ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
"ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠮᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ (ᠲᠩᠷᠢᠰᠮ᠂ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ; ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Tengrism᠂ Tengriism᠂ Tengrianism; ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠲᠧᠩᠷᠶᠠᠩᠰᠠᠳᠪᠠ; ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠪᠡᠷ Tengricilik) ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠳᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 1990 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠴᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ  ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠴᠤᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠾᠦᠩᠨᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠦᠨ 6-9 ᠍ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠤᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ [1]

ᠣᠳᠣ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦ᠋ᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠲᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠷ᠂ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ᠂ ᠭᠢᠷᠭᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠺᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠬᠡᠭᠡᠲᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠶᠠᠺ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠬᠠᠺᠠᠰ᠂ ᠲᠤᠸᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦ᠋ᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ᠎᠋ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃.[2]


ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠪᠶᠧᠺᠲ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠾᠦᠩᠨᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ[3]ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ Göktanrı dini ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ[4] ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ᠂ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠩᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠯᠠᠩ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠳᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠤᠩᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠨᠦ᠋ᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ᠂ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ᠂ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ᠂ ᠨᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠦᠰᠦᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠢᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠮᠣᠷᠢ᠂ ᠰᠦᠷ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ᠂ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠳᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠡᠮᠡᠯᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠨᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭᠳᠡᠯ

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠾᠦᠩᠨᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠸᠬᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠾᠦᠩᠨᠦ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠬᠠᠨ᠂ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Aspandiat ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠣᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Kuar ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠨᠠᠷᠠ᠃ ᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠪᠡ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠪᠡᠰᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠦᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ[5]᠃ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ: 《ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠳ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠱᠠᠨᠦᠢ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ Longchen ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ᠂ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠠᠳᠤᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠭᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Dailin ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ 》᠂ 《ᠾᠦᠩᠨᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠨᠦᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠵᠦ᠂ ᠰᠥᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ》 [6] ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠠᠴᠠ 2300 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠲᠡᠨᠡᠷᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠢᠷᠭᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠺ᠂ ᠰᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ (ᠶᠠᠺᠲᠤ᠋)᠂ ᠲᠤᠸᠠ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠂ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ[7]

ᠲᠦᠺ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠨᠠᠵᠠᠷ (Nazar)ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠂ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤᠨᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠴᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢᠩ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠦᠺ ᠲᠦ ᠢᠴᠢᠭᠦᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Yerin yedi kat altına girdim ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ[8]

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ᠂ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠵᠠᠩᠰᠢᠯ᠂ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠶᠢᠯ ᠥᠷᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠦ᠋᠂ ᠴᠠᠶ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠢᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢ ᠰᠠᠷᠬᠤᠳ ᠵᠣᠭᠣᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠵᠢᠮᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠣᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠣᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠣᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠨ ᠵᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1990 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠮᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠨ ᠵᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠤᠮ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ 《ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠨ》 ᠪᠣᠯ 1950 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ[9] ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ᠂ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠭ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 《ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠮ》[10] ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠾᠦᠩᠨᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 《ᠶᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠦᠭᠡᠯ》 ᠍ ᠳᠦ:

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠮᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠨ ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ
《ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ
ᠬᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ
ᠶᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠦᠨ ᠢ
ᠶᠢᠰᠦ ᠶᠢᠰᠦ ᠴᠠᠴᠤᠨᠠᠮ᠃
ᠡᠶᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠢᠵᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠰᠴᠤ

ᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠲᠦᠭᠡᠢ》 [11] ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠮᠵᠢᠲᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠯᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ᠂ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨᠴᠤ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ 840 ᠵᠢᠯ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 800 ᠵᠢᠯ᠂ ᠾᠦᠩᠨᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ 2220 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠪᠡ᠃ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ 《ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠤ ᠵᠠᠯᠢ ᠢᠪᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ》 ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠮᠦ᠋ᠩᠬᠡ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠩ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ:

《ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ (ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ) ᠴᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡ᠃

ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠ ᠮᠢᠨᠢ (ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ) ᠴᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡ》[12] ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠮᠨᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠢᠮᠧᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ Cuneiform sumer dingir.svg ТЭНГЭР ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 2400  ᠤᠨ
ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ТЭНГЭР ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ [13]

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ᠂ ᠠᠨᠢᠮᠢᠰᠮ᠂ ᠲᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨ᠋ᠲ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠾᠦᠩᠨᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠠᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠨᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠢ (Manichaeism) ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ[14]

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ-ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ-ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠢ 《ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ》 ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 13 ᠍ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ 14 ᠍ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠽᠡᠪᠸᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃  ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ 《ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ (ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ) ᠍ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭ (Believe that there is only one God)᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠵᠦ ᠦᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠣᠷ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠳᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ》᠃《ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠷᠬᠠᠪᠠ》 [15] ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠯᠢᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃  ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠳ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ 1368  ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ᠂ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠬᠤ᠂ ᠲᠤᠭ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ:

  • ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ᠃
  • ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ᠂ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ᠂ ᠲᠤᠭ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ [16]

1578  ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ: ᠲᠣᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢ 1434 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠮᠦ᠋ᠩᠬᠡ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠩ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ 1473 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠪᠣᠳᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ 1519 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠰᠦᠨ ᠭᠦᠳᠦᠩ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ 1548 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ-ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠵᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠣᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ [17] ᠪᠣᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠯᠢᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ 《ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ᠂ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ》[18]ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ: 《ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ》 ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 1203 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃[19]

1990  ᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ 1997  ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ Bizneng-Yul ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 2000 ᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠢᠷᠭᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠷᠨᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ [20]

ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠢ᠂ ᠰ᠂ ᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨᠸᠠ 《ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ》("Tengrianist Esoteric Traditions of Central Asia") ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠷᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[21]

ᠮᠠᠷᠺᠰᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ᠂ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠬᠥ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠢᠷᠭᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠴᠢᠳ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠢᠷᠭᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠯ ᠠᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠷᠰ ᠢᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ (Army of Tengri) ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ 500000 ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠭᠢᠭᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠵᠢ[22]

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠦᠯ᠂ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠲᠣᠪᠬᠢᠮᠠᠯ ᠭᠢᠷᠭᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠥᠱᠧᠸᠢᠴ ᠨᠠᠵᠠᠷᠪᠠᠸ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠢᠷᠭᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠺᠠᠷ ᠠᠺᠠᠸᠢᠴ ᠠᠺᠠᠸ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ 《ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ》 ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ  ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ 《ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ》 ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠬᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠫᠠᠩᠨᠢᠰᠦᠮ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠵᠢᠺᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠣᠰᠲᠷᠢᠰᠮ ᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠵᠢ[23]᠃ ᠲᠠᠰᠢᠷᠠᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ 《ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠰᠴᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠭᠡᠷ᠂ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ᠂ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠢᠷᠭᠢᠰ᠂ ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯ ᠡᠷᠡᠮᠡᠯᠵᠡᠯ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠮᠥᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠢᠪᠡᠷᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ(anti-Semitism) ᠬᠤᠯᠢᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯᠰᠢᠷᠠᠮᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠪᠠᠯ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ》 [24] ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃

2011 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 《ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ》 ᠦᠵᠡᠰᠬᠦᠯᠡᠩ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠡ᠃

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ 1990 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 1994 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠲᠦ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢᠴᠢ᠂ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠲ᠂ᠰᠣᠳᠨᠠᠮᠳᠠᠷᠭᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ[25] ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ [26] ᠯᠧᠺᠼ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 2004 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ ᠬᠣᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠭ᠂ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠺᠠᠳᠧᠮᠢ[27] ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ 2006 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 800 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ[28]᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠵᠢᠯ 《ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ》[29] ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠷᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠳᠬᠦᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ[30]ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠷᠣᠹᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ᠂ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠴᠢ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠪᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤ ᠵᠢᠳᠬᠦᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠣ᠂ᡀᠠᠭᠪᠠ[31] ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠰᠡᠬᠡᠭᠡᠲᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠮᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ ᠤᠤ᠃ 2011 ᠤᠨ ᠤ 11 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠮᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ 2220 ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ 805 ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ 100 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ 《ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ》 ᠦᠵᠡᠰᠬᠦᠯᠡᠩ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ[32] [33]᠃ 2012 ᠤᠨ ᠤ 2 ᠍ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ АН ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤ 40 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠴᠦ "ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ" ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠹᠷᠠᠺᠼᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ [34], 2012 ᠤᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠍ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ》 ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠬ᠂ ᡀᠠᠭᠸᠠᠰᠦ᠋ᠷᠦᠩ᠂ 《ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠷᠨᠠᠢ》 ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠰ᠊᠂ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠬᠤ᠂ 《ᠨᠣᠮᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠰᠲᠤ》 ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠲ᠊᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠮᠦ᠋ᠷᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ 《ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠮᠢᠨᠢ》 ᠴᠣᠮᠣᠭ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ[35]ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠬᠦ[36] ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠨᠡᠯᠲᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠲᠦ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢᠴᠢ ᠴᠤ᠊᠂ ᠵᠦᠭᠳᠡᠷᠡ: "ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠰ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ᠂ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠰ᠂ ᠳᠤᠯᠮ᠎ᠠ: ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠱᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠭᠢᠯ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠴᠤ "ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠮ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠲᠦᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠮ ᠬᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠳᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠥᠷᠨᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ ᠦᠨᠡᠬᠡᠷ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠠᠺᠠᠳᠧᠮᠢᠴᠢ ᠱ᠂ ᠪᠢᠷᠠ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠴᠢ᠂ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠣ᠂ ᡀᠠᠭᠪᠠ:"ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠬᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ᠂ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ" [37],"ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠯᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ 《ᠳᠠᠯᠳᠠ》 ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠴᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠴᠦ ᠲᠠᠩᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ᠂ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ- ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠤᠨᠳᠤᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ- ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠡᠢ"[38]"ᠭᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1990 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠨᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠭ᠂ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ "ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠨᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠢᠰᠲ ᠨᠣᠮᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠨᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠢᠰᠲ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢ ᠤᠬᠠᠮᠰᠠᠷ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ" [39] ᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠣᠲᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠴᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠽ᠂ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢᠪᠠᠲᠤ:"ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠪᠳᠡᠬᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠂ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠪᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠢ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠷᠢᠶᠡᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨᠠᠮ᠃ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠤᠯ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠣᠨᠣᠪᠴᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ ᠤᠤ᠃ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠵᠦ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠮᠠᠨᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ 'ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠵᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ!' ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨᠠᠮ᠃ ᠴᠤᠬᠤᠮ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠯ᠂ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ᠂ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠮᠥᠷᠳᠡᠪᠡᠰᠦ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ᠂ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ"[40] ᠭᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ/supreme God/ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ 《ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ》 ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠬᠢᠪᠡᠯ 《ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ》[41], 《ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠩᠨᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ》 ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠠ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠰᠤᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠮᠥᠷ᠂ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ᠂ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ 《ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠠᠩᠯᠠᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯ》 (《ᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠠᠩᠯᠠᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯ》)- ᠳ:
《ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ ᠬᠤᠲᠤᠭᠲᠠᠢ》 ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠷᠭᠡ
《ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ
ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠬᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ
ᠮᠣᠬᠣᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠲᠤ
ᠮᠤᠩᠳᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠳᠦ
ᠮᠣᠯᠣᠷ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠲᠦ
ᠳᠥᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠃
ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ᠃》 [42] ᠭᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠥᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ᠂ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷᠢᠨ᠂ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠪᠴᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  • ᠠᠯᠢᠪᠠ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠰ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠲᠠᠪᠢᠯᠠᠩ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠯᠢᠪᠠ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠳᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 《ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢ》 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ:
《ᠡᠷᠡᠮᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠡᠰᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠢ᠃
ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠢ᠃
ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠢ᠃
ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠢ᠃
ᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠢ᠃
ᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠷᠥᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ
ᠬᠠᠷᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠢ"》[43] ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃
  • ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠫᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠠᠷᠫᠢᠨᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ 《ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ (ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ) ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠳᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠯᠢᠪᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠳᠠᠭ》 [44]ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ: 《ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠵᠦ ᠦᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠪᠢᠯᠠᠩ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠳᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ᠂ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠤᠴᠢᠷᠲᠠᠢ》[45]ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠣᠲᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 《ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ》 ᠍ ᠳᠦ :
ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠡᠩᠬᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠯᠠᠯ
《ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠱᠣᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠴᠦ
ᠮᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ
ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠵᠦ
ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ
ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠴᠦ
ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ
ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠴᠤᠰ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢ
ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠡᠳᠬᠦᠨ ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠷᠬᠠᠲᠤᠭᠠᠢ》[46]ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠵᠢ᠂ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠯᠴᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ᠂ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ᠂ ᠲᠤᠭ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 《ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ》 ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ [47]
  • ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠨᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠮᠡᠭᠦᠰᠲᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ 《ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ》[48] ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠬᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠮᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠭᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠳᠣ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ 《ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠷᠭᠡ(ᠫᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠ) ᠍ ᠦ 10 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ 'ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ᠃ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠪᠴᠢᠯᠠᠲᠤᠭᠠᠢ'᠂ 'ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ᠃ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠮᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠮᠠᠢ'᠂ 'ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ ᠬᠤᠲᠤᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠤᠭᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠡᠨ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠦᠬᠦᠬᠦ'᠂ 'ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠯᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠤᠭᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠡᠨ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠬᠦᠬᠦ᠂ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ'᠂ 'ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ'᠂ 'ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠤ ᠵᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠪᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ'᠂ 'ᠠᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ (ᠠᠪᠤᠳᠤᠯᠯᠠ) ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠨ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠥᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠦᠬᠦᠬᠦ' ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠡᠢ》 [49]
  • ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠨᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠢᠪᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠳᠬᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠮᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠴᠦ ᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠵᠤ [50] ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠨᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠥᠨ᠃
  • ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠦ 《ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ》[51] ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠵᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 《ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠴᠢᠭ》 ᠍ ᠳᠦ:
"ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ
ᠲᠩᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠣᠯᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ
ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ
ᠲ᠍ᠡᠭᠷᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ
ᠰᠤᠤᠲᠤ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠲᠤ
ᠰᠤᠤ ᠵᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠲᠦ
ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭᠲᠦ
ᠰᠣᠯᠪᠢᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠲᠤ
ᠰᠤᠤᠲᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ》 [52] ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ 800 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠮ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ᠂ ᠰᠢᠯᠢᠭᠳᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠬᠠᠷᠬᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠳᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠦ᠂ ᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠲᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠣᠷ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠰᠤ᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠳᠬᠣᠨᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ

ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. The spelling Tengrism is found in the 1960s, e.g. Bergounioux (ed.), Primitive and prehistoric religions, Volume 140, Hawthorn Books, 1966, p. 80. Tengrianism is a reflection of the Russian term, ᠲᠧᠩᠷᠶᠠᠩᠰᠠᠳᠪᠠ. It is reported in 1996 ("so-called Tengrianism") in Shnirelʹman (ed.), Who gets the past?: competition for ancestors among non-Russian intellectuals in Russia,Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996, ISBN 978-0-8018-5221-3, p. 31 in the context of the nationalist rivalry over Bulgar legacy. The spellings Tengriism and Tengrianity are later, reported (deprecatingly, in scare quotes) in 2004 in Central Asiatic journal, vol. 48-49 (2004), p. 238. The Turkish term Tengricilik is also found from the 1990s. Mongolian ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ is used in a 1999 biography of Genghis Khan (Boldbaatar et. al, ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ 1162-1227, ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ, 1999, p. 18).
  2. "There is no doubt that between the 6th and 9th centuries Tengrism was the religion among the nomads of the steppes" Yazar András Róna-Tas, Hungarians and Europe in the early Middle Ages: an introduction to early Hungarian history, Yayıncı Central European University Press, 1999, ISBN 978-963-9116-48-1, p. 151.
  3. ᠭ᠃ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ "ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ" УБ 2005 ᠤᠨ
  4. http://books.google.com/books?id=CORMAAAAMAAJ&q=g%C3%B6k+tanr%C4%B1&dq=g%C3%B6k+tanr%C4%B1&hl=en&ei=RacDTe-QMsn84Aax45jYCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCYQ6AEwAA
  5. Róna-Tas, András. Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History. New York: Central European University Press, 1999. Pp. xiii, 550. ISBN: 9-639-11968-3.
  6. Si Ma Qian 《ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ》 ᠪᠣᠳᠢ 110 《 ᠾᠦᠩᠨᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮᠲᠠᠷ》
  7. Balkanlar'dan Uluğ Türkistan'a Türk halk inançlarıCilt 1, Yaşar Kalafat, Berikan, 2007
  8. http://www.gizemlikapi.com/hamilelik-ve-cocuk-bakimi/44160-bebek-kirklamasi-nedir-nasil-yapilir.html
  9. ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨᠵᠢᠷᠭᠠᠯ᠂ ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠯᠳᠠᠢ 《ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ》 ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠣᠪᠢ 1983 ᠤᠨ
  10. 《ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ》 ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠣᠪᠢ 1981 ᠤᠨ
  11. ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨᠵᠢᠷᠭᠠᠯ᠂ ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠯᠳᠠᠢ 《ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ》 ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠣᠪᠢ 1983 ᠤᠨ
  12. ᠯᠤᠪᠰᠠᠩᠳᠠᠨᠽᠠᠨᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ 《ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢ》
  13. Tekin, Talat (1993). Irk bitig (the book of omens). Otto Harrassowitz. ISBN 978-3-447-03426-5. 
  14. Buddhist studies review, Volumes 6-8, 1989, p. 164.
  15. 《Account of the Mongols. Diary of William Rubruck》᠂ Religious debate in court. Documented by W. Rubruck in May 31᠂ 1254
  16. ᠭ᠃ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ "МӨНХ ТЭНГЭРИЙН УЛАМЖЛАЛ ШИНЭЧЛЭЛ" http://munkhtenger.blog.gogo.mn/read/entry85771
  17. ᠯᠤᠪᠰᠠᠩᠳᠠᠨᠽᠠᠨ "ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠪᠠᠢ" ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠯᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ
  18. "ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ"-ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠤᠶᠠᠨᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠯᠣᠭ http://mongolianphilosophy.blog.banjig.net/post.php?post_id=85238
  19. "ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ" ᠵᠦᠢᠯ-172
  20. Marlene Laruelle "TENGRISM: IN SEARCH FOR CENTRAL ASIA’SPIRITUAL ROOTS" Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst, 22 March 2006
  21. Irina S. Urbanaeva (ᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨᠸᠠ ᠢ᠃ᠰ᠃), ᠱᠠᠮᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠢᠰᠺᠣᠭᠣ ᠮᠢᠷᠠ ᠺᠠᠺ ᠸ ᠤᠠᠵᠧᠨᠧ ᠲᠧᠩᠷᠶᠠᠨᠰᠺᠣᠢ ᠡᠵᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠴᠧᠰᠺᠣᠢ ᠲᠷᠠᠳᠢᠼᠢ ᠼᠧᠨᠲᠷᠠᠯᠨᠨᠠᠢ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ("Shamanism in the Mongolian World as an Expression of the Tengrianist Esoteric Traditions of Central Asia"), ᠼᠧᠨᠲᠷᠠᠯᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠽᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤᠰᠺ ᠦ ᠱᠠᠮᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ: ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠰᠺᠧ᠂ ᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢᠴᠧᠰᠺᠧ᠂ ᠷᠧᠯᠢᠭᠢᠣᠵᠣᠩ ᠤᠧ ᠠᠰᠫᠧᠺᠲ ᠤ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯ ᠤ ᠮᠧᠵᠳᠤᠨᠷᠣᠳᠨᠠᠭ ᠰᠢᠮᠫᠣᠽᠢᠤᠮᠠ᠂ 20-26 ᠢᠠᠨᠢ 1996 ᠭᠷᠠᠮ᠃, Ulan-Ude (1996); English language discussion in Andrei A. Znamenski, Shamanism in Siberia: Russian records of indigenous spirituality, Springer, 2003, ISBN 978-1-4020-1740-7, 350-352.
  22. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=31177
  23. Marlene Laruelle "TENGRISM: IN SEARCH FOR CENTRAL ASIA’SPIRITUAL ROOTS" Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst, 22 March 2006
  24. Marlene Laruelle "TENGRISM: IN SEARCH FOR CENTRAL ASIA’SPIRITUAL ROOTS" Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst, 22 March 2006
  25. http://www.tenger.edu.mn/
  26. http://www.munkhtenger.com/index.php?ff=matmore&more=9
  27. http://www.munkhtenger.com/index.php?ff=aca&obj=18
  28. http://www.munkhtenger.com/index.php?ff=hurmore&more=3
  29. "ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ"УБ 2006 ᠤᠨ http://koha.pl.ub.gov.mn/cgi-bin/koha/opac-detail.pl?biblionumber=11525
  30. ᠣ᠃ ЛХАГВА "МӨНХ ТЭНГЭР БОЛ ЦОГЦ ҮЗЭЛ, ЭРДЭМ" http://www.munkhtenger.com/index.php?ff=newsmore&more=50
  31. http://num-spe303.blogspot.jp/search/label/%D0%91%D0%90%D0%93%D0%A8%D0%98%D0%99%D0%9D%20%D0%A4%D0%98%D0%9B%D0%9E%D0%A1%D0%9E%D0%A4%D0%98
  32. http://www.president.mn/mongolian/node/2253
  33. http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.10150384524017182.365664.158754272181&type=1
  34. http://www.dailynews.mn/?vfile=5&vmet_id=24660&vmet_main=4241
  35. http://www.montsame.mn/index.php?com=news&id=2012052216
  36. http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100003330618079
  37. ᠣ᠂ ᡀᠠᠭᠪᠠ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ᠂ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ》 ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠦᠯ᠂ 2001, № 01-02, (11-12)
  38. ᠣ᠃ ᡀᠠᠭᠪᠠ "ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ᠂ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮ" http://num-spe303.blogspot.jp/2010/01/blog-post_4374.html
  39. ᠭ᠂ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ "ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ" УБ 2005 ᠤᠨ
  40. ᠽ᠃ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢᠪᠠᠲᠤ"ТЭНГЭРИЙН ДОР ТӨРЖ, ХУУЛИЙН ДОР АМЬДРАНА!"http://tops.tsahim.net/readfull/life/5013-huuliin-dor
  41. 《ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ》 1240 ᠤᠨ ( УБ 2006 ᠤᠨ)
  42. ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨᠵᠢᠷᠭᠠᠯ᠂ ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠯᠳᠠᠢ 《ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ》 ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠣᠪᠢ 1983 ᠤᠨ
  43. ᠯᠤᠪᠰᠠᠩᠳᠠᠨᠽᠠᠨᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ 《ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢ》
  44. The long and wonderful voyage of Frier Iohn de Plano Carpini: Reworking of Carpini's account by Richard Hakluyt, in Latin and English
  45. William of Rubruck's Account of the Mongols, Silk Road Seattle, University of Washington. From the 1900 Rockhill translation.
  46. ᠠᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠷ ᠣᠪᠣᠭᠲᠤ ᠢᠳᠠᠮ ᠭᠤᠸᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ 《ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ》, 1959 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢ ᠭ᠃ ᠵᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ
  47. ᠭ᠃ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ "МӨНХ ТЭНГЭРИЙН УЛАМЖЛАЛ ШИНЭЧЛЭЛ" http://munkhtenger.blog.gogo.mn/read/entry85771
  48. ᠣ᠃ᠫᠦᠷᠪᠦ 《ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ》 УБ 1998 ᠤᠨ
  49. ᠪ᠃ᡀᠠᠭᠪᠠ 《ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ》 ᠍ ᠤ 《ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠷᠭᠡ》 http://www.dayarmongol.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6735:2012-01-26-06-47-24&catid=24&Itemid=300061
  50. 《ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ》 1240 ᠤᠨ ( УБ 2006 ᠤᠨ)
  51. 《ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ》 1240 ᠤᠨ ( УБ 2006 ᠤᠨ)
  52. 《ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ》 ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠣᠪᠢ 2003 ᠤᠨ

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ