ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
— «ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ» ᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠪᠠ —
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
日本国 (ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ)
ᠨᠢᠫᠫᠣᠨ ᠺᠣᠺᠦ᠂ ᠨᠢᠬᠤᠨ ᠺᠣᠺᠦ
ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ:
ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 君が代 → ᠺᠢᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ
«ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ»

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯPrefSymbol-Tokyo.svg ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋
ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋ ᠂ ᠶᠣᠺᠣᠬᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ
ᠣᠤᠰᠠᠺᠠᠨᠠᠭᠤᠶᠠᠺᠤᠤᠪᠸ
ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ  98.5% - ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
  1.5% - ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ
ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠨ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ
ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ
ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠲᠠᠢ
 -  ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠺᠢᠬᠢᠲᠠ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠠᠪ ᠱᠢᠨᠵᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠺᠣᠺᠺᠠᠢ → «ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ»
 -  ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠰᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ → «ᠰᠡᠴᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ»
 -  ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ → «ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ»
ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 660-02-11 ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ 
 -  1890-11-29 1890 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ 
 -  1947-05-03 1947 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ 
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ
 -  ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ 377,944 km2 (62)
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 0.8
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (2011) 127,960,000[1] (10)
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (2010) 128,056,026[2] 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ 337.1 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km2 
GDP (ХАЧТ) 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $4.396 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠤᠳ[3] ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ 4  ᠳᠦ
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $34,362[3] ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ25 ᠳᠦ
GDP (ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $5.855 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠤᠳ[3]  ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ3 ᠳᠦ
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $45,774[3] ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ18]])
Gini (2008) 37.6[4] 
ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠧᠺᠰ (2011) 0.884[5] (ᠣᠨᠴᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ) (11)
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠶᠡᠩ (¥) (JPY)
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ (GMT+9)
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠳᠣᠮᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ +81 / .jp
ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ JP, JPN / ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠋ ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ᠂ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠪ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠲᠣᠮᠳᠠᠳᠣ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 3 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠢᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ  ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋, ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ᠂ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ 80 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠮᠫᠣᠷᠲᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠨᠰᠢᠤᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ᠂ ᠤᠺᠢᠨᠠᠸᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠷᠢᠶᠦᠤᠺᠢᠶᠤᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠺᠺᠠᠶᠢᠳᠤ᠋ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠨᠦ᠋᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠺ᠂ ᠨᠢᠪᠬᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠷᠢᠶᠦᠤᠺᠢᠶᠤᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ᠂ ᠠᠶᠢᠨᠦ᠋ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ (ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ), ᠣᠷᠣᠰ  ᠤᠨᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ (ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ), ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠲᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠣᠭᠠᠰᠪᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠ ᠣᠯᠲᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠨᠧᠽ (ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ) ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ 日本 ( "ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠳᠦ/ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠲᠤ" ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃. ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 645 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 7 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠦᠭᠤᠯᠶᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠸᠧᠺᠴᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠴᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠲᠦ "ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢᠲᠤ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠳᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠵᠧᠫᠧᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠵᠢᠫᠧᠩᠺᠥᠣ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ 16 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠺᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ 1565 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ Giapan (ᠵᠢᠪᠠᠫᠠᠨ) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ[6]᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠡᠬᠢ Japan (ᠵᠠᠫᠠᠨ) ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠡ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠤᠯ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ, ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ
ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 2000-3000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ 30,000 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠌ ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ᠂ ᠸᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠥᠯᠥᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

"ᠶᠠᠶᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ" ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ III ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ᠂ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠸᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ


ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠧᠺᠴᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

"ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠋ ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ" ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ 8 ᠳ᠋ᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠋ ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ "ᠺᠣᠵᠢᠺᠢ" (Kojiki, 712 ᠣᠨ), "ᠨᠢᠬᠤᠨ ᠱᠣᠺᠢ" (Nihon Shoki, 720 ᠣᠨ) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ

16 ᠳ᠋ᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠣᠮᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠣᠳᠠ ᠨᠣᠪᠦᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ 1582 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠶᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠢ ᠬᠢᠳᠧᠶᠤᠰᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ 1590 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠪᠠ᠃

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠭ (1634)

1598 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠳᠧᠶᠤᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠲᠣᠺᠦᠭᠠᠸᠠ ᠢᠶᠡᠶᠠᠰᠤ᠋ 1603 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠲᠣᠺᠦᠭᠠᠸᠠ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ᠃ 1639 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ "ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ" ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ "ᠡᠳᠤᠤ᠋ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[7]

1854 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 3 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 31 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠲ᠋ᠡᠶᠤ ᠫᠧᠷᠷᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ "ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ" ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ᠂ "ᠮᠡᠶᠢᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ" ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ (1868 ᠣᠨ). ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ᠂ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ᠂ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠂ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ᠂ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡ[8]

1931 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠍ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠂ 1941 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ "ᠲᠡᠩᠬᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ" ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[9]᠃ 1937 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠂ 1941 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠧᠷᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ II ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ᠃ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠰᠠᠺᠢᠬᠢᠷᠣᠰᠢᠮᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 15 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠭᠡᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠵᠠᠢ[10]

1947 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ 1956 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ
ᠹᠦᠵᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨᠤᠤ᠋ ᠰᠠᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠠ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠰᠤᠮᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠤᠬᠤᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ 6,852 ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ 377,944 ᠺᠦᠸᠠᠲ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ</sup>[11] ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[12][13] ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ 24°46°ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ 122°146° ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ 60 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠣᠺᠺᠠᠶᠢᠳᠤ᠋ (22%), ᠬᠤᠨᠰᠢᠤᠤ (60.3%), ᠱᠢᠺᠣᠺᠦ (5%), ᠺᠶᠦᠰᠢᠦ (9.5%) ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ 97% ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠺᠢᠨᠠᠸᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ ᠷᠢᠶᠦᠤᠺᠢᠶᠤᠦ ᠣᠯᠲᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠺᠶᠦᠰᠢᠤ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠰᠢ ᠨᠤᠮᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋ ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠰᠢ 1000 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠨᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠲᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠣᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ "ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ" ᠭᠡᠵᠡᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠲᠣᠷᠢᠭ (ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Japanese Archipelago) ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[14] ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠹᠢᠯᠢᠫᠫᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠢᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠢᠨ᠌ ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠺᠺᠠᠶᠢᠳᠤ᠋ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠢᠶᠠᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠹᠢᠯᠢᠫᠫᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠩ ᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠩᠣᠺᠢᠨᠠᠸᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠩ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠩ ᠳᠣᠣᠭᠤᠷ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠩ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠩ ᠳᠣᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠰᠢᠷᠭᠤᠨ ᠱᠦᠷᠭᠦᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠵᠦᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠣᠷᠭᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ 10-20% ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠳᠡᠭ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃[15] ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠰ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠯᠳᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠭᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠫᠡ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠰᠢ ᠠᠲᠤᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ 15 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃[16] ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠣᠷᠭᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠨ 108 ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠽᠸᠨᠠᠮᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠰᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[17] 1923 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠣᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 140 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠦᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃[18] ᠬᠠᠨᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ 1995 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠬᠣᠺᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠽᠸᠨᠠᠮᠢ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[19] ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠮᠨᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠶᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠷᠠᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠯᠪᠡᠭ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[20] ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ 3,776 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ ᠴᠣᠷᠣᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠹᠦᠵᠢ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ. ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠳᠠ᠂ ᠺᠢᠰᠣ᠂ ᠠᠺᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠯᠫᠠᠰ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠣᠷᠭᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠢᠲ᠋ᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ (3,193 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ). ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ 73% ᠨᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ᠂ ᠣᠢ ᠮᠣᠳᠣ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠬᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠬᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[21][22] ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠺᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠣᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠩ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ (13,000 ᠺᠦᠸᠠᠲ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ</sup>). ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠶᠠ ᠬᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠣᠪᠢ᠂ ᠣᠤᠰᠠᠺᠠ-ᠺᠶᠣᠣᠲᠤ᠋ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠢᠨᠰᠠᠢ᠂ ᠰᠡᠩᠳᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠩᠳᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠤᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯᠲᠤ᠂ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠼ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠠᠨᠥᠭᠠᠸᠠ 367 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠬᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃[23] ᠺᠢᠶᠣᠲ᠋ᠤ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠸᠠ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠴᠡᠩᠭᠡᠭ ᠤᠰᠤᠲᠤ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ[24]ᠰᠢᠪᠸᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠯᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠢᠭᠯᠢᠭ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ  ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ᠌ ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠯᠮᠡᠭ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠰᠢᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰᠴᠤ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠢᠭᠯᠢᠭ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠯ ᠴᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠂ 6, 7 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ (ᠣᠺᠢᠨᠠᠸᠠ ᠳᠤ 5, 6 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ) ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠤᠨ᠂ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠹᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠬᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠬᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ[24][25]

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠨᠦ᠋ (19 ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ)
ᠮᠡᠶᠢᠵᠢ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠮ

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ 2012 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 127.3 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[26] ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 10 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ᠃[27] ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ 98.5% ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ[28] ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ[29] ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂[30] ᠹᠢᠯᠢᠫᠫᠢᠨᠪᠷᠠᠽᠢᠯᠫᠧᠷᠤ[31] ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠴᠢᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[27] ᠶᠠᠭ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ (ᠢᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠣ) ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠨᠦ᠋ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ[32] ᠷᠢᠶᠦᠤᠺᠢᠶᠤᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[33] 1 km2 ᠍ ᠳᠦ 336 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 24 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠭᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 80% ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠨᠰᠢᠤᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ 89.7% ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠠᠯᠢ᠃[34] ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠫᠫᠤᠷᠣ᠋, ᠰᠸᠨᠲᠠᠢᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋, ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠮᠠᠴᠢᠪᠠᠺᠠᠸᠠᠰᠠᠺᠢᠶᠣᠺᠣᠬᠠᠮ᠎ᠠᠨᠠᠭᠤᠶᠠᠺᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠣᠤᠰᠠᠺᠠᠺᠣᠤᠪᠸᠬᠢᠷᠣᠰᠢᠮᠠᠺᠢᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨᠰᠢᠤᠤᠹᠦᠺᠥᠣᠺᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠰᠠᠶᠠᠰ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢ 10 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 90 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠬᠥᠭᠰᠢᠳ ᠯᠠ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠤᠴᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1940 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 73 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ 1960 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 94 ᠰᠠᠢ ᠠ᠂ 1980 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 117 ᠰᠠᠢ ᠠ᠂ 2000 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 127 ᠰᠠᠢ ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠵᠢᠵᠤ 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 128 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[35] ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠵᠤ (82.7 ᠨᠠᠰᠤ) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂[36] ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 21.2% ᠨᠢ 65 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂[37] ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ 2060 ᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ 87 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠤ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[38]

ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠨᠦ᠋ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠺᠢᠨᠠᠸᠠ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠷᠢᠶᠦᠤᠺᠢᠶᠤᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ) ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ᠃

ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠢᠩᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠦᠰᠦᠭᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠪᠡᠯ 200 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠲ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1% ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠵᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ  ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳᠦᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ᠂ ᠶᠠᠰᠦᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ]] ᠮᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 1872 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ᠂ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ[39]᠃ 1947 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 6-15 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ 3 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠠᠬᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 2005 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠬᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ 75.9% ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠺᠣᠯᠯᠧᠵᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[40]ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠺᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ[41]᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ 6 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[42]

ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠺᠢᠬᠢᠲᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠴᠢᠺᠣ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ

ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ᠂ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ 1947 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠬᠤᠮᠢᠭᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ "ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠪ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ᠂ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠶᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠵᠦ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠯᠠ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠳᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[43] ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠺᠢᠬᠢᠲᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠤᠩᠲᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠤᠬᠢᠲᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠥᠪ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ᠃

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ (ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 国会 ᠺᠣᠺᠺᠠᠢ) ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ 480 ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ (衆議院 ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ), ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ 242 ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠡᠴᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ (参議院 ᠰᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ) ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤ᠂ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ 20 ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃[21] ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠲᠤ 1955 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 2009 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠢᠯᠡᠳᠲᠡ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ᠂ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ 2 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠋ ᠠ  ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ 2012 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 12 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠢ᠃

1947 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠳᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[43] ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 2001-2006 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠺᠤᠢᠢᠽᠡᠮᠢ ᠵᠢᠶᠦᠨᠶᠢᠴᠢᠷᠥ᠋ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ 2012 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 12 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠪᠸ ᠰᠢᠨᠽᠥ᠋ 2 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠰᠤᠯᠠ᠂ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ[44]

ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠢ 20 ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ 4 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ 3 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[44] [43].

ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ 47 ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ 1 ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ (都 to), ᠬᠣᠺᠺᠠᠶᠢᠳᠤ᠋ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ 1 ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ (道 ), ᠣᠤᠰᠠᠺᠠᠺᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ 2 ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ (府 fu), ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ 43 ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ (県 ken) ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠣᠹᠦᠺᠢᠶᠠᠨ (都道府県 todōfuken) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠯᠠ «ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ» ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨᠬᠣᠲᠠ (市 shi), ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ (郡 gun) ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠴᠠᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ (町 chō), ᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (村 son) ᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠪᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠲᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ (支庁 shichō) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ: ᠬᠣᠺᠺᠠᠶᠢᠳᠤ᠋ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ 14 ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ. «ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ»᠂ «ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ» ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠯᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ (Chihō) ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠣᠺᠺᠠᠶᠢᠳᠤ᠋

1. ᠬᠣᠺᠺᠠᠶᠢᠳᠤ᠋

ᠲᠤᠣᠬᠤᠺᠦ

2. ᠠᠣᠮᠣᠷᠢ
3. ᠢᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠸ
4. ᠮᠢᠶᠠᠭᠢ
5. ᠠᠺᠢᠲ᠋ᠠ
6. ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠺᠠᠲᠠ
7. ᠹᠦᠺᠦᠰᠢᠮᠠ

ᠺᠠᠨᠲᠤᠤ

8. ᠢᠪᠠᠷᠠᠺᠢ
9. ᠲᠤᠴᠢᠭᠢ
10. ᠭᠦᠨᠮ᠎ᠠ
11. ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠮᠠ
12. ᠴᠢᠪᠠ
13. ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋
     (ᠲᠣᠣᠺᠶᠣᠣ)
14. ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠸᠠ

ᠴᠢᠶᠦᠦᠪᠦ

15. ᠨᠢᠭᠠᠲᠠ
16. ᠲᠤᠶᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ
17. ᠢᠰᠢᠺᠠᠸᠠ
18. ᠹᠦᠺᠦᠶᠢ
19. ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠨᠠᠰᠢ
20. ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨᠤᠤ᠋
21. ᠭᠢᠹᠦ᠋
22. ᠱᠢᠰᠣᠺᠠ
23. ᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ

ᠺᠠᠨᠰᠠᠢ

24. ᠮᠢᠶᠸ
25. ᠰᠢᠭ᠎ ᠠ
26. ᠺᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠣ
     (ᠺᠶᠣᠣᠲᠠ)
27. ᠣᠤᠰᠠᠺᠠ
28. ᠬᠢᠶᠥᠤᠭᠤ᠋
29. ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠋ ᠠ
30. ᠸᠠᠺᠠᠶᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ

ᠴᠦᠦᠭᠣᠺᠦ

31. ᠲᠣᠳᠲ᠋ᠤᠷᠢ
32. ᠰᠢᠮᠡᠨᠨᠠᠢ
33. ᠣᠺᠠᠶᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ
34. ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠰᠢᠮᠠ
35. ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠭᠦᠴᠢ

ᠱᠢᠺᠣᠺᠦ

36. ᠲᠣᠺᠦᠰᠢᠮᠠ
37. ᠺᠠᠭᠠᠸᠠ
38. ᠡᠬᠢᠮᠸ
39. ᠺᠣᠤᠴᠢ

ᠺᠢᠶᠦᠤᠱᠢᠶᠤ᠋

40. ᠹᠦᠺᠥᠣᠺᠠ
41. ᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
42. ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠰᠠᠺᠢ
43. ᠺᠥᠮᠠᠮᠣᠲ᠋ᠣ᠋
44. ᠤᠤᠶᠢᠲᠠ
45. ᠮᠢᠵᠠᠺᠢ
46. ᠺᠠᠭᠤᠰᠢᠮᠠ

ᠤᠺᠢᠨᠠᠸᠠ


47. ᠤᠺᠢᠨᠠᠸᠠ

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ
ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠷᠵᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠢᠷᠵᠢ

ᠡᠳ᠋᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠤ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ᠂ ᠣᠤᠰᠠᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠬᠠᠯ᠂ ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ᠂ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠮᠠᠷᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠰᠦᠷᠡᠩᠭᠦᠢ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ 1960 ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ 1970 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ 7.5% ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ 1980 ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ 1990 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ 3.2% ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠣᠮᠰᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠼᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋᠂ ᠰᠢᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠃ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠵᠡᠰᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃

ᠨᠧᠹᠲᠠᠰᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠯᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠮᠫᠤᠷᠲᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠺᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ[45]

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠦᠩᠰᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠᠰᠤᠤᠳᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠪᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ᠃ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ[46]

ᠥᠪ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ 10, ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ 3 ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ
1 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠯ
1 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 2 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠠᠸᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ 20 ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃
2 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 11 ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ
3 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 21 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠰᠥᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ
4 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 29 ᠱᠢᠶᠤᠤᠸᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠬᠢᠲᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ
5 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 3 ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ
5 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 4 ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ
5 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 5 ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷ
7 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 3 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠠᠸᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ
9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 3 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠠᠸᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ
9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 23 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠰᠥᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ
10 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 2 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠠᠸᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠮᠢᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ
11 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 3 ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ]] ᠮᠡᠶᠢᠵᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ
11 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 23 ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ
12 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 23 ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ
  • ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠨᠢᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠳᠠᠸᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠷᠰᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠷᠰᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

  • ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ 4 ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ-ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ 1905 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ᠋ᠰᠮᠤᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ 3 ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠫᠣᠳᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠭᠡᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠫᠣᠳᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠡᠢᠽᠧᠨᠬᠠᠦ᠋ᠷ ᠫᠣᠳᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ 4 ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠬᠤ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  • ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠷᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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  15. Tectonics and Volcanoes of Japan. Oregon State University. 2007-03-27 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  16. Barnes, Gina L. (2003). Origins of the Japanese Islands. University of Durham. 11 August 2009 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  17. Tectonics and Volcanoes of Japan. Oregon State University. the original on 4 February 2007 ᠍ ᠰ ᠠᠷᠬᠢᠸᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 27 March 2007 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  18. James, C.D. (2002). The 1923 Tokyo Earthquake and Fire. University of California Berkeley. 16 January 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  19. USGS analysis as of 2011-03-12. Earthquake.usgs.gov (23 June 2011). 9 November 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  20. Attractions: Hot Springs. JNTO. 2007-04-01 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  21. ᠣᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠄ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ <ref> ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠄ name ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ cia ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠬᠠᠨᠭᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
  22. Japan. US Department of State. 16 January 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  23. Nilsson, Christer; Reidy,Catherine A.; Dynesius, Mats and Revenga, Carmen; Fragmentation and Flow Regulation of the World’s Large River Systems; Science; vol. 308; pp.405-408
  24. 24.0 24.1 Essential Info: Climate. JNTO. 2007-04-01 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  25. Flora and Fauna: Diversity and regional uniqueness. Embassy of Japan in the USA. 2007-04-01 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  26. See links to the Census and the monthly Population Estimate through the Japan Statistical Agency homepage.
  27. 27.0 27.1 "'Multicultural Japan' remains a pipe dream", 27 March 2007. 16 January 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. 
  28. CIA Factbook: Japan. Cia.gov. 9 November 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  29. "Japan-born Koreans live in limbo", 2 April 2005. 16 January 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 
  30. Onishi, Norimitsu. "An Enclave of Brazilians Is Testing Insular Japan", 1 November 2008. 16 January 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 
  31. "'Home' is where the heartbreak is for Japanese-Peruvians", 16 October 1999. 16 January 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 
  32. Fogarty, Philippa. "Recognition at last for Japan's Ainu", BBC, 6 June 2008. 7 June 2008 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 
  33. "The Invisible Race", 8 January 1973. 16 January 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 
  34. ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ. ᠮᠢᠨᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠰᠠᠳᠪᠠ ᠢᠨᠣᠰᠲᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠳᠧᠯ ᠷᠣᠰᠡᠶᠢᠰᠺᠣᠢ ᠹᠧᠳᠧᠷᠠᠼᠢᠢ. the original on 2011-08-21 ᠍ ᠰ ᠠᠷᠬᠢᠸᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 2010-01-23 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  35. [1] Population by Age Group and Indices of Age Structure(Excel:29KB)
  36. United Nations World Population Prospects: 2006 revision – Table A.17 for 2005-2010
  37. McCurry, Justin. "Japan's age-old problem", The Guardian (UK), 17 April 2007. 2 January 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 
  38. Japan population to shrink by one-third by 2060 (January 30, 2012).
  39. Lucien Ellington (2003-12-01). Beyond the Rhetoric: Essential Questions About Japanese Education. Foreign Policy Research Institute. 2007-04-01 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  40. School Education (PDF). MEXT. 2007-03-10 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  41. The Times Higher Education Supplement World University Rankings (PDF). TSL Education Ltd. (2005-10-28). 2007-03-27 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  42. OECD’s PISA survey shows some countries making significant gains in learning outcomes, OECD, 04/12/2007. Range of rank on the PISA 2006 science scale
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 The Constitution of Japan. House of Councillors of the National Diet of Japan (3 November 1946). 10 March 2007 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  44. 44.0 44.1 World Factbook; Japan. CIA (2007-03-15). 2007-03-27 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  45. World Factbook; Japan—Economy. CIA (2006-12-19). 2006-12-28 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  46. Blustein, Paul. "China Passes U.S. In Trade With Japan: 2004 Figures Show Asian Giant's Muscle". The Washington Post (2005-01-27). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.

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