ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
中华人民共和国
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ:
ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 《义勇军进行曲》
«ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤ»
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩ (1880 ᠲᠦᠮᠡ)
ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠱᠠᠩᠬᠠᠢ (2230 ᠲᠦᠮᠡ)
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ (ᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ)
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ 简体字 (1956 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ)
繁体字 (ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ)
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ 
(2010 ᠤᠨ)
ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ
91.65% – ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
1.30% – ᠵᠤᠸᠠᠩ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
7.05% – ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ
 -  ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠰᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠫᠢᠩ (2012)
 -  ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠯᠢ ᠺᠸ ᠴᠢᠶᠠᠩ (2013)
 -  ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ «ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ
» (ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ)
ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 221 ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 
 -  1912-01-01 ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠪᠠ 
 -  1949-10-01 ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ
 -  ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ 9,640,821 km2 (3)
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 2.8
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (2012) 1,350,695,000 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ [1] (1)
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (2010) 1,339,724,852 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ [2] (1)
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ 144 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km2 
GDP (ХАЧТ) 2013 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $13.374 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠤᠳ [3] ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ 2  ᠳᠦ
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $9,828 [3] ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ92 ᠳᠦ
GDP (ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) 2013 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $8.939 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠤᠳ [3]  ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ2 ᠳᠦ
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $6,569 [3] ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ87]])
Gini (2012) 47.4 [4] (ᠶᠡᠬᠡ
ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠧᠺᠰ (2012) 0.699 [5] (ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ) (101)
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ (¥) (CNY)
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ (GMT+8)
ᠳ᠋ᠦᠮᠠᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ .cn .中國 .中国
ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ +86 / CN, CHN / ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ

ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ 960 ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠲᠤᠷ᠎ ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠵᠦ᠂ 3 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠰᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠨᠢ 13 ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠤᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠭᠤᠤᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ 1949 ᠤᠨ ᠤ 10 ᠍ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 ᠤ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ  ᠨᠢ 960 ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠮ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤᠷ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠢᠮᠠᠯᠢᠶ ᠠᠺᠠᠷᠠᠺᠣᠷᠣᠮᠫᠠᠮᠢᠷᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠦᠢᠯᠢᠨᠬᠥᠬᠡᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠺᠠᠨᠭᠣᠪᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠣᠪᠢ ᠴᠥᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠤᠯ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠵᠦᠪ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ᠂ ᠸᠢᠶᠧᠲ᠋ᠨᠠᠮᠯᠠᠤᠤᠪᠢᠷᠮᠪᠤᠲᠤᠩᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠨᠢᠫᠸᠯᠫᠠᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠠᠹᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠲᠠᠵᠢᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠬᠢᠷᠭᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠲᠠᠨᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠷᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠲᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ 14 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠣ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠃ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ GDP ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ 5 ᠱᠠᠲᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠳᠦ 23 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ᠂ 5 ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠂ 4 ᠲᠥᠪ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ᠂ 2 ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ  ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 13 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩ ᠳᠤ 1800 ᠲᠦᠮᠡ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠱᠠᠩᠬᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ 2300 ᠲᠦᠮᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

 ᠨᠡᠷ ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ 中国 (ᠵᠤᠢᠩ ᠭᠦᠧᠸ) ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ "ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠵᠤᠢᠩ ("ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ") ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠩᠭᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠩ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (1911-1945) ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠭᠦᠧᠸ' ("ᠤᠯᠤᠰ") ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠵᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠨᠠᠩᠭᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠶᠢᠳᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠩᠭᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠷᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠩᠭᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠᠯ ᠵᠦᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠲ᠋ᠦᠩᠬᠦᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠠᠤ ᠽᠸ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ 1949 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

5000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ 1279 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠂ 1368 ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠮᠢᠩ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1644 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠦᠬᠦᠵᠤ᠂ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ  ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠴᠢᠩ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠩ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ (1840-1842) ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠨᠴᠥᠭ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠩ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ 1911 ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠩ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠵᠦ᠂ 1912 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃[6] ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠣ ᠨᠠᠮ 1949 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ ᠠ᠃

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠠᠤ ᠽᠸ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ (1949-1978) ᠳᠦ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠵᠢᠷᠦᠮᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠰᠲᠸᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠦᠰᠦᠷᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠠᠢ᠃ 1976 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠣ ᠽᠸ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠬᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠤᠸᠠ ᠭᠦᠸ ᠹᠸᠩ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠸᠩ ᠰᠢᠶᠤᠤ ᠫᠢᠩ  ᠲᠦᠷᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠳᠬᠤᠵᠤ (1978-) ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠠᠯᠬᠤᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠬᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠬᠥᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠨ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ "ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ  ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

1997 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩᠭᠠᠩ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ 1999 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤᠮᠸᠨᠨ ᠨᠢ "ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠶᠢᠴᠡ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃

ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠲᠠ᠂ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠦᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ᠂ ᠬᠤᠲᠠ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠂ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠂ ᠰᠤᠮᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠋ ᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ 5 ᠱᠠᠲᠤ᠂ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠤᠭᠡᠷ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ 34 ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ 22 ᠨᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ᠂ 5 ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ (ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ)᠂ 4 ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ᠂ 2 ᠨᠢ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ (ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩᠭᠠᠩᠤᠤᠮᠸᠨᠨ) ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠵᠣ ᠪᠣᠢ᠃

ᠵᠦᠭ ᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ I ᠳᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ
 ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ (км²) ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ (2010)  ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ
ᠮᠤᠵᠢ (省) —
1 ᠠᠨᠾᠦ᠋ᠢ ᠠᠨᠾᠦ᠋ᠢ 安徽 139,700 59,500,510 ᠾᠸᠹᠸᠢ
2 ᠭᠠᠨᠰᠤ ᠭᠠᠨᠰᠤ 甘肃 454,300 25,575,254 ᠯᠠᠨᠵᠸᠤ
3 ᠭᠢᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠢᠷᠢᠨ 吉林 187,400 27,462,297 ᠴᠠᠩᠴᠦ᠋ᠨ
4 ᠭᠤᠸᠠᠩᠳᠦ᠋ᠩ ᠭᠤᠸᠠᠩᠳᠦ᠋ᠩ 广东 180,000 104,303,132 ᠭᠤᠸᠠᠩᠵᠸᠦ
5 ᠭᠦᠢᠵᠸᠦ ᠭᠦᠢᠵᠸᠦ 贵州 176,000 34,746,468 ᠭᠦᠶᠢᠶᠠᠩ
6 ᠵᠸᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠵᠸᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ 浙江 102,000 54,426,891 ᠬᠠᠩᠵᠸᠦ
7 ᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩᠰᠤ ᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩᠰᠦ 江苏 102,600 78,659,903 ᠨᠠᠨᠵᠢᠩ
8 ᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩᠰᠢ ᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩᠰᠢ 江西 167,000 44,567,475 ᠨᠠᠨᠴᠠᠩ
9 ᠯᠢᠶᠤᠤᠨᠢᠩ ᠯᠢᠶᠤᠤᠨᠢᠩ 辽宁 145,900 43,746,323 ᠮᠦᠭᠳᠡᠨ
10 ᠰᠸᠴᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠰᠸᠴᠤᠸᠠᠨ 四川 485,000 80,418,200 ᠴᠸᠩᠳᠤᠤ᠋
11 ᠹᠦᠵᠢᠨᠢ ᠹᠦᠵᠢᠶᠠᠨ 福建 121,300 36,894,216 ᠹᠦᠵᠸᠦ
12 ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠨᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠨᠠᠨ 海南 34,000 8,671,518 ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠺᠡᠤ᠋
13 ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠦ᠋ᠷᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠦ᠋ᠷᠡᠨ 黑龙江 454,000 38,312,224 ᠬᠠᠷᠪᠢᠨ
14 ᠾᠸᠪᠸᠢ ᠾᠸᠪᠸᠢ 河北 187,700 71,854,202 ᠱᠢ ᠵᠢᠶᠠ ᠵᠤᠸᠠᠩ
15 ᠾᠸᠨᠠᠨ ᠾᠸᠨᠠᠨ 河南 167,000 94,023,567 ᠵᠸᠩᠵᠸᠦ
16 ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ 青海 721,200 5,626,722 ᠰᠢᠨᠢᠩ
17 ᠬᠤᠪᠸᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠸᠢ 湖北 185,900 57,237,740 ᠦᠬᠠᠨ
18 ᠬᠤᠨᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠨᠠᠨ 湖南 210,000 65,683,722 ᠴᠠᠩᠱᠠ
19 ᠱᠠᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠩ ᠱᠠᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠩ 山东 153,800 95,793,065 ᠵᠢᠨᠠᠨ
20 ᠱᠠᠨ ᠰᠢ ᠱᠠᠨ ᠰᠢ 山西 156,300 35,712,111 ᠲᠠᠢᠢᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ
21 ᠱᠠᠨᠰᠢ ᠱᠠᠨᠰᠢ 陕西 205,600 37,327,378 ᠰᠢ ᠠᠨ
22 ᠶᠦᠨᠨᠠᠨ ᠶᠦᠨᠨᠠᠨ 云南 394,000 45,966,239 ᠺᠦᠨᠮᠢᠩ
ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ (自治区) —
23 ᠭᠤᠸᠠᠩᠰᠢ ᠭᠤᠸᠠᠩᠰᠢ 广西 236,000 46,026,629 ᠨᠠᠨᠨᠢᠩ
24 ᠨᠢᠩᠱᠢᠶᠠ ᠨᠢᠩᠰᠢᠶᠠ 宁夏 66,400 6,301,350 ᠢᠨᠴᠤᠸᠠᠨ
25 ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ 內蒙古 1,183,000 24,706,321 ᠬᠦᠬᠡᠬᠤᠲᠠ
26 ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠲᠦᠪᠡᠳ 西藏 1,228,400 3,002,166 ᡀᠠᠰᠠ
27 ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ 新疆 1,660,400 21,813,334 ᠥᠷᠦᠮᠴᠢ
ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ (特别行政区) —
28 ᠤᠤᠮᠸᠨᠨ 澳门 29 552,300 ᠤᠤᠮᠸᠨᠨ
29 ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩᠭᠠᠩ 香港 1,104 7,061,200 ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩᠭᠠᠩ
ᠲᠥᠪ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ (直辖市) —
30 ᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩ ᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩ 北京 16,800 19,612,368 ᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩ
31 ᠲᠢᠶᠠᠨᠵᠢᠨ ᠲᠢᠶᠠᠨᠵᠢᠨ 天津 11,305 12,938,224 ᠲᠢᠶᠠᠨᠵᠢᠨ
32 ᠴᠦᠩᠴᠢᠩ 重庆 82,300 28,846,170 ᠴᠦᠩᠴᠢᠩ
33 ᠱᠠᠩᠬᠠᠢ ᠱᠠᠩᠬᠠᠢ 上海 6,341 23,019,148 ᠱᠠᠩᠬᠠᠢ

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ  ᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ᠂ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 960 ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 21.9% ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 180 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ᠂ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ 3 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ 22000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ 15 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠸᠢᠶᠧᠲ᠋ᠨᠠᠮᠯᠠᠤᠤᠮᠢᠶᠠᠭ᠍ᠮᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠥᠷᠰᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠪᠤᠲᠤᠩᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠᠫᠠᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠲᠠᠵᠢᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠭᠢᠷᠭᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ 18000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠠᠯᠤᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠬᠤᠯᠠᠩ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠧᠢ ᠯᠦᠩ ᠡᠾᠸ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠬᠤᠯᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ᠂ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠹᠢᠯᠢᠫᠫᠢᠨᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠋ᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠪᠷᠦᠨᠧᠢᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠯᠤᠰᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠦᠵᠦᠭᠦᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ 53.31 ᠭᠷᠠᠳᠦᠶᠰ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠮᠦᠸᠡᠾᠸ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠦᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ 4.15 ᠭᠷᠠᠳᠦᠶᠰ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠨᠱᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠯᠳᠤᠷᠢᠭ (南沙群岛) ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠸᠩ ᠮᠦ ᠠᠨ ᠱᠠ (曾母暗沙)  ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠤᠶᠢᠨ᠎ ᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ 50 ᠭᠷᠠᠳᠦᠶᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ 5500 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠦᠷᠡᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠰᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠥ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠤᠴᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ 73.40 ᠭᠷᠠᠳᠦᠶᠰ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠫᠠᠮᠢᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠦᠽᠡᠪᠸᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ 135 ᠭᠷᠠᠳᠦᠶᠰ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠰᠰᠦᠷᠢ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠦᠷᠡᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠮ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠸᠧᠬᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠩᠭᠢᠰᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤᠭᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ 490 ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠂ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 33% ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ᠂ 26% ᠨᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭ᠂ 9.9% ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠪᠣᠷᠬᠠᠭ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠂ 18.8% ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ᠂ 12% ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠶᠢᠨᠱᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠴᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠴᠠᠩ ᠪᠠᠢ ᠱᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨᠠᠨᠯᠢᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠᠲᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠩᠱᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠦᠱᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠱᠢᠤᠸ ᠹᠸᠩ ᠱᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠴᠢᠯᠢᠶᠠᠨᠱᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯᠢᠦ ᠫᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠾᠢᠮᠠᠯᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ 5 ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠱᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠾᠸᠢ ᠱᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠸᠠᠩᠱᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠾᠸᠩ ᠱᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠽᠦᠩᠱᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 4000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ 2500000 ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ 1/4 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠰᠥᠳᠦ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭᠶᠦᠨᠨᠠᠨ ᠭᠦᠶᠵᠧᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠪᠠᠯ 430000 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠮᠥ᠋ᠷᠡᠨᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠮᠥ᠋ᠷᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 3 ᠍ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ 6380 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ᠂ ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠮᠥ᠋ᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠰᠤ  ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠯᠪᠡᠭ ᠳᠡᠯᠪᠡᠭ᠂ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ 40% ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ 2000 ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ᠂ 3 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ 2 ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ 5464 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ᠂ ᠰᠸᠴᠦᠸᠠᠨᠭᠠᠨᠰᠤᠨᠢᠩᠱᠢᠶᠠᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠱᠠᠨᠱᠢᠱᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠾᠸᠨᠠᠨᠱᠠᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠩ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ 9 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠤ ᠪᠦᠸᠧᠬᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠬᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠮᠥ᠋ᠷᠡᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩ-ᠬᠠᠩᠵᠧᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩ-ᠬᠠᠩᠵᠧᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ 605-604 ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠦᠢ ᠶᠠᠨᠳᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ ᠯᠦᠸᠡᠶᠠᠩ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠰᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠩᠵᠧᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ᠂ 1794 ᠺᠢᠯᠤᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩᠲᠢᠶᠠᠨᠵᠢᠨᠾᠸᠪᠸᠢᠱᠠᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠩᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩᠰᠤᠵᠸᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠤ᠂ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠾᠸ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠬᠤᠸᠠᠶᠢᠾᠸ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠬᠥᠬᠡᠮᠥ᠋ᠷᠡᠨᠴᠠᠩ ᠲᠠᠩ ᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ 5 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠳᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠴᠥᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

 ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠤᠵᠢ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠵᠦᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (1953-2010)[7]
 ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ  %±

1953 582,603,417
1964 694,581,759 19.2%
1982 1,008,175,288 45.1%
1990 1,133,682,501 12.4%
2000 1,265,830,000 11.7%
2010 1,339,724,852 5.8%

ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ᠂ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ 2010 ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1,370,536,875 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 16.6% ᠨᠢ 15 ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ᠂ 70.1% ᠨᠢ 15-60 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ᠂ 13.3% ᠨᠢ 60 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠢ 0.46% ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[8] ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 73.18 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ 1979 ᠤᠨ ᠤ «ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ» ᠍ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ 105/100 ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠶᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 2010 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷ 118/100 ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ [9] 2013 ᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠡᠨᠡᠷ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃[10]

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠳᠲᠦᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠵᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ ᠠ᠃ 1990 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ 20% ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ 2007 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ 46% ᠪᠣᠯᠴᠢᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ ᠠ᠃[11] ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ 160 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠱᠠᠩᠬᠠᠢᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩᠲᠢᠶᠠᠨᠵᠢᠨᠭᠤᠸᠠᠩᠵᠸᠦᠱᠸᠨᠵᠸᠨᠴᠦᠩᠴᠢᠩᠦᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠴᠢᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[12] ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠭᠤᠸᠠᠨᠴᠸᠩᠳᠤ᠋ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩᠭᠠᠩᠨᠠᠨᠵᠢᠩᠱᠸᠨᠶᠠᠩ (ᠮᠦᠭᠳᠡᠨ)᠂ ᠬᠠᠩᠵᠸᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ 2.2 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃[13]

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ 45.6% ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 93.9% ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩ-ᠱᠠᠩᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠴᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ᠂ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩᠭᠠᠩ-ᠭᠤᠸᠠᠩᠵᠸᠦ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠭᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ᠂ 2.2 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km2 ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ᠂ ᠶᠠᠰᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ 56 ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 91.51 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠩᠬᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ ᠠ᠃ 70% ᠨᠢ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ (ᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ)᠂ [14] ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ(吴语) (ᠱᠠᠩᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ)᠂ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ (粤语)(ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩᠭᠠᠩ᠂ ᠭᠤᠸᠠᠩᠳᠤᠩ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃

ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 8.49% ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ 2010 ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 1690 ᠲᠦᠮᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠤᠸᠠᠩ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ᠂ 1050 ᠲᠦᠮᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠣᠩ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ᠂ 1030 ᠲᠦᠮᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ᠂ 100 ᠲᠦᠮᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ᠂ 940 ᠲᠦᠮᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠢᠶᠣᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ᠂ 870 ᠲᠦᠮᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ᠂ 3 ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠯᠣᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨᠲᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠷ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ ᠠ᠃[15] ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠥᠩᠽᠢᠪᠣᠮᠪᠣᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ "ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ" ᠍ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠳᠡᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[16] ᠬᠣᠲᠣᠩ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠺᠠᠳᠠᠢ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠯᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠴᠠᠰᠤ ᠭᠣᠶᠣᠯ᠂ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠵᠠᠩᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠠᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠯᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠪᠢᠷᠮᠠ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ-ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ-ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ НЮНЕСКО ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪ 22᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪ 4᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠥᠪ 4 ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1). National Bureau of Statistics of China (28 April 2011).
  2. Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census. Stats.gov.cn. 1 November 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 World Economic Outlook Database: China. International Monetary Fund (October 2013 data).
  4. "Income inequality: Delta blues", The Economist, 23 January 2013 
  5. 2013 Human Development Index and its components – Statistics (PDF). UNDP (2013).
  6. ᠺᠦᠽᠢᠮᠢᠨ ᠰ᠂ ᠯ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠦᠪᠡᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠩᠨᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ᠃ 2011. ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ
  7. ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ
  8. [1]
  9. "The odds that you will give birth to a boy or girl depend on where in the world you live".
  10. "China formalizes easing of one-child policy"
  11. "Preparing for China's urban billion"
  12. "China's mega city: the country's existing mega cities".
  13. "China Now Has More Than 260 Million Migrant Workers Whose Average Monthly Salary Is 2,290 Yuan ($374.09)"
  14. "China: 400 Million Cannot Speak Mandarin"
  15. "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1)"
  16. Chinese Religion: A Contextual Approach


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