ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠲᠦᠷᠻᠮᠸᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Türkmenistan (ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ)
ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ:
ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮ᠃ «Garaşsyz Bitarap
Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni»

(ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ)
ᠹᠠᠢᠢᠯ:US Navy Band - National Anthem of Turkmenistan.ogg

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ
ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯᠠᠰᠭᠠᠪᠲᠤ
ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨᠠᠪᠠᠲᠳᠠᠱᠤᠭᠤᠵᠠ
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ 
(2003 ᠤᠨ)
ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ:
85% - ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
5% - ᠦᠽᠡᠪᠸᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
4% - ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
6% - ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ
 -  ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ 100% – ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠨ
(ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ)
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ
ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠭᠦᠷᠪᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢᠯ ᠤ ᠪᠧᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠮᠤᠬᠠᠮᠮᠧᠳᠠᠪᠠ
ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ
 -  ᠵᠠᠷ᠃ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1991 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 10 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 27 
 -  ᠬᠦᠯᠡ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢ ᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 1991 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 12 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 25 
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ
 -  ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ 491,210 km2 (52)
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 4.9
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (2009) 5,110,000[1] (112)
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ 10.5 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km2 
GDP (ХАЧТ) 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $43.359 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ[2] 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $7,846[2] 
GDP (ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $25.742 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ[2] 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $4,658[2] 
ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠧᠺᠰ (2010) 0.669[3] (ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ) (87)
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠤ ᠳᠤ (TMT)
ᠳ᠋ᠦᠮᠠᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ .tm
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ +993

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ (ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠪᠡᠷ Türkmenistan) ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭᠦᠽᠡᠪᠸᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠴᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ, ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ 53 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ᠂ 491 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ км² ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠨᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠮᠧᠷᠧ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠰᠦᠨᠳᠡᠷᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠲᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠮᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1881 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ 1924 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 1991 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠤ 1992 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 2006 ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠫᠠᠷᠠᠮᠤᠷᠠᠲ ᠨᠢᠶᠠᠵᠠᠪ᠂ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠭᠦᠷᠪᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢᠯ ᠤ ᠪᠧᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠮᠤᠬᠠᠮᠮᠧᠳᠠᠪᠠ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠳᠤ "ᠲᠥᠪ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠬᠤ" ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃

5.2 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ 90 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ᠂ 78 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠠᠰᠭᠠᠪᠲᠤ 900 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ 2012 ᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ДНБ 11% ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

«ᠲᠠᠮᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡ» ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠦᠢᠮᠡᠷ ᠤᠨᠲᠠᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠨᠦᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ Türkmenistan ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ Türkmenistan ᠨᠢ türk+men+stan ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ «ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ» ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ türk ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ «ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ»᠂ «ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ» ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ men ᠍ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ « ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ»᠂ « ᠍ ᠷᠬᠡᠦ» ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ -myn ,-men ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠣᠭᠳᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ stan ᠨᠢ «ᠣᠷᠣᠨ»᠂ « ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ»᠂ «ᠤᠯᠤᠰ» ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠍ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ Turkmenistan, ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠯᠪᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠠᠮᠳᠢᠨᠰᠦ᠋ᠷᠦᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠢᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠪᠠᠯ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ, ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ, « ᠍ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ» ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ «ᠤᠯᠤᠰ» ᠍ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ, ᠵᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠯᠠ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ Türkmənistan, ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠢіᠺᠮᠧᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ, ᠬᠢᠷᠭᠢᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠥᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ, ᠰᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ, ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧ́ᠨᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ, ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠ́ᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ᠂ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠦᠯᠢᠭᠡᠷᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠮᠡᠩᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠣᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠤᠰᠤᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ 488,100 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ2 ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠴᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬ᠃ᠥ᠃ 35°43°ᠽ᠃ᠤ᠃ 52°67° ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 52 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ (ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ᠂ ᠺᠠᠮᠧᠷᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ) ᠨᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠲᠡᠢ 1,786 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠲᠠᠢ 379 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠦᠽᠪᠧᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠲᠠᠢ 1621 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠳᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠲᠠᠢ 744 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠳᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠨᠲᠠᠢ 992 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ 1100 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ 650 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠡᠩ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳ᠃ᠲ᠃ᠳ 100-220 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠨᠬᠦᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠥᠯ᠂ ᠺᠠᠷᠠ-ᠺᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠥᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠤᠷᠪᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠠᠮᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠤᠯᠠᠯᠠᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠦᠽᠪᠧᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠪᠠᠪᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ (3,139 ᠮ) ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠰ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯ᠃ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠮᠤᠳᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠮᠤᠷᠭᠠᠪᠲᠡᠵᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ᠃

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠾᠧᠮᠢᠨᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠵᠤ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠡᠢ᠃ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠫᠠᠷᠹᠰᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠴᠦᠰᠲᠦᠭᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠰᠢ᠂ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠷᠦᠨᠡᠰᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠴᠢ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 10 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠧᠯᠵᠢᠺᠰᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠪᠠ᠃ 13 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ᠂ 14 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ᠂ 16 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠢᠪ ᠤᠨᠪᠤᠬᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠽᠡᠪᠸᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ 19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[4]

ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ. ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ - ᠣᠭᠤᠵᠠ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ᠃ «ᠣᠭᠤᠵᠠ» ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ «ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ» ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠣᠭᠤᠵᠠ ᠨᠢ 9 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠯᠬᠠᠰ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠵᠦᠭᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠦᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠲ᠂ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠨᠳ᠂ ᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 7 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ "Sekiz-Oghuz («ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠣᠭᠤᠵᠠ»), Dokuz-Oghuz («ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠨ ᠣᠭᠤᠵᠠ») ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠡᠢ" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠵᠤ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠭᠤᠵᠠ («ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ») ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃[4]

ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠴᠠᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ
(1905-1915 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ)

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 16 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠽᠡᠪᠸᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ (ᠪᠤᠬᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠬᠢᠪ ᠤᠨ) ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠯᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠦᠽᠡᠪᠸᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠵᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ 19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[4] ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠺᠲ᠋ᠧᠫᠧ («ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠳᠣᠪᠣ») ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠳ 1880-1881 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠪᠦᠯ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠮ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠡᠶᠢᠨ (ᠮᠣᠰᠺᠸᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ «ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ» ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ) ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1921 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠷ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢᠲᠤ ᠲᠦᠺᠧᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ 1925 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 5 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 25 ᠍ ᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ЗСБНТүрУ) ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠮᠣᠰᠺᠸᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠵᠢᠬᠦ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ᠂ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠲᠣᠰᠬᠣᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠬᠣᠣᠰᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠴᠦᠰᠲᠦᠭᠡ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ 1990 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ 1991 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ) ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠵᠦᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠶᠠᠰᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
(2010 ᠣᠨ)
ᠬᠤᠪᠢ
ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ 4,011,000 78.6 %
ᠦᠽᠡᠪᠸᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ 479,000 9.4 %
ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ 165,000 3.2 %
ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ 138,000 2.7 %
ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ 312,000 6.1 %
ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ
ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ
1926 975,599
1959 1,516,375
1989 3,522,717
1999 4,993,000
2010 5,105,000

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠰᠳᠡᠭ᠃ 1959 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 1.5 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ 50 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 5,105,000–ᠳ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠡᠢ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 194 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ 94–ᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ (10 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/км²). 0-14 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠨ 26 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ᠂ 15-64 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠨ 67 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ᠂ 65–ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 4 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠦᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ — 0.98 ᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ/ᠡᠮ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ — 67.87 ᠵᠢᠯ᠃ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ — 98.8%.

ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠶᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠰ

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 78.6 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠽᠡᠪᠸᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ (9%), ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭ (2%), ᠲᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠯᠠᠪ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ (3%), ᠦᠺᠷᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠯᠤᠴᠢᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠳ 1989 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 10 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ 3 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠷᠤ ᠤᠨᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 89% (ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ) ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ 10 ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ (ᠰᠯᠠᠪ) ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠰᠭᠠᠪᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ 48.7% ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ:

ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

1991 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠠᠫᠠᠷᠠᠮᠤᠷᠠᠲ ᠨᠢᠶᠠᠵᠠᠪ 1985 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 2006 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠵᠣᠸ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠣᠯᠠ᠂ ᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ 2008 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠷᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

2007 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠦᠷᠪᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢᠯ ᠤ ᠪᠧᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠮᠤᠬᠤᠮᠧᠳᠠᠪᠠ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

1992 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 2507 ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠢ2008 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ 125 ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ (ᠮᠧᠵᠯᠢᠰ) ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 2013 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ

  1. ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ 47,
  2. ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ 33,
  3. ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠶᠢᠴᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ 16,
  4. ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ 14 ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠠᠪᠴᠠᠢ᠃

ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ: 1-ᠠᠬᠠᠯᠠ᠂ 2-ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ᠂ 3-ᠳᠠᠱᠤᠭᠤᠵᠠ᠂ 4-ᠯᠧᠪᠠᠫ᠂ 5-ᠮᠠᠷ ᠤ

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠠᠰᠭᠠᠪᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ (ᠸᠧᠯᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠳᠤ). ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ (ᠡᠲᠷᠠᠪ) ᠭᠡᠮᠡᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ 57 ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ[5] ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ (2005)[5] ᠲᠥᠪ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
ᠠᠰᠭᠠᠪᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ Aşgabat 470 871,500 ᠠᠰᠭᠠᠪᠲᠤ
ᠠᠬᠠᠯᠠ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ Ahal welaýaty 97,160 939,700 ᠠᠨᠠᠤ
ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ Balkan welaýaty 139,270 553,500 ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨᠠᠪᠠᠲ
ᠳᠠᠱᠤᠭᠤᠵᠠ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ Daşoguz welaýaty 73,430 1,370,400 ᠳᠠᠱᠤᠭᠤᠵᠠ
ᠯᠧᠪᠠᠫ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ Lebap welaýaty 93,730 1,334,500 ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠮᠧᠨᠠᠪᠠᠲ
ᠮᠠᠷ ᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ Mary welaýaty 87,150 1,480,400 ᠮᠠᠷ ᠤ
ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯ

ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨᠲᠡᠢ᠃ 34000 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯ᠂ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ᠂ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦᠳᠡ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ᠂ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 700 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠲᠠᠩᠺ᠂ 560 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠤ᠂ 120 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ᠂ ᠨᠢᠰᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ᠂ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠠᠯᠢᠪ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠯ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ "ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠮᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ" ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ 1995 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[6] 132 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠫᠯᠣᠮᠠᠲ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃[7]

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠠᠫᠠᠷᠠᠮᠤᠷᠠᠲ ᠨᠢᠶᠠᠵᠠᠪ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠸᠢᠳᠢᠣ᠋ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠭᠠᠮ᠂ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠰᠤᠨᠤᠰᠬᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤᠷᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠᠯᠧᠲ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦᠰᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠭᠦᠷᠪᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢᠯ ᠤ ᠪᠧᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠮᠤᠬᠤᠮᠧᠳᠠᠪᠠ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ 2008 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ᠂ ᠼᠢᠷᠺ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠴᠤᠴᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠨᠢᠵᠣᠸ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ«ᠷᠤᠬᠤᠨᠠᠮᠠ» ᠨᠣᠮ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠩᠨᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠢᠶᠠᠵᠠᠪ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠷᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ᠃ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠯᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠺᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ  (ᠠᠩᠭᠯ᠃)
ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠣᠨᠣᠭ

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ 2012 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 47.55 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠬᠦ ДНБ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ (ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ 97 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ), ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ 8500 $ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ - 3.5%, ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ - 10.5%, ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ - 7.8% ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠨᠠ ᠳᠤ.

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣᠣᠣᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠃ ᠺᠠᠷᠠᠺᠦᠶᠢᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠴᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠭᠠᠯᠺ ᠤᠨᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨᠭᠠᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠮᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠴᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠰᠫᠷᠣᠮ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ᠃[8]

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨᠳ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ 1909 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ᠂ ᠬᠥᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠷᠪᠢᠨ᠃

ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠺᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠭᠢᠨᠳᠦᠶᠢᠺᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ УЦС 350 ᠮᠸᠭᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠂ ᠮᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ДЦС 1370 ᠮᠸᠭᠠᠸᠠᠲ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃

ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠪᠥᠩ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠥᠪᠥᠩ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ 9 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃[9] 2012 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 7000 ᠲᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ᠂ 2000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨᠳ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠰᠤᠪᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠪᠠᠵᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠱᠤᠭᠤᠵᠠᠺᠶᠣᠨᠧᠦᠦᠭᠧᠨᠴᠢᠨᠢᠰᠢᠮᠠᠷ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠸᠢᠭᠮᠧᠳᠢᠶᠠ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ:
«ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ»

ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:ᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ


  1. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). "World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (PDF). Retrieved on 2009-03-12.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Turkmenistan. International Monetary Fund. 22 April 2012 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  3. Human Development Report 2010. United Nations (2010). 5 November 2010 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Country Profile: Turkmenistan" (PDF). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (February 2007).
  5. 5.0 5.1 Statistical Yearbook of Turkmenistan 2000-2004, National Institute of State Statistics and Information of Turkmenistan, Ashgabat, 2005.
  6. http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/50/a50r080.htm
  7. http://mfa.gov.tm/en/mfa-en/diplomacy/diplomatic-relations
  8. "Business | Russia reaches Turkmen gas deal", BBC News, 5 September 2006. 3 May 2010 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 
  9. The ten largest cotton producing countries in 2009. Statista.com. 2013-11-25 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

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