ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨᠬᠥᠯᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ  ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠦ᠋ᠷᠡᠨᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ
ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠨᠡᠭᠴᠢ96,085 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ (1999 ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ )[1]
ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢ
ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ  (ᠠᠩᠭᠯ᠃)
ISO 639-3dta

ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠠᠩ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ 1999 ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 96000 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ᠂ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠂ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ᠂ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

 ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠣᠭᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ 1999 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 96᠂085 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ᠂ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ 72 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ 35᠂000 ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ᠂ 35᠂000 ᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠴᠢᠬᠠᠷ᠂ 15᠂500 ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠷ᠂ 4500 ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠢ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠠᠳ 24᠂300 ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠯᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ - ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠴᠢᠴᠢᠬᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠮᠥ᠋ᠷᠡᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠴᠢᠬᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠯᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ᠂ ᠢᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ - ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠴᠢᠩ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ᠂ ᠳᠡᠲᠡ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠳᠢᠭ ᠳᠠᠩᠰᠠ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ 20 ᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃[2]ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠬᠦ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ ᠦᠦ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

1920 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠴᠢ ᠮᠦᠷᠰᠧ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ «a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u w x y з» ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ 25 ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃[3] ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠢᠵᠢᠯᠢᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1956-1958 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ «Аа᠂ Бб᠂ Вв᠂ Гг᠂ Дд᠂ Ее᠂ Ёё, Жж᠂ Зз᠂ Ии᠂ Йй᠂ Кк᠂ Лл᠂ Мм᠂ Нн᠂ Оо᠂ Пп᠂ Рр, Сс, Тт᠂ Уу, Фф, Хх, Цц, Чч, Шш, ь, ы, ъ, Ээ, Юю, Яя» ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ 32 ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃[4] 1981 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ 55 ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ 1980 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠢ᠃[4]

ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ
a [a] ei [ei] iu [iu] m [m] n [n] ch [tʂh]
e [e] eu [əu] ua [ua] f [f] s [s] sh [ʂ]
i [ɪ] oi [oi] uaa [ual] v [v] l [l] y [j]
ie [je], [jə] ia [ia] uai [uai] w [w] r [r] g [g]
o [o] iaa [ial] ue [ue] d [d] q [ʧ] k [k]
u [u] iao [iau] ui [ui] t [t] j [ʤ] ng [ŋ]
ai [ai] io [io] b [b] z [ts] x [ʃ] h [x]
ao [au] ioo [iol] p [p] c [tsh] zh [tʂ]

ᠦᠭᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠦᠭᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠢᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠰᠡᠩᠭᠡ᠂ ᠴᠦᠮᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ 2003᠂ 2004 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ 50 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ᠂ 10 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ 10 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ᠂ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ᠂ ᠡᠸᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃[5][6]

ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ
1 Нэг(эн) ᠨᠢᠭᠡ Nyk
2 Хоёр ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ Xoyir
3 Гурав (гурван) ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ Gwarbyn
4 Дөрөв (дөрвөн) ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡ Durbun
5 Тав(ан) ᠲᠠᠪᠤ Taawyn
6 Зургаа(н) ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ Jirgoo
7 Долоо(н) ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ Doloo
8 Найм(ан) ᠨᠠᠢᠮᠠ Naimyn
9 Ес(өн) ᠶᠢᠰᠦ Isyn
10 Арав (арван) ᠠᠷᠪᠠ Xarbyn

ᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. Даурский язык на сайте Ethnologue
  2. http://www.dawoer.com/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=46385&extra=page%3D1
  3. Поппе Н. Н. Введение // Дагурское наречие Владимирцов Б. Я᠃. — Л.: Издательство Академии наук СССР᠂ 1930. — С᠃ 6-7. — 174 с. — (Материалы комиссии по исследованию Монгольской и Танну-Тувинской Народных Республик и Бурят-Монгольской АССР). — 1000 экз᠃
  4. 4.0 4.1 Minglang Zhou. Multilingualism in China: the politics of writing reforms for minority languages. Berlin, 2003. ISBN 3-11-017896-6
  5. Sengge (2004b): Daγur kelen-ü üges. In: Oyunčimeg 2004: 619.
  6. Tsumagari, Toshiro (2003): Dagur. In: Janhunen, Juha (ed.) (2003): The Mongolic languages. London: Routledge: 129-153.

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