ᠴᠦᠰᠢ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠴᠦᠰᠢ
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠩ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ
Empress Dowager of China.JPG
ᠴᠦᠰᠢ
ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠡᠮ᠎ᠡ:
1851 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 9 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ - 1861 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 22
ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ:
1861 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 22 - 1908 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 11 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 15
ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ 孝钦显皇后
ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1835 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 11 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 29
ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1908 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 11 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 15
ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠡᠯᠪᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ
ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠴᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ
ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠤᠶᠢᠵᠢᠨ ᠢ

ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠦᠰᠢ (ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 慈禧太后) (1835 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 11 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 29 – 1908 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 11 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 15) ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ (ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 西太后) ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠪᠡᠭᠴᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ᠂ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠲᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ 1861 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ 1908 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ 48 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠩ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠧ ᠹᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠰᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠡᠯᠪᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠡᠮ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠲᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠭᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠧᠰᠫᠣᠲ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠴᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠴᠣᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠵᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • Chung, Sue Fawn. 《The Much Maligned Empress Dowager: A Revisionist Study of the Empress Dowager Tz'u-Hsi (1835-1908).》 Modern Asian Studies 13, no. 2 (1979): 177-96.
  • Hummel, Arthur William, ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644-1912). 2 vols. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1943.
  • Warner, Marina. The Dragon Empress: Life and Times of Tz'u-hsi 1835-1908. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1972.
  • 雷家聖(Lei Chiasheng)《力挽狂瀾-戊戌政變新探》,台北:萬卷樓,2004 ISBN 957-739-507-4

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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