ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ
WW2Montage.PNG
ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ:
  • ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠴᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ;
  • ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ;
  • ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ;
  • ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ;
  • ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠧᠷᠯᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ;
  • ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠤᠩᠪᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1939 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 – 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 2
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ
ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ᠃ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)</br> Flag of France.svg ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ</br>Flag of the Soviet Union.svg ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ</br>US flag 48 stars.svg ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ</br>Flag of the Republic of China.svg ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ</br>ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ Flag of Germany 1933.svg ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ</br>Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ</br>Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ</br>ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ
ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg ᠤᠢᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠴᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠯ</br> Flag of France.svg ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠧ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯ</br>Flag of the Soviet Union.svg ᠢᠣᠰᠢᠹ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠨ</br>US flag 48 stars.svg ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠺᠯᠢᠨ ᠷᠦᠽᠸᠧᠯ ᠳᠦ</br>Flag of the Republic of China.svg ᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠵᠢᠶᠸ ᠱᠢ</br>ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ Flag of Germany 1933.svg ᠾᠸᠲᠯᠠᠷ</br>Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg ᠪᠧᠨᠢᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠮᠥᠰᠰᠣᠯᠢᠨᠢ</br>Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠵᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠳᠡᠺᠢ</br>ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ
ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ
ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ:
ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ 14,000,000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ
ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ:
ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ 36,000,000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ:
50,000,000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ
ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ:
ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ 8,000,000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ
ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ:
ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ 4,000,000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ
ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ 12,000,000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ [1] ᠨᠢ 1939-1945 ᠬᠣᠭᠤᠷᠤᠨᠳᠤ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠮᠰᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ[2]᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠮᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ 2 ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ︵同盟国︶ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠬᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ︵轴心国︶ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ 61 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 80% ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠮ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ᠂ 110 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ (1 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ = 100 ᠲᠦᠮᠡ) ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ 60 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠦᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 2.5% ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ[3]᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ 1939 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 ᠳᠦ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠫᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ︵波兰︶ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ 1939 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ 1941 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠩᠬᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠣᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃1941 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠬᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ᠂ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 1941 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 12 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠩᠬᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ 1942 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠬᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠩᠷᠠᠳ᠋ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃1943 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠹᠠᠱᠢᠰᠲ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠬᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠹᠷᠤᠨᠲ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃1944 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠧᠷᠯᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢ(ᠫᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋) ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ︵无条件的︶ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 5 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 9 ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠹᠯᠣᠲ ︵舰队︶ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 15 ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨᠨᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠸᠧᠷᠰᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ[4]᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

1917 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠠᠬᠠᠯ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠪᠠ᠃ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠪᠧᠨᠢᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠮᠥᠰᠰᠣᠯᠢᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ "ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠪᠠ[5]᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠤᠮᠢᠨᠳᠠᠩ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠣ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ ᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1931 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠣᠲᠤᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠪᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠪᠡ[6]

ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ᠂ 1935

ᠠᠳᠣᠯᠢᠹ ᠾᠸᠲᠯᠠᠷ 1933 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[7]ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠭᠰᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ 1935 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ-ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠲ᠋ᠢᠣᠫᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ[8]᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠸᠧᠷᠰᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ᠂ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ᠂ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠰᠲᠷᠧᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠯᠪᠤᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[9][10]᠃ 1935 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠷᠯᠣᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ᠃ 1935 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ (中立)  ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠪᠠ[11]᠃ 10 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠡᠲ᠋ᠣᠫᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠴᠤᠴᠠᠯᠪᠠ[12]

1936 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 3 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠢᠲ᠋ᠯᠧᠷ ᠸᠧᠷᠰᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ[13]ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠺᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ (ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠼᠢᠰᠲ) ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ᠂ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ(战术) ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠵᠠᠢ[14]᠃ 1939 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠺᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠪᠠ᠃

1939 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 10 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ᠂ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ "ᠷᠤᠮᠠ-ᠪᠧᠷᠯᠢᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠬᠡᠯᠢᠭ" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠮᠤᠶᠢᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠣᠮᠢᠨᠳᠠᠩ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠣ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠹᠷᠣᠨᠲ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ[15]

ᠴᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ 1939 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠫᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠤᠪᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ 2 ᠬᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ 1937 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 7 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 7 ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ 1941 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 2 ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ14 ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 5 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 8 ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ 1951 ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠶᠢᠮᠣ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠢᠲ᠋ᠯᠧᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠥᠰᠰᠣᠯᠢᠨᠢ

1939 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠠᠳᠣᠯᠢᠹ ᠭᠢᠲ᠋ᠯᠧᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠠᠼᠢᠰᠲ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠫᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ 9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 17 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ]][16]᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠸᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲᠤ᠋ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 3 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ[17]᠃ ᠣᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ (9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 6 ᠍ ᠳᠦ) ᠪᠠ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ (9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 10 ᠍ ᠳᠦ) ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠪᠠ᠃ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ 《ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ》 ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ(战术) ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠫᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠬᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠫᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠠᠯᠲ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠪᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠹᠢᠨᠯᠶᠠᠨᠳ᠋ 4 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠮᠣᠰᠺᠸᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ[18]᠃ 1940 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠯᠲ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠ[19]᠃ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ 1940 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠷᠸᠸᠢᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ᠪᠧᠯᠬᠢᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠍ ᠢ᠂ 1941 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠣᠭᠣᠰᠯᠠᠪᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠢ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ[20][21]᠃ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ᠂ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ[22]᠃ 1941 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠷᠯᠣᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ[23][24]

ᠾᠸᠲᠯᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ 1941 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 22 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠪᠠᠷᠪᠠᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠡ》 ᠍ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠭᠡᠨᠡᠳᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠭᠦᠨᠵᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ᠂ 1941 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠣᠰᠺᠸᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠪᠠ[25]᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠣ (伪满洲国) ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤᠮᠣᠰᠺᠸᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ[26]ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠩᠷᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ (19421943) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠨ[27], ᠺᠦᠷᠰᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠲᠠ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠨ᠂ ᠯᠧᠨᠢᠩᠷᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠡᠲᠡᠯᠪᠡ[28]᠃ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠤᠬᠤᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠸᠧᠷᠮᠠᠾᠲ ᠢ ᠪᠧᠷᠯᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠧᠷᠯᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠾᠸᠲᠯᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 4 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 30 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠬᠡᠨᠡᠷ ᠡᠪᠠ ᠪᠷᠠᠤᠨᠲᠠᠶ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠯᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢ 1940 ᠍ ᠡᠴᠡ 1943 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ 1943 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ[29]᠂ 1944 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠣᠷᠮᠠᠨᠳᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ 132,500 ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡ[30][31]᠃ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠷᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠲᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠤ ᠡᠯᠪᠠ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠪᠠ᠃

ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠳᠠ 6 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠪᠷᠠᠶᠢᠴᠤᠳᠽᠢᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ(吉卜赛人)ᠰᠯᠠᠸᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳᠺᠣᠮᠮᠤᠨᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠤᠤᠳᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠷ ᠳᠤᠲᠠᠭᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠨᠠᠼᠢᠰᠲ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠷᠲᠥᠵᠦ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1937 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 7 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 7 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ[32]᠃ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠺᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ(出口) ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 1940 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 27 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ᠂ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ 3 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠪᠠ᠃ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ᠂ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠴᠤᠳ 1941 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 7 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 24 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ-ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠣ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ[33]᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠺᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ(出口) ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠫᠷᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠪᠤᠷ]][34]ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩᠭᠠᠩᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠋ᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ[35]᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 1941 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 12 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 7 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠠᠰᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠹᠢᠯᠢᠫᠫᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 12 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 11 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ 2 ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ 12 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 15 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠷᠦᠨᠧᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠢᠷᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠮᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠪᠠ[36]

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠱᠢᠷᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ 1 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠹᠯᠣᠲ ᠢ ᠮᠡ ᠳᠦᠶᠢᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ  ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠲᠠ ᠴᠤᠬᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠹᠯᠣᠲ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ 4 ᠰᠢᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠪᠠ (ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ)᠃ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠮᠢᠯᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠮᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠤᠸᠠᠳᠯᠺᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ 《ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠦᠰᠦᠷᠬᠦ》 ᠲᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠷᠠᠪᠠᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠷᠯᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠴᠤᠳ 1944 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠹᠢᠯᠯᠢᠫᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠯᠧᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠮᠰᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨᠠ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠹᠢᠯᠯᠢᠫᠠᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠵᠤ[37], ᠸ-29 ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠪᠠ ᠵᠢᠮᠠᠤᠺᠢᠨᠠᠸᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠪᠠ[38]᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠤᠩᠪᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠷᠠᠭ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋᠂ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ[39]

1945 ᠣᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 6 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠰᠢᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ᠂ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 9 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠰᠠᠺᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠯᠪᠡᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 14 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠯ᠎ᠡ[40]

ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ[41] ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 10 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 24 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ[42]

ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ[43]᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[44]᠃ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠣ ᠪᠠ ᠺᠠᠫᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ(资本主义) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠪᠠ᠃ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠍ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ North Atlantic Treaty Organization(北约)᠂ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠸᠠᠷᠰᠸᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ(华约) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ[45]

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠭᠣᠮᠢᠨᠳᠠᠩ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠲᠤ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠺᠣᠮᠮᠤᠨᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠥᠩᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃

ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ 1950 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠲᠥᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ[46]᠃ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠵᠦ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ[47]ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[48][49]᠃ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠵᠦ᠂ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠵᠢᠵᠡᠢ[50]᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[51]᠃ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠵᠢᠨ᠂ 1980 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[52]᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1953 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠲᠥᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[53]᠃ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ᠂ 1970 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ[54]

ᠬᠣᠣᠷ ᠤᠷᠰᠢᠭ᠂ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠯᠠᠭᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ᠃ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠢ᠂ 1945

ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ 60 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ 20 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ᠂ 40 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ[55][56][57]᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 27 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠶᠢᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ[58]᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ 85% ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ (ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ)᠂ 15% ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠬᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠯᠠᠭᠧᠷ ︵集中营︶ ᠲᠦ 12 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ[59]᠂ 1.5 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ︵爆炸︶ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ 7 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ 7.5 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠵᠠᠢ[60]

ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠰᠦᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠣᠷ ᠬᠥᠨᠥᠭᠡᠯ᠂ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠲᠡᠩᠬᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ᠂ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ᠂ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠂ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ 4 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠮᠥᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. Official military histories in Commonwealth nations refer to the conflict as the Second World War, while the United States' official histories refer to the conflict as World War II. English translations of the official histories of other nations tend to resolve into English as Second World War also, for example Zweiter Weltkrieg in German. See C.P. Stacey Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War, for example. "Official" usage of these terms is giving way to popular usage and the two terms are becoming interchangeable even in formal military history.
  2. Hartmann, Frederick H. The relations of nations, pg. 312
  3. Dunnigan, James. Dirty Little Secrets of World War II: Military Information No One Told You About the Greatest, Most Terrible War in History, William Morrow & Company, 1994. ISBN 0-688-12235-3
  4. Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. 
  5. Shaw, Anthony. World War II Day by Day, pg. 35
  6. Myers, Ramon; Peattie, Mark. The Japanese Colonial Empire, 1895-1945, pg. 458
  7. Wouk, Herman. The Winds of War, pg. 72
  8. Brody, J. Kenneth. The Avoidable War: Pierre Laval and the Politics of Reality, 1935-1936, pg. 4
  9. Record, Jeffery. Appeasement Reconsidered: Investigating the Mythology of the 1930s, pg. 50
  10. Mandelbaum, Michael. The Fate of Nations: The Search for National Security in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, pg. 96
  11. Schmitz, David F. Henry L. Stimson: The First Wise Man, pg. 124
  12. Kitson, Alison. Germany 1858-1990: Hope, Terror, and Revival, pg. 231
  13. Adamthwaite, Anthony P. The Making of the Second World War, pg 52
  14. Graham, Helen. The Spanish Civil War: A Very Short Introduction, pg. 110
  15. Busky, Donald F. Communism in History and Theory: Asia, Africa, and the Americas, pg. 10
  16. Zaloga, Steven J. Poland 1939: The Birth of Blitzkrieg, pg. 80
  17. May, Ernest R. Strange Victory: Hitler's Conquest of France, pg. 93
  18. Hanhimäki, Jussi M. Containing Coexistence: America, Russia, and the "Finnish Solution", pg. 13
  19. Bilinsky, Yaroslav. Endgame in NATO's Enlargement: The Baltic States and Ukraine, pg. 9
  20. Commager, Henry Steele. The Story of the Second World War, pg. 30
  21. Reynolds, David. From World War to Cold War: Churchill, Roosevelt, and the International History of the 1940s, pgs. 76, 77
  22. Brown, David. The Road to Oran: Anglo-French Naval Relations, September 1939-July 1940, pg. xxx
  23. Kelly, Nigel; Rees, Rosemary; Shuter, Jane. Twentieth Century World, pg. 38
  24. Goldstein, Margaret J. World War II, pg. 35
  25. Shukman, Harold. Stalin's Generals, pg. 113
  26. Shukman, Harold. Stalin's Generals, pg. 113
  27. Badsey, Stephen. The Hutchinson Atlas of World War II Battle Plans: Before and After, pgs. 235-236
  28. Shukman, Harold. Stalin's Generals, pg. 142
  29. Lamb, Richard. War in Italy, 1943-1945: A Brutal Story, pgs. 154-155
  30. Zaloga, Steven J. US Armored Units in the North African and Italian Campaigns 19422-45, pg. 81
  31. Badsey, Stephen. Normandy 1944: Allied Landings and Breakout, pg. 91
  32. Twitchett, Denis; Fairbank, John K. The Cambridge history of China, pg. 566
  33. Hill, J. R.; Ranft, Bryan. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Royal Navy, pg. 362
  34. Thurman, M. J.; Sherman, Christine. War Crimes: Japan's World War II Atrocities, pg. 68
  35. Hill, J. R.; Ranft, Bryan. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Royal Navy, pg. 362
  36. Klam, Julie. The Rise of Japan and Pearl Harbor, pg. 27
  37. Cook, Chris; Bewes, Diccon. What Happened Where: A Guide to Places and Events in Twentieth-Century History, pg. 305
  38. Jowett, Philip S. The Japanese Army, 1931-45, pg. 6
  39. Poirier, Michel Thomas (1999-10-20). Results of the German and American Submarine Campaigns of World War II. U.S. Navy. 2008-04-13 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  40. Donnelly, Mark. Britain in the Second World War, pg. xiv
  41. Yoder, Amos. The Evolution of the United Nations System, pg. 39
  42. History of the UN
  43. Kantowicz, Edward R. Coming Apart, Coming Together, pg. 6
  44. A Constructed Peace: The Making of the European Settlement, 1945-1963, pg. 33
  45. Leffler, Melvyn P.; Painter, David S. Origins of the Cold War: An International History, pg. 318
  46. Dornbusch, Rudiger; Nölling, Wilhelm P.; Layard, Richard G. Postwar Economic Reconstruction and Lessons for the East Today, pg. 29
  47. Bull, Martin J.; Newell, James. Italian Politics: Adjustment Under Duress, pg. 21
  48. Dornbusch, Rudiger; Nölling, Wilhelm P.; Layard, Richard G. Postwar Economic Reconstruction and Lessons for the East Today, pg. 117
  49. Emadi-Coffin, Barbara. RethinkingInternational Organization: Deregulation and Global Governance, pg. 64
  50. Harrop, Martin. Power and Policy in Liberal Democracies, pg. 23
  51. Smith, Alan. Russia And the World Economy: Problems of Integration, pg. 32
  52. Harrop, Martin. Power and Policy in Liberal Democracies, pg. 49
  53. Harper, Damian. China, pg. 46
  54. Kunkel, John. America's Trade Policy Towards Japan: Demanding Results, pg. 33
  55. World War II: Combatants and Casualties (1937 — 1945). 2007-04-20 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  56. Source List and Detailed Death Tolls for the Twentieth Century Hemoclysm. 2007-04-20 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  57. World War II Fatalities. 2007-04-20 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  58. Leaders mourn Soviet wartime dead.
  59. Florida Center for Instructional Technology (2005). Victims. A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust. University of South Florida. 2008-02-02 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  60. J. M. Winter, "Demography of the War", in Dear and Foot, ed., Oxford Companion to World War, p 290.

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