ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠹᠠᠢᠢᠯ:FirstCrusade.jpg
ᠢᠪᠡᠷᠡᠢᠴᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ᠃ 1250 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠪᠯᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ᠃

ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ (ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ First Crusade) ᠨᠢ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ 1095 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

1095 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 3 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠸᠢᠰᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠢᠤᠰ I ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠴᠢ ᠫᠢᠰᠧᠨᠼ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠩᠪᠤ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠫᠠᠫᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠨ ᠸᠢᠰᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠵᠠᠨᠤᠯ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠧᠯᠵᠢᠺ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠳᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠤᠶᠤᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ II ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠺᠯᠧᠮᠣᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠭ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠣᠰᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰᠯᠡᠪᠡᠰᠦ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠨᠴᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠦᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠷᠢᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠣᠷᠢᠯᠢᠭᠤᠮ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠬᠤ ᠲᠤ 2 ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠥᠭᠴᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠶᠡᠷᠤᠰᠠᠯᠢᠮ ᠷᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠮᠠᠷᠷᠠᠲ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠶᠡᠷᠤᠰᠠᠯᠢᠮ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1098 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠢᠢ ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠹᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠮᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠷᠷᠠᠲ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠮᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ᠂ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠡᠷᠴᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠵᠢᠭᠡ᠃ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠥᠯᠪᠡᠷᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠩᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ᠂ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠮᠰᠠᠷᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠯᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠱᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠪᠥᠰᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠮ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠣᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠭ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠨ 2 ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ 1098 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 12 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 12 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠷᠷᠠᠲ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠮᠠᠷᠷᠠᠲ ᠬᠣᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠶᠡᠷᠤᠰᠠᠯᠢᠮ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰᠲᠦᠭᠡ ᠴᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠦᠭᠦᠷᠡᠩ ᠮᠠᠷᠷᠠᠲ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭᠤᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠮᠦᠰᠦ᠋ᠯᠮᠠᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠢᠪᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠡᠷᠴᠡᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠮᠠᠷᠷᠠᠲ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠭᠢᠰᠯᠠᠯ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠴᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ᠃

ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ II ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ:

《... ᠮᠠᠷᠷᠠᠲ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠴᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠵᠣᠪᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠢ ᠠᠮᠰᠠᠴᠢ᠂ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠰᠠᠷᠠᠼᠢᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ...》

ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠷᠠᠯᠹ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ:

《... ᠮᠠᠷᠷᠠᠲ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠣᠮᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠᠯᠴᠢᠷ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠱᠣᠷᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠳᠡᠵᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃..》

ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠮᠠᠷᠷᠠᠲ ᠢ ᠰᠦᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠢᠶᠡᠷᠤᠰᠠᠯᠢᠮ ᠷᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

1099 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 7 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷᠤᠰᠠᠯᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ 9 ᠬᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠪᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ 1500 ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠭ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ᠂ 12000 ᠶᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠤ ᠢᠶᠡᠷᠤᠰᠠᠯᠢᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠳᠥᠩᠭᠡᠵᠢ 1000 ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠯᠠᠩᠭᠠᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠮᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠢᠷᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠡᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠥᠷᠲᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠴᠤ ᠦᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ 40000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠣᠺᠣᠰᠲ᠋ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃


1101 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠤᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠦᠬᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠣᠴᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • 1096-1099 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ 4 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠰᠷᠸᠯ᠂ ᠯᠸᠠᠨᠲ᠂ ᠠᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠷᠨᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  • ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠰᠧᠯᠵᠢᠺ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠳᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃
  • ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠺᠢᠯᠢᠺᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠥᠭᠰᠢᠳᠡ᠂ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ᠂ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠶᠢᠴᠦᠳ᠂ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ 100000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠰᠧᠮᠢᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠦᠵᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠡᠶᠢᠴᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠣᠨᠴᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃
  • ᠳᠠᠩ ᠬᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢ᠂ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃
  • ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠠᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢ᠂ ᠯᠸᠠᠨᠲ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠢᠶᠡᠷᠤᠰᠠᠯᠢᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠡᠢ᠃

ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠶᠡᠷᠤᠰᠠᠯᠢᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠤᠩᠭᠢᠳᠠ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠨᠲᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠢ᠂ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠯᠢᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠡᠷᠴᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ 100 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠵᠢᠭᠡ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠠᠶᠠᠨᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠᠳᠢᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠬᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠯᠸᠠᠨᠲ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ᠂ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠠᠷᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠠ ᠮᠥᠷ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ᠃

ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • Albert of Aix, Historia Hierosolymitana
  • Anna Comnena, Alexiad
  • Guibert of Nogent, Dei gesta per Francos
  • Fulcher of Chartres, Historia Hierosolymitana
  • Gesta Francorum (anonymous)
  • Peter Tudebode, Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere
  • Raymond of Aguilers, Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem
  • Ibn al-Qalanisi, The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades

ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ (ᠣᠨ ᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • Thomas Asbridge. The First Crusade (book)|The First Crusade: A New History. Oxford: 2004. ISBN 0-19-517823-8.
  • Bartlett, Robert. The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Exchange, 950–1350. Princeton: 1994. ISBN 0-691-03780-9.
  • Chazan, Robert. In the Year 1096: The First Crusade and the Jews. Jewish Publication Society, 1997. ISBN 0-8276-0575-7.
  • Carole Hillenbrand. The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0-415-92914-8.
  • Holt, P.M. The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. Longman, 1989. ISBN 0-582-49302-1.
  • Lock, Peter (2006). Routledge Companion to the Crusades. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-39312-4. 
  • Thomas Madden New Concise History of the Crusades. Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. ISBN 0-7425-3822-2.
  • Magdalino, Paul, "The Byzantine Background to the First Crusade" (available online)
  • Mayer, Hans Eberhard. The Crusades. John Gillingham, translator. Oxford: 1988. ISBN 0-19-873097-7.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. University of Pennsylvania: 1991. ISBN 0-8122-1363-7.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan, editor. The Oxford History of the Crusades. Oxford: 2002. ISBN 0-19-280312-3.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders, 1095–1131. Cambridge: 1998. ISBN 0-521-64603-0.
  • Steven Runciman. A History of the Crusades: Volume 1, The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge: 1987 ISBN 0-521-34770-X
  • Runciman, Steven. The First Crusade. Cambridge: 1980. ISBN 0-521-23255-4.
  • Setton, Kenneth, editor. A History of the Crusades. Madison: 1969–1989 (available online).
  • Tyerman, Christopher (2006). God's War: A New History of the Crusades. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-02387-0. 

ᠨᠠᠮᠲᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ