ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
Karl 1 mit papst gelasius gregor1 sacramentar v karl d kahlen.jpg
Heidelberg-Schloß.JPG

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ 5 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 15 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ 476 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ 3 ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭ: ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ᠂ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ 15 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ (5 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 1000 ᠣᠨ) ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠮ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠵᠡᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠹᠧᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ (1000-1300 ᠣᠨ) ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠷᠨᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠳ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠵᠤ 1095 – 1291 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠨc ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠮᠣᠷᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ Christendom ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠳᠧᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠃ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠵᠦᠢᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠵᠢᠩᠬᠢᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠷᠬᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠨᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠮᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ Justinian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠂ Fibonacci ᠪᠠ Oresme ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ᠂ Thomas Aquinas ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ Giotto ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ᠂ Dante ᠪᠠ Chaucer ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭ᠂ Marco ᠫᠣᠯᠣᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ Chartres Gothiccathedrals ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ
1.1 ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ
1.2 ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠳᠡᠭ
1.3 ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ
1.4 ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠰᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢ

ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ

3 ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ

ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ

3.1 ᠡᠪᠳᠡᠷᠡᠯ
3.2 ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ
3.3 Carolingians
3.4 Carolingian ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ

Carolingian ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ

3.5 ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ
3.6 ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ
4 ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ
4.1 ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ
4.2 ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ
4.3 ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯᠳᠡᠭ
5 ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ
5.1 ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠳᠠᠭ

ᠵᠤᠤ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ

5.2 ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ
5.3 ᠮᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ

ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠷ

5.4 ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ
7 ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠨᠣᠪᠴᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ
8 ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ
9 ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ
9.1 ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ
9.2 ᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠦ
10 ᠭᠠᠯᠧᠷᠧᠢ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠰᠬᠦᠯᠡᠩ
12 ᠳᠤᠯᠢᠳᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ
13 ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ

ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠰᠢᠷ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠴᠢ ᠦᠶᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠦᠶᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠷᠢᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ , ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠣᠯᠢᠹ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ 1469 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ 1604 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ 1625. ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠴᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

Leonardo Bruni was a Renaissance historian who helped develop the concept of the Middle Ages.

ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ '[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠭᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠡᠭᠦᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠢᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠭᠢᠯ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃1300 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡᠷᠢᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠫᠡᠲᠷᠠᠷᠴᠢ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠫᠡᠲᠷᠠᠷᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠵᠢᠨᠳᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠴᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠷᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠯᠧᠣᠨᠠᠠᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠹᠯᠣᠷᠧᠨᠼ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠪᠠᠷᠨᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠫᠠᠲᠷᠢᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠵᠢᠯᠢᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ 1453 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ 1337 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ , 116 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ England ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠥᠷᠨᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ (ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡ) ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠳᠥ ᠨᠢ Calais Pale ᠍ ᠰ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ , France ᠍ ᠰ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢᠢᠭᠬᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨᠥᠮᠨᠥᠲᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠴᠡᠩᠬᠡᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠤ ᠪᠡᠰᠦᠭᠲᠦᠷᠦᠪᠠᠬᠠᠶᠠᠦᠷᠭᠡᠳᠭᠡᠰᠦᠩᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠳᠤᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠪᠠᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠩᠰᠢᠷᠢᠷᠤᠢᠩᠭᠯᠢᠬᠠᠮᠮᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠲᠠᠯᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨᠡᠨᠢᠴᠤᠪᠤᠷᠠᠯᠬᠡᠩᠬᠦᠳᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷᠺ ᠵᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯᠴᠢᠷᠠᠭᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠥᠷᠦᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨᠤᠳᠠᠩᠪᠤᠭᠤᠷᠤᠯᠲᠤᠪᠠ ,ᠯᠠᠨᠺᠠᠰᠲᠷᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ,ᠺᠠᠷᠤᠯᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠸᠠᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ: ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨᠡᠰᠪᠡᠯ 4 ᠦᠶᠡᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ , ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠪᠠ English ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠯᠬᠢᠴᠡ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ Militarily ,ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨᠴᠢᠷᠡᠭᠷᠲᠠᠪᠠᠤᠪᠠᠢ=ᠰᠠᠨᠹᠧᠣᠳᠠᠯᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨᠬᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠦᠭᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠲᠡᠷᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳᠪᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃(ᠡᠨᠡ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ) ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ peasantry ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠬᠤ , ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ

ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠪᠷᠦᠨᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 476 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠢᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠷᠣᠮᠦᠦᠶᠠᠰ ᠠᠤᠭᠤᠰᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠷᠣᠮᠦᠦᠶᠠᠰ ᠠᠤᠭᠤᠰᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠢᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠪᠢᠣᠰ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠡᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠭᠣᠹᠰ ᠢᠨᠦ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠨᠣᠨ ᠰᠦᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠨᠢ 410 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠢᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠰᠺᠠᠨᠳᠢᠨᠣᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ .ᠪᠠᠯᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ 11 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠰᠲᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ 13 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠨᠣᠫᠯ 1453 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠭ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ᠂ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠰᠢᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 5 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 14 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ

ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠭᠦᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠴᠢ᠂ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠪᠡ᠃ ᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠩᠪᠤ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠫᠣᠰᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠫᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 4 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠩᠪᠤ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢ 《ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠫᠠᠫ》 ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠰ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ

14 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 16 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ 13 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ (ᠷᠧᠨ᠋ᠧᠰᠰᠠᠨᠰ) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ 《ᠭᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ》 ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ᠂ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ᠂ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠥᠰᠴᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ

ᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠨᠵᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠷᠴᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ , ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨᠴᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ 1 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠᠶᠢᠰᠮᠠᠮᠢᠳᠥᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠶᠢᠯ ᠥᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ᠂ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ , ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠳᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠩᠭᠦᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠣᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ , ᠳᠦᠷᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠷᠭᠦ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠭ᠂ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠮᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠬᠠᠩᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠂ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠳᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠯᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠳᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠦᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠬᠢ ᠰᠢᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠢᠯᠠᠭ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 15-ᠷ ЗУУНД ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ЭНЭТХЭГ ОРОНТОЙ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ 《ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠮᠰᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ》 ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃


Richard III, England's last Medieval monarch

ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ 1453 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠬᠦᠩ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ Constantinople ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠬᠠᠮ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ᠂ , ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ Johann Gutenberg c ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ , ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ᠃ 1455, ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ (both 1492) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ Christopher Columbus's ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ Granada ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠤ᠃ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ 1401 ᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ Florence Baptistery ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠢᠯᠳᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠱᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠳᠠᠩᠳᠠ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠤ᠃ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠩᠳᠠ᠃ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠲᠦ Bosworth ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ (1485) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ Granada (1492) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Castile (1504) ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ Queen ᠰᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠩᠳᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Ferdinand II (1516) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠨᠠᠭ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠠᠷᠴᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠬᠡᠨ "ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ" ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ "ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ" ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠩᠱᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ , ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠵᠠᠢᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭ:"Early" "High" ᠪᠠ "Late". ᠪᠧᠯ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠧᠯᠬᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢ Henri Pirenne ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢ Johan Huizinga ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ 20 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠴᠠᠨ:ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ (476-1000) ᠴᠡᠭ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ (1000–1300) ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ (1300–1453) 19 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠳᠠᠩᠳᠠ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ "ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ" ҮЕЧЛЭЛ

ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ [[File:Europe map 450.PNG|thumb|right|Map of territorial boundaries ca. 450 AD]

ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ2 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠯᠤᠰᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠡᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Diocletian ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠴᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠨᠣ᠋ 286 AD ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠭᠠᠬᠤᠳᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ Constantine ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Byzantium ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ 330 ᠳ Constantinople ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠭᠠᠢ 4 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠪᠥᠬᠡ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠥᠷᠰᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠦᠢᠮᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠥᠯᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠬᠦᠩ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠣᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ 4 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠷᠢᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ Diocletian ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠡᠬᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠣᠨᠣᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ , ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?. ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠦᠩ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠶᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷᠠᠸᠨᠣᠫᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ 378 ᠨᠣᠮᠧᠷ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠮᠣᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ᠂ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠮᠣᠭᠣ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠬᠣᠷᠭᠣ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠢᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠶᠠᠷᠪᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠡᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠣᠮᠣᠭᠣ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠳ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠡᠮᠡᠯᠵᠡᠭᠢᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠪᠠᠳ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ,, ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠯ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠣᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ , ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠮ ᠣᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠮᠠᠰᠱᠲᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠾᠦᠩᠨᠦ ᠳᠦ Bulgars ᠪᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠭᠡᠨᠡᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠠᠶᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠦᠷᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ᠂ ᠰᠯᠠᠸᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠴᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠣᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ 410 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Visigoths ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠡᠦᠳᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ 800 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠠᠮᠤᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ 5 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠦᠢᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ "Dark Ages" ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠤᠩᠰᠢᠨ societal ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠭᠴᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ (however ᠦᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ historians) ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠬᠢᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Romulus Augustulus, 476 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠸᠠᠷᠪᠤᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Odoacer ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ Empire(conventionally ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ counterpart) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ "Byzantine Empire" ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠣᠲᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠮᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠸᠢᠰᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠪᠠ ЗЭРЛЭГҮҮД ᠬᠠᠡᠨ ᠭᠦᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠵᠠ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ , ᠸᠢᠰᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠡᠲᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ Justinian ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ periphery) ᠍ ᠦᠨ reconquest , ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ᠃ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ᠂ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ , ᠡᠨᠡ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠠᠷᠮᠠᠨᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ Augustine ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠠᠩᠪᠤᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ

ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠳᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠷᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠱᠠᠯᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠨ᠂ ᠳᠡᠪᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠃ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠬᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠶᠤᠨᠯᠠᠭ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠵᠠ ᠪᠠᠨc ᠠᠮᠰᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠰᠣᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠪᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ᠂ , ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠡᠺᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ , ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠸᠠᠭᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠴᠢ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠥᠨᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠣᠷᠣ ᠮᠥᠷ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨᠢᠳᠦᠷ England) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠺᠣᠷᠨᠡᠪᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠦᠩᠯᠢᠭ (the ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ 6 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠰᠤᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠳᠳᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 5th ᠪᠠ 8th ᠵᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠬᠦᠩ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠯᠣᠮᠪᠣᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠦᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ (ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ Ostrogoths ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ theSuevi in Gllaecia, the Visigoths in Hispania, the Franks and Burgundians in Gaul and Western Germany, the Angles and the Saxons in Britain and theVandals in North Africa.ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠰᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠶᠠᠷᠪᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠯᠠ ᠡᠪᠳᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠸᠢᠰᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠦᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠮ ᠬᠤᠮ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ;ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠨᠡᠨᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠳᠠᠩᠳᠠ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠲᠠᠯᠢ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ᠍ᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠨc, ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ᠃ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠤᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠠᠱᠢᠨᠵᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠷᠡᠴᠡᠯᠵᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠠᠩᠰᠢᠯ᠃ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ᠂ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠰᠢᠷᠢ᠂ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠥᠭᠢᠫᠧᠲ᠂ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ Africa Visigothic ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠼᠢᠯᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠳ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 7th ᠪᠠ 8th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠣᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ᠃8th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠦᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ

ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ "universal church" ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠴᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠲᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠷᠣᠮᠠᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢᠨᠤᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠯᠠ ᠬᠠᠩᠪᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠦᠩ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ Arianrulers ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ Arian ᠬᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠭᠰᠢᠭᠦᠷᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠭᠡᠢᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ Clovis ᠪᠢ ᠸᠠᠷᠪᠤᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Arianism ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ Frankish ᠣᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠩᠪᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠩᠳᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ᠍ᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠳᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠸᠢᠭᠩᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ Avars ᠪᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠣᠷ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠰᠥᠭᠦᠷ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠡᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠹᠣᠺᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠢᠶᠡᠨc ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠯ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠹᠣᠺᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲ ᠪᠠ Syria.[12] ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠭᠣᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ cenobitism , ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ 4th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠲᠡᠨ Pachomius ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?. ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠲᠡᠨ Anthony.[12] ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ hagiographical ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ aap 5th ᠪᠠ 6th ᠵᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠥᠭᠢᠫᠧ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠢᠶᠠᠨᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠳᠧᠠᠯ᠃ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠲᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠣᠰ ᠤᠳ 6th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ , ᠰᠢᠷᠬᠡᠭᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ Benedictine ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ abbot.[12] ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ cenobites ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ , ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠬᠤ᠃ ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠦᠨᠵᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ , ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠮ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠ proselytization. ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯᠳᠦ᠂ , ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Carolingians


ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠥᠮ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠩᠭᠦᠢ Austrasia ᠪᠠ Neustria ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭᠲᠤ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ Merovech ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠵᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ Merovingians ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Merovingian ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠴᠢᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ Merovingian ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠣᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ Austrasian ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ , ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ᠂ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠣᠩ ᠤᠳ᠂ 7th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ , ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ Merovingians ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ aap ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠦᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ Merovingians, ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠮᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠨᠡᠩᠵᠢ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠼᠧᠨᠲ ᠦᠳ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠤᠲᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ sceattae ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Merovingian ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ "Romanized", ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ , ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠳ andbishoprics ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠪᠡᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ rulership ᠪᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠴᠢᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ Merovingians ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Byzantium ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠣᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠧᠯᠢᠲ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ Merovingians, ᠪᠠ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭᠲᠤ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠡᠰ ᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠭ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ Quinotaur.[13] ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 7th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ Austrasia ᠪᠠ Neustria ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠵᠢᠭᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ Landen ᠍ ᠦᠨ , ᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Merovingians ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠺᠠᠷᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?.ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠩᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠵᠦᠭᠡᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ 732 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Charles Martel ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ Pyrenees ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠬᠢᠴᠠ , ᠪᠦᠳᠦᠷᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃

Carolingian ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Charles Martel ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ , ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ Austrasia ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ 753 ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ Neustria ᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ III ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠡᠷᠦᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠪᠠᠰᠤᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ Pope.[14] ᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ , ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ Charles Martel ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠬᠤᠳ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠴᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ Merovingians ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠰᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 783 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ , ᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠂ Charles ᠪᠠ Carloman ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠢᠨᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ Carloman died, , Charles Carloman's ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠨ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ Austrasia ᠪᠠ Neustria ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ Charles, ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ Charlemagne ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Charles ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ , ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠫᠷᠣᠭᠷᠠᠮ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ 774 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , ᠠᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ 800, ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠵᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠨᠡᠨᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠱᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ Carolingian ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠭᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ expansion.[14] ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

800 ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠦ Charlemagne ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠰᠤᠯᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠯᠣᠮᠪᠣᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ 476 ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ Charlemagne's ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠮᠠᠴᠢ ᠳᠦᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠴᠡᠭᠦᠭᠦᠵᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠪᠠᠰᠠ empire.[15] ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠨᠡᠨᠴᠢ ᠰᠢᠳᠤᠷᠭᠤᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ , ᠬᠡᠨ missi ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠫᠯᠣᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠷᠢᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠵᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠳᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠯᠬᠢᠬᠦ᠃ Carolingian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠡᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ , ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠ , ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠢᠪᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠴᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠦᠢ᠃ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ Alcuin Aachen ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Northumbria ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠭᠡᠢᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠷᠣᠮᠠᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ Charlemagne's ᠯᠣᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠴᠠᠯᠧᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Carolingian ᠥᠴᠥᠬᠡᠨ᠂ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠰ , ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠬᠦ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ᠃ Carolingian ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠺᠰᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠰᠥᠭᠦᠷ Ottonian ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠴᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ Carolingian ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ

ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ Charlemagne age) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ (at ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ regnum (kingdom) ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠨ Frankish ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ theimperium (imperial title) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Charlemagne ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ , Louis 26 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠬᠦ Louis's ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 829 ᠍ ᠦᠨ᠂ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠠᠪᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ , ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠳᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠰᠢᠪᠲᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ 838 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Crémieux ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Louis ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠦᠦ Lothair ᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Regnum Italicum (Italy) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠠᠯᠵᠠᠨ Lothair andCharles ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ , ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠦ᠂ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ , ᠥᠭᠯᠢᠭᠡ Lothair ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ Francia ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠷᠧᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ᠂ , ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ Charles ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ Francia, ᠠᠯᠢ Alps Rhineland ᠪᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ Louis, ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?, ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠧᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠳᠣᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠪᠠᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠴᠠᠮᠬᠠᠭ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ subregnum ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠦ?. ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ Aquitaine ᠍ ᠦᠨ Pepin II, ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠡᠦ᠂ Aquitaine ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ , ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ Louis ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ Francia ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠰᠤᠩᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠴᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠺᠠᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠴᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ 840 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠬᠦᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ Crémieux ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠣᠲᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ

10th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠺᠠᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ᠃ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠥᠷᠥᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ:"Sagittis hungarorum libera nos Domine" "Lord Hungarians" ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠮᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ

ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ , Louis ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ Francia ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ Lothair ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Verdun (843) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ᠂ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ Francia ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ Lothair ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ Burgundy, ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ Francia ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠷᠹ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠪᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ Francia, ᠮᠥᠨ , ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦ 884 ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠭᠡᠬᠦ Charles ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ fell into ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ regna ᠪᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ᠂ Charlemagne's ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠢᠭᠡᠨᠴᠢᠷ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ 887 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ , non-Carolingian "petty kings" ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ (Lotharingia ᠪᠠ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ Francia) ᠍ ᠪᠠᠨc ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠ 888 ᠍ ᠳᠦ died. Carolingian ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠢᠳᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ 962 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠷᠤ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ Carolingian ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠴᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠨᠡᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠶᠥc ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠢᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠪᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠸᠢᠭᠩᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠵᠦᠳᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ Pistres ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠵᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠦᠶᠢᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ Charles, ᠲᠡᠷᠡ 885–886 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Paris ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃, ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ᠂ 955 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Lechfeld ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠭᠤᠷ , ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ Saracens Garigliano ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ Fraxinetum, 846 ᠪᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠦᠳᠡᠢ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠳᠤ , ᠺᠣᠷᠰᠢᠺ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠰᠠᠷᠳᠢᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠼᠢᠯᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠮᠴᠢᠳ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠭᠡᠨᠡᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠸᠢᠭᠩᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠦ?. ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠵᠠᠨᠤᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠯ ᠣᠩᠭᠣ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠸᠢᠭᠩᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ Christianization ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

San VitaleRavenna ᠍ ᠦᠨ Basilica, , ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ

St. Peter-on-the-Wall Chapel.England 662 AD ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠱᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠬᠡᠨ 4th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ Constantinian basilicas ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠ 8th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ᠂ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ᠂ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠯᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ , ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠷᠣᠮᠠᠨᠢᠭ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠰᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠺᠧᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠧᠯᠲ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠸᠠᠷᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠯ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠸᠢᠽᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠡᠭᠡᠮᠦᠭ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦᠯᠡᠯ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠭᠦᠢ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ;ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ reliquariesand ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠯ ᠢᠪᠡᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ Charlemagne ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠯ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠮᠡᠵᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠮ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥ ᠢᠯᠭᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ , ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠥᠰᠦᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠢᠪᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ


ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ 14th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc Psalter ᠍ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠣᠩᠨᠣᠣᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠤ 146 ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠤ 145 ᠪᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ , ᠺᠢᠨᠣ᠋ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠪᠦᠷᠢ

ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ᠂ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠶᠤᠨᠯᠠᠭ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ 13th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ 11th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠺᠠᠨᠳᠢᠨᠠᠪ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠣᠲᠠᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ , Carolingian ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?, ᠪᠠ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ (see 12th-century ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠠᠬᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ , ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠰᠦᠷᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠬᠢᠷᠦᠭᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠳᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ , ᠡᠷᠢᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1200 ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ᠂ ᠥᠰᠴᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ , ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ᠂ , Paris ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 200 ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ , ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠹᠯᠮᠠᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠳ .[17], ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠰᠥᠭᠦᠷ , ᠲᠦᠯᠬᠢᠴᠡ ᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠴᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠪᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Hanseatic ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠸᠧᠨᠧᠼ᠂ ᠭᠧᠨᠤᠶᠠ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ city-states, ᠪᠠ Pisa ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠨᠣᠨᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠰᠢᠬᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ᠂ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ,, ᠪᠠ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠳᠦᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ , ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ sedentarization ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ , ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ , ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ Asia ᠍ ᠪᠡᠨc Europe" ᠍ ᠳᠦ "Gate , ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ Empire.[18] ᠍ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ 16th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠨc ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ bastionof ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?, ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠩᠨᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc, , ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠣᠲᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠳᠣᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ 13th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠡᠮ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ III ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠮᠡᠬᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠪᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ Finnic ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠣᠩᠭᠣ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠬᠢᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠰᠤᠲᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠦᠶᠢᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠦᠮᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Kipchak ᠪᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ᠂ , ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠸᠠᠷᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ Crusades

ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠳᠢᠷᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠨc ᠢᠶᠡᠷᠤᠰᠠᠯᠢᠮ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠢᠶᠡᠷᠤᠰᠠᠯᠢᠮ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ Africa ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ aap 7th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ Anatolia (in ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ Turkey).ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠰᠢᠬᠢ ᠠᠬᠢᠴᠠ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ Komnenos ᠸᠢᠽᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Alexios ᠪᠢ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ 1095 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Clermont ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠳᠦ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ II ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠣᠮᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠨᠳᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷᠤᠰᠠᠯᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠱᠦᠭᠦᠷᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠠᠭᠠᠭ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨc ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ 1099 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠶᠡᠷᠢᠰᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ , ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ᠃ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠭᠡᠢᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠩ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ;ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠴᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠳ generically ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ᠂ ᠫᠣᠷᠲᠤᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠳ ᠢᠲᠠᠯᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ᠂ , ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ counter-attacks ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ retaken ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ Christianitythat ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ , ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ

ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠥᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ 11th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ;ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ venuesduring ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ᠂ ᠸᠢᠽᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ , ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠮᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 1071 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Manzikert ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠭᠤᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ underwent, theFourth ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ Constantinople ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠡᠬᠦ , ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ 1204 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ᠂ Andrew II ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠳᠦ biggest ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠠᠫᠷᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠯᠸᠪᠠᠨᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠤ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠠᠯᠪᠢᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ , ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ᠂ 1218.[21] ᠍ ᠳᠦ , ᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠢ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠭᠡᠷ 1261 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Constantinople ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠭᠡᠨᠡᠳᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ

ᠣᠺᠰᠹᠣᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ᠂ ᠺᠡᠮᠪᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠦᠨᠵᠡᠭᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ᠃ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ al-Andalus (Spain) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮᠠᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ Europe) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ (see ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠪ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ reconquest ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠵᠠᠪᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠢᠯᠳᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳ᠂ , ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠬᠠᠶᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?, ᠪᠠ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠰᠢᠬᠢ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠢᠵᠢᠯᠬᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ , ᠸᠢᠰᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Byzantinescholars ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠳ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠨc ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤᠳᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠸᠢᠽᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ (1203–1453) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ Byzantium ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠢᠪ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤᠳᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠵᠦᠢᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡᠷᠢᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠩ ᠦᠳ᠂ ᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠴᠢ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠴᠦᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ brought to ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ theologians.[22] ᠲᠡᠳᠡ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ (Greek) ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ Manuel Chrysoloras (1355–1415) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠯᠠᠨ᠃ 1396 ᠍ ᠳᠦ᠂ , Coluccio Salutati, Florence ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠴᠠᠯᠧᠷ᠂ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ Chrysolora ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ , ᠤᠷᠢᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ Chrysoloras ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠰᠢᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ Plato's ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Constantinople 1204–1261 ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ᠂ , ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ brought back ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ᠂ , ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠷ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ Ireland ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠵᠣᠲᠣᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ Scripturecommentaries ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠢᠶᠡᠨc ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ , ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ patristic ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ᠂ Virgil, Lucretius, Ovid, Horace ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠴᠢᠳ , ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ Pliny, ᠪᠠ Carolingian ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ (770-850) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ᠂ , ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠪᠠ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ knowledge.[23] ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠩ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨc ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ Aristotle ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ Moerbeke (1215-1286) undertook ᠍ ᠦᠨ William. Moerbeke ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ ofPolitics (c ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ 1260), ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ᠂ ᠠᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠶᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ , ᠲᠥᠰᠬᠦᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ᠂ Arabic.[24] Moerbeke's ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ 14th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Henricus Hervodius ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ:ᠲᠡᠳᠡ verbo) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ (de verbo ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ Aristotle ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠳᠦ , ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠦ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠡᠮᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ᠃ Moerbeke's ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ᠂ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ;ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ Moerbeke ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠪᠠ Archimedes ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ 1268) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠦᠳ byProclus (translated ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠦᠳ 13th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠨᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠯᠭᠧᠪᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠦᠨᠵᠡᠭᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ᠃ᠷᠣᠮᠠᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ andphilosophy ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃12th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠷᠣᠮᠠᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ 12th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃, ᠰᠤᠯᠢᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠵᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠳ 11th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ wider ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠠᠯ᠂ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮᠳᠡ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠠᠬᠢᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠵᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠷᠣᠮᠠᠨᠢᠭ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭᠲᠤ , ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ

ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ 12th ᠪᠠ 13th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ᠂ , ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠬᠦ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ traditionalmeans ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ , ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ᠃ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠬᠢᠴᠠ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠷᠦᠭᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠤ᠂ ᠨᠢᠳᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠯ᠂ andartesian ᠬᠤᠳᠳᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ , ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠦᠭᠡ᠂ ᠲᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠯᠤᠤᠵᠢᠩ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠨc astrolabe. ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ 2-field ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ (as ᠍ ᠳᠦ 3-field ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ used). ᠴᠠᠰᠢ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠠᠨᠵᠢᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠭᠰᠥᠭᠦᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠯᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠥᠭᠴᠦ᠃ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦᠩ᠂ , ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠰᠬᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠮᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠳᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠲᠣᠰᠬᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ


Changes ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠳᠢᠶᠠᠨᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ 11th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠪᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ᠂ , ᠡᠨᠡ ᠢᠳᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭᠵᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠵᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ , ᠬᠡᠷᠪᠡ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃Cluny ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ᠂ 909 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Mâcon ᠍ ᠳᠦ , ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ fear.[25] ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠢᠶᠠᠨᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ larger ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ Cluny ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨc ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠩᠪᠤ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠢᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠳᠢᠶᠠᠨᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠵᠦᠢᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠦᠯ ᠪᠠᠯ Pope.[17] Cluny ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠯᠣᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠩᠨᠠᠯ᠂ ᠪᠠ 11th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠩᠪᠤ ᠯᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ

Assisi ᠍ ᠦᠨ St Francis, 1235 ᠍ ᠳᠦ byBonaventura Berlinghieri , ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ , brought about ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ

ᠳᠢᠶᠠᠨᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠷᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ᠂ ᠢᠳᠧᠠᠯ 1049 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠠᠷᠰᠯᠠᠨᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ IX ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ brought to ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠩᠨᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ , ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ 11th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠯᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ Gregory VII ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ Henry IV, , ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠪᠤᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠷᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ simony. ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠵᠥᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ , ᠬᠢᠷᠦᠭᠡ᠃ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠯᠣᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠩᠨᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ 1085 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ Henry IV's ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ᠂ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 1122 ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠭᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠰᠣᠶᠢᠪᠣᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠰᠠᠯᠤᠩᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠰᠠ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ emperors.[17] ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠣᠯᠭᠣᠬᠤ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠤ?, ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠮᠵᠢ , ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠤ?. ᠳᠢᠶᠠᠨᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦᠷᠬᠡᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠢᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠫᠠᠷᠢᠰᠢ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠵᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠢᠶᠠᠨᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠷᠡᠴᠡᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠠ laypeople ᠍ ᠦᠨ , ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠷᠬᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠰᠤ ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢᠪᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠡᠷᠰᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ᠂ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ fashioning ᠍ ᠳᠦ 12th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ cannot ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ , ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠣᠬᠠᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠰᠦᠷᠴᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ Waldensians ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ Humiliati ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠳᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ᠂ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠤ , ᠲᠡᠳᠡ theFranciscans ᠍ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠮᠢᠨᠢᠺᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ 13th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ (the Franciscan ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?, ᠪᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠮᠢᠨᠢᠺᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ sermon) ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠦᠯᠡᠯ welling ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ , ᠴᠢᠷᠮᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ᠂ , ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠮ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ , ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ

ᠬᠠᠩᠪᠤ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠠᠳᠢᠰᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ 1370s ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ Louis ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Louis ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠯᠢᠲ᠋ᠪᠠc ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠺᠠᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠮᠰᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠬᠤ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ᠂ , ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠥᠯᠥᠰᠬᠦᠯᠡᠩ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠩ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠦ?, 1315-1317.[26] ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠥᠯᠥᠰᠬᠦᠯᠡᠩ , ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ 95 famines ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠨᠠᠯᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ 75 ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠰ ᠠᠮᠰᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠢᠵᠢᠯᠬᠡᠨ period.[28] ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠰᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ mid-14th century.[29] ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠣᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠯᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ unworked ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠡᠨᠡᠳᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠨc ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠰᠥ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠪᠡᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠢᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠰᠥ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠨ broke out ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠨc , ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Louis ᠪᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ 1347 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠧᠠᠫᠣᠯᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠯ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠤᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ Louis ᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠬᠡᠨᠡᠷ᠂ , Margaret, ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Charles IV ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ , ᠥᠬᠢᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ᠂ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠴᠢᠨᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯᠴᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶᠡc ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ;ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠰᠢᠬᠢ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡᠳ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ theWestern ᠰᠠᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ᠂ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠭᠠᠩᠬᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠭᠰᠥᠭᠦᠷ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠡᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ , ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ nation-states, ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ , ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠪᠧᠷ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ (Aragon, Castile, Navarre ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠ Portugal). ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ᠂ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ , ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠵᠣᠳᠣᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ᠂ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ , ᠪᠡᠬᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ , ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠬᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ

ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠠᠯ Siena byAmbrogio Lorenzetti ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠳᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ 14th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠰᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠶᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠩ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠪᠴᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠨc ,, ᠵᠡᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠩ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ , ᠬᠥᠭᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠭ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ᠂ Philip IV ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ , undertaken, ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ Philip's ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ Philip ᠪᠠ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ (ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠰᠠᠭ VIII ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠩᠬᠢ groups.[17] ᠍ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠨ V ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ (ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠰᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ , ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠰᠤᠯᠠ᠂ Avignon ᠍ ᠳᠦ ,, , ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ᠃ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ,, ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ , ᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠬᠡᠢ᠂ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 14th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ , ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ Edward ᠪᠢ ᠤᠥᠯᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠠᠨᠯᠢᠭ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠰᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠱᠣᠲᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠤᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ , ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ , ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠪᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ aap ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠷᠢᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠪᠠᠳ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠷᠠᠯ , ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ 15th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠯᠣᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠰᠢᠬᠢ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ , ᠵᠦᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ᠃ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ 14th ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ 15th ᠵᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ , ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠦᠨᠡᠬᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ taxes ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠢᠭ , ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠤᠤ?, ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠂ , ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠦᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ 15th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ state.[30]By ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠨᠡᠨᠴᠢ ᠵᠠᠩ᠂ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ Louis XI ᠍ ᠦᠨ Henry VII ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ , ᠬᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ

15th-century ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ᠍ᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠮᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ Joan 1453 ᠍ ᠳᠦ 1337 ᠍ ᠪᠡᠨc ,, ᠵᠤᠤ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ 116 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠣᠳᠣᠯᠳᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?, ᠪᠠ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠪᠠᠨc ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ  ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ᠂ Calais ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ , ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ:ᠡᠳᠤᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ (1337–1360), Caroline ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ (1369–1389), Lancastrian ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ (1415–1429), ᠪᠠ ᠨᠤᠮᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ Joan ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ (1429–1453) ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠃ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠴᠢ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ᠂ , ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠬᠢᠷᠦᠭᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠹᠧᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠨᠣ᠋ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ , ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ , ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ᠂ , ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠠᠩᠳᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠪᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 14th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ 1305–1378 ᠍ ᠦᠨ Avignon ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠢᠷᠦᠭᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ , ᠪᠠᠰᠠ Jews) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠸᠠᠸᠢᠯᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠣᠯᠵᠡᠳ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ (a ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠸᠠᠸᠢᠯᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠣᠯᠵᠠ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠡᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠨᠣ᠋ ᠰᠠᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ 1418 ᠍ ᠳᠦ 1378 ᠍ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃11th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ , ᠰᠢᠳᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠳᠤᠯ᠂ 14th century.[17] ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ reformulated ᠪᠠ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ? ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠪᠯᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 15th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ᠂ , ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ Schism.[17] ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ 1417 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Constance ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ , ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠲᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠷᠦᠰᠳᠡᠯ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠭᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠲᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠠᠢ V. ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠪᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ , ᠰᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠦᠨᠡᠨᠴᠢ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠰᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠠᠢ Luther ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠭᠦᠶᠢᠴᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?, ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠲᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ Basilica ᠨᠣᠮ ᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠣᠮᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠨᠤᠴᠤᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠳᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ Luther ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ EmperorMaximilian ᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠩᠨᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠯᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ 1517 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠴᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ Lutheranism ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠱᠠᠵᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠂ , ᠺᠠᠯᠸᠢᠨᠢᠰᠮ᠂ , andAnabaptism, ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ , ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ

Europe in 1328 Europe in the 1430s Europe in the 1470s ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠷ

1456 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠧᠯᠷᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ Capistrano ᠪᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠣᠳᠣᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (1458-1490) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Matthias Corvinus. ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Bohemiaand ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠶᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠤᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ biggest ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ Empirein ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ 15th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠯ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠸᠢᠽᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠤᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠬᠠᠶᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠣᠳᠣᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ 1444 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Varna ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯ ᠵᠤᠯᠵᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Vladislaus ᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠭᠡᠨᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ Hunyadi ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ (1446–1453) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Hunyadi ᠫᠠᠫ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 15th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ (Pope Pius II ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ Athleta Christi ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠱᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ Christ) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Hunyadi ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ 1456 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠧᠯᠷᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ biggest ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ᠂ ᠪᠣᠬᠧᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠯᠠᠸᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠳ Capistrano ᠍ ᠦᠨ Franciscan ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ predicating ᠍ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠴᠠᠨ᠂ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠯᠣᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠵᠠᠮᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠨᠡᠬᠡᠷ ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠂ , Hunyadi's ᠬᠡᠦ᠂ , Matthias, ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?. ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ family) ᠍ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ (and ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (1458–1490) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Matthias Corvinus crowned.[32] ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠴᠤᠤᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠯᠪᠢᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Hussite ᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠲ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠤᠰᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠫᠠᠫ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠬᠧᠮᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠺᠠᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ Habsburg ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Frederick III ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ Matthew ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ (for ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ Austria) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠦᠨᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Matthew ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠬᠣᠨᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠰᠠᠩ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ , ᠠᠮᠤᠭᠤᠯᠠᠩ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ biggest ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠳᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠤ grew inᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ Matthew ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ , ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ᠃ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠢᠵᠢᠯᠬᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ , ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠣᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠠᠯᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ᠂ , ᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ᠂ , ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮᠴᠢᠳ᠂ , ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ᠂ , ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ , ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠤᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ largest ᠨᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?, 3000 ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ 1526 Mohács ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Louis II ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠬᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠨᠤᠬᠤᠴᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ , ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ᠃ ᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠲ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ left behind ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠪᠲᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠰ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ

ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ
Benedictines
Carthusians
Cistercians
ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ

ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ (Eastern Europe):

ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶᠡᠷ;ᠺᠷ ᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠣᠯᠠ;Rûm & ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ

ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ (Western Europe):

Al-Andalus;ᠰᠢᠼᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ

ᠢᠪᠡᠷᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ

ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠨᠣᠪᠴᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠦᠯ

14th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ L'Image du ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠯ (c ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 1246) ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ caricatured ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ superstition" ᠍ ᠤᠨ "time ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠰᠲᠠᠢ activity."[34] ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ "the ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ᠂ , ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ held in ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ "If ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠰᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠬᠤᠳ 18th century], ᠲᠡᠳᠡ [in ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠣᠯᠭᠣᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Edward ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢ , ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠬᠥᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ activities".[35] ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ made possible, , prep ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ᠂ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ "the ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ , David Lindberg ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ led".[36] ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ sciences) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ (particularly ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠣᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠯᠡᠨᠰᠦᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠲᠤᠩᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ᠂ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠣᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠡ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠮᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ 19th century[37][38] ᠪᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠰ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠹᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠺᠠᠳ᠋ᠷ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭ ᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ mistaken.[38][39] ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠢᠭ themedieval ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ , ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠦᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠣᠲᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ sphere.[40] Lindberg ᠪᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠬᠦ:"There ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ circumference".[41] [Earth's] ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠡᠨᠳᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ:"the ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠱᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ Ages" ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠵᠢᠰᠦᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ᠂ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ , "the ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ science" ᠰᠦᠢᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ "the ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ philosophy" ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠤᠬᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ , ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠨᠡᠮᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ resear ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ Ronald ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠦ?, ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ aap "Dark Age" ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠳᠠᠮᠨᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ДУНДАД ЗУУНЫ ҮЕИЙН ЕВРОПЫН ГАДААД БАЙДАЛ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ДУНДАД ЗУУНЫ ҮЕИЙН ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ (viz ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Mediterranean) ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠠ Africa ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤᠳᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠪᠠ Asia, ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ Hellenistic ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ: ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ

Umayyad ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠹ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Abbasid ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠹ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Turco-Mongols
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ
Ilkhanate
Timurid ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ
Mamluks
Seljuks
ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠪᠡᠯᠳᠡᠭ
ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳIndia ᠍ ᠦᠨ 
Bahmani ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ
Pala ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ
ᠳᠡᠯᠢ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ
"Medieval China":
ᠬᠤᠷᠴᠠ ᠦᠨᠦᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ
ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ
ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ
Ming ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ
ᠹᠧᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ:
Nara ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ
Heian ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ
Kamakura ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ
Muromachi ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ
ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ:Goryeo
ᠺᠬᠮᠧᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ

Africa ᠍ ᠳᠦ Sahelian ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠮᠲᠠᠷ

ᠰᠢᠪᠬᠠᠳᠠᠰᠤ Bloch (1886–1944, , French) —France, , ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ;Annales ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ
ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ Boswell (1947–1994)—Homosexuality
Norman ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠴᠣᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ (1930–2004)—historiography
Georges Duby (1924–1996)—France;Annales ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ
François-Louis Ganshof (1895–1980)—Dutch
Johan Huizinga
Jacques Le Goff—French, , Annales ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ
Charles ᠰᠢᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ Haskins (1870–1937), , Normans
Rev. F. X. ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠠᠢ -Ireland
Rosamond McKitterick—Frankish ᠪᠠ Carolingian ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ

Henri Pirenne (1862–1935)—the "Pirenne Thesis" ᠸᠠᠷᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠳᠠ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠣᠬᠣᠬᠢᠭᠤᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ

Eileen ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ
Sidney ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ
Régine Pernoud (1909–1998)
Placido Puccinelli (1609–1685)—Italy
Miri Rubin—religion
Stephen Runciman (1903–2000)—the ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ
ᠮᠥᠷᠳᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠳ (1912–2001)—religion
ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ Tolan--Jewish-Christian-Muslim ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
James Westfall Thompson (1869–1941)

ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ George Sarton Edward Grant David C. Lindberg Ronald Numbers

Chroniclers

Nestor the Chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth Geraldis Cambrensis ᠭᠠᠯᠧᠷᠧᠢ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠰᠬᠦᠯᠡᠩ

ᠢᠯᠡ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠴᠠᠭ᠂ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠠ ᠰᠠᠺᠰᠣᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ 8th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ

Drogon ᠍ ᠦᠨ Sacramentary ᠍ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠪᠦᠷᠢ

ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡc ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠧᠳᠠᠯᠢᠶᠣᠨ ᠵᠢᠶᠠᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠭ


Autun ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠵᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠰᠦᠷ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠨ typanum 12th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ