.13% 43.80% 40.34%
ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠦᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢᠬᠢ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ 57.58% 58.78% 58.37% 55.03% 50.91%
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ 41.69% 34.45% 33.73% 30.53% 25.19%

ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠴᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ ᠠᠬᠢᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[6]

ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠥᠰᠴᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠴᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ᠃ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ᠂ 1 ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ 1981-2004 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 31.35% ᠍ ᠡᠴᠡ 20.70% ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[7]

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ (1950-2005)

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠴᠤ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠦᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢᠬᠢ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 30 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 50 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠽᠢ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ (ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠷ 47 ᠵᠢᠯ)᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ 122 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ 66.99 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ:

  • ᠲᠠᠪᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ[8]
  • ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠣ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ (2,200 ᠺᠠᠯᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯ ᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ 1960-1990 ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ 56 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ19 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ)
  • ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ (1950-1999 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 52 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ 81 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠶᠢᠴᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠠᠬᠢᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ)
  • ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (1960 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 76% ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 2000 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 90% ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ)

ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠬᠢᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠢ᠃

ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1960 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠧᠷ-ᠪᠢᠶᠠᠹᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ︵尼日利亚比夫拉战争︶ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠯᠪᠡᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠳᠡᠯ
  • ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠮᠰᠠᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ (ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠦᠯᠡᠰᠢ[9] ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ)
  • ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ[10]
  • ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ[11]
  • ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ[12]

ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ[13]
  • ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ[14]
  • ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠯᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ[15]
  • ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ (ᠵᠥᠪ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠵᠦᠳᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ "ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ)
  • ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ[16][17]
  • ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ[16]
  • ᠠᠪᠯᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠬᠠᠬᠤᠤᠯᠢ[18][19]

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ[20][21]
  • ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ[22][23][24]
  • ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ (ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠢᠮᠫᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ︵帝国主义︶᠂ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ)[25][26][27][28][29]
  • ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ
  • ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ (ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ)
  • ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠴᠤᠳ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ
  • ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ (ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠭᠧᠨᠣᠴᠢᠳᠤ︵种族灭绝︶᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ)[30]
  • ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ (ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠢᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ)[31][32]
  • ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ [33]

ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠢᠭᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠨᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠮᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠮᠡᠰᠡ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠡᠯᠪᠡᠭ ᠠᠵᠠᠢ
  • ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠨᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ[16]
  • ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠤᠲᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ[34]
  • ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠭᠡᠭ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ "ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ" ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ: ДОХ[35], ᠬᠤᠮᠬᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ[36], ᠰᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ
  • ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠭᠤᠲᠤᠷᠠᠯ[37]
  • ᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢᠳᠠᠯᠲᠠ ︵酗酒︶᠂ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠩᠲᠣᠯᠲᠠ[38]

ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠭᠠᠬᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ
ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠣᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃
ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠺᠠᠫᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ
  • ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ
  • ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ
ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ
  • ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ
ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 The World Bank, 2007, Understanding Poverty [1]
  2. Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion, 2007, "How Have the World's Poorest Fared Since the Early 1980s?" Table 3, p. 28. [2]
  3. The Independent, 'Birth rates must be curbed to win war on global poverty', 31 January 2007 [3]
  4. Worldbank.org reference
  5. World Bank Regional aggregation using 2005 PPP and $1.25/day poverty line - PovcalNet. PovcalNet/World Bank. 5 December 2008 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  6. Institute of Social Analysis
  7. Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion, 2007, "How Have the World's Poorest Fared Since the Early 1980s?"[4]
  8. The Eight Losers of Globalization By Guy Pfeffermann.
  9. 2008: The year of global food crisis
  10. Western bankers and lawyers 'rob Africa of $150bn every year
  11. Six Reasons to Kill Farm Subsidies and Trade Barriers
  12. Dagdeviren, Weeks and van der Hoeven(2002) "Poverty Reduction with growth and Redistribution" Development and Change, 33 (3), pp. 383-413 [5]
  13. Cceia.org
  14. Ending Mass Poverty by Ian Vásquez
  15. Governance Matters IV. [6]
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Global Competitiveness Report 2006, World Economic Forum, Website
  17. Infrastructure and Poverty Reduction: Cross-country Evidence Hossein Jalilian and John Weiss. 2004.
  18. Transparency International FAQ
  19. Nigeria's corruption totals $400 billion
  20. Birth rates 'must be curbed to win war on global poverty The Independent. 31 January 2007.
  21. Record rise in wheat price prompts UN official to warn that surge in food prices may trigger social unrest in developing countries
  22. Brazil murder rate similar to war zone, data shows
  23. Mexico: Drug Cartels a Growing Threat
  24. WHO: 1.6 million die in violence annually
  25. The Paradox of Africa's Poverty By Tirfe Mammo. 1999. ISBN 1-56902-049-3. Gives credit to imperialism/colonialism as a cause as one of two major schools of thought.
  26. Long-Run Development and the Legacy of Colonialism in Spanish America
  27. Reflections on Colonial Legacy and Dependency in Indian Vocational Education and Training (VET): a societal and cultural perspective by Madhu Singh
  28. Child poverty soars in eastern Europe
  29. Study Finds Poverty Deepening in Former Communist Countries
  30. Ethiopia rejects war criticism
  31. Ending Poverty in Community (EPIC)
  32. UN report slams India for caste discrimination
  33. See, e.g., The Moral Doctrine of Poverty. 2007-01-17 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  34. Hunger and Malnutrition paper by Jere R Behrman, Harold Alderman and John Hoddinott.
  35. The long-run economic costs of AIDS: theory and an application to South Africa
  36. The economic and social burden of malaria.
  37. "Is Depression a Disease of Poverty?" 5 (1).
  38. "U.S. Chamber of Commerce Fact Sheet ". 2007-01-17 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  39. Exploitation and Over-exploitation in Societies Past and Present, Brigitta Benzing, Bernd Herrmann
  40. The Earth Is Shrinking: Advancing Deserts and Rising Seas Squeezing Civilization
  41. Global food crisis looms as climate change and population growth strip fertile land
  42. Forest and Land Management in Imperial China By Nicholas K. Menzies
  43. Global food crisis looms as climate change and fuel shortages bite
  44. The Geography of Poverty and Wealth by Jeffrey D. Sachs, Andrew D. Mellinger, and John L. Gallup. From Scientific American magazine
  45. Guns, Germs, and Steel Jared M. Diamond W. W. Norton & Company 1999
  46. Global Water Shortages May Cause Food Shortages
  47. Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers Threaten a Billion
  48. Big melt threatens millions, says UN

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠸᠢᠭᠮᠧᠳᠢᠶᠠ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ:
«ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ»

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ