ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ ᠠ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ ᠠ
East Asia (orthographic projection).svg
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ 11,839,074 km²
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ 1,555,784,500 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ
ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠰᠢᠯ 131 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km²
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ
ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ
Flag of the Republic of China.svg ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ[1]
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ
ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ
ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ:

██ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

██ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

██ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

██ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

██ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ ᠠ

██ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ-ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ ᠠ (ᠮᠥᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ) - ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ (ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ).

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠦᠨ "ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠭᠡᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠲᠡᠰ" ᠍ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ, ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ[2] ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ 5 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮᠳᠤᠭ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ[1] ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠳᠬᠠᠨ "ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ ᠠ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠶᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ 28% ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 12 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ 22%, ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 38% ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠬᠦ 1.5 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ 45 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠯᠥᠮᠸᠲᠷ ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ 3 ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ 131 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠯᠥᠮᠸᠲᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠵᠢᠯᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ᠂ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠸᠢᠶᠧᠲ᠋ᠨᠠᠮᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ (ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ) ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃[3][4][5][6] ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠍ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠍ ᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ᠂ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮᠳᠤᠭ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃
  2. ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Central Asia ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠂ central ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠪᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ «ᠲᠥᠪ» ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ Central Asia ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃
  3. Columbia University East Asian Cultural Sphere
  4. R. Keith Schopper's East Asia: Identities and Change in the Modern World
  5. Joshua A. Fogel (UC Santa Barbara/University of Indiana) Nationalism, the Rise of the Vernacular, and the Conceptualization of Modernization in East Asian Comparative Perspective
  6. United Nations Environment Programme (mentions sinosphere countries) Approaches to Solution of Eutrophication [1]

ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠷᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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