ᠲᠦᠷᠺ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ:
İstiklâl Marşı → «ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠱ»
ᠹᠠᠢᠢᠯ:Istiklal Marsi-TSK.ogg

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯᠠᠨᠺᠠᠷᠠ
ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠮᠪᠤᠯ
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ 
(2008[1] ᠤᠨ)
70–75% - ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
18% - ᠺᠦᠷᠳᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
7–12% - ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ
ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ
ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ
ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ
᠂ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠲᠠᠢ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠪᠳᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠭᠦᠯ (2007–)
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠷᠧᠵᠧᠫ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠫ ᠡᠷᠳᠤᠠᠨ (2003–)
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ᠃ Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi
→ «ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ»
ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ
 -  1918-10-30 ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 
 -  19191923 ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 
 -  1923-10-29 БНТУ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ
 -  ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ 783,562 km2 (37)
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 1.3 %
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (2010) 73,722,988 (18)
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (2000) 67,803,927 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ 94.1 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km2 
GDP (ХАЧТ) 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $1.073 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠤᠳ[2] ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ 16  ᠳᠦ
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $14,517[2] ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ64 ᠳᠦ
GDP (ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $778.089 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠤᠳ[2]  ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ18 ᠳᠦ
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $10,522[2] ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ62]])
Gini (2010) 40.0[3] (58)
ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠧᠺᠰ (2013) 0.722 (ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ) (90)
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠯᠢᠷ (TRY)
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ДЕЦ (GMT+2)
 -  ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ  (GMT+3)
ᠳ᠋ᠦᠮᠠᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ .tr
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ +90

ᠲᠦᠷᠺ (ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ Türkiye), ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠳᠠᠮᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠵᠥᠪ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠᠯ ᠭᠷᠧᠺᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠭᠦᠷᠦᠵᠢᠶ ᠠᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠨᠢᠷᠡᠨᠢᠷᠠᠺᠰᠢᠷᠢᠢ ᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ 8 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠡᠭᠧᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠥᠪᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠭᠠᠨᠲᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠪᠣᠰᠹᠣᠷ ᠤᠨᠳᠠᠷᠳᠠᠨᠧᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠨᠺᠠᠷᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠪᠤᠯ. ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ᠂ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠺᠦᠷᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ  ᠦᠳ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ᠂ 11 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠯᠡᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠧᠯᠵᠢᠺ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ (ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ) ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ (ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠍ ᠢ) ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠦᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠹᠠ ᠺᠧᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠷᠺ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 1923 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠬᠥᠯ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠣᠷ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ [ᠲᠦᠦᠷᠺᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ] ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ Türkiye ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ [ᠲᠦᠷᠺ] / [ᠲᠦᠦᠷᠺ] ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠳ [ᠲᠤᠦᠺ] ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ "ᠲᠦᠷᠺ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠣᠣᠰ ᠨᠡᠷ ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠰᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠺ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ «ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ» ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠡᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠤᠳᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ -ᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ -ᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ, ᠭᠷᠧᠺ᠂ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ᠂ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ -ᠢᠶᠠ, ᠣᠷᠣᠰ -ᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠳᠦᠢᠬᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ « ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ»᠂ «ᠣᠷᠣᠨ»᠂ «ᠤᠯᠤᠰ» ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬᠠᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠷᠬᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Turkey [ᠲᠥᠷᠺᠢᠶ ], ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠼᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 土耳其 [ᠲᠦᠷᠼᠢ] ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠷᠧᠵᠧᠫ ᠲᠠᠢᠫ ᠡᠷᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ

ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1923 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠩᠬᠢᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ᠃[4] ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ 1982 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ 1876, 1921, 1924, 1961 ᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ᠃ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃2007 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠪᠳᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠭᠦᠯ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ 11 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[5] ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ (ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ) ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ (ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ТУИХ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ (Danıştay) ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠵᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ (Yargıtay) ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃[6]

ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠪᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ

ТУИХ ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ 2003 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠷᠧᠵᠧᠫ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠫ ᠡᠷᠳᠤᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[7] ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠲᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠪᠣᠯᠴᠢᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ 550 ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 85 ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 50 ᠨᠠᠮ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[8] ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[9][10]

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ

ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (1945), ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (1961), ИШОБ (1969), ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡᠨ (1973), ЭЗХАБ (1985), ХТХЭЗХАБ (1992), ᠬᠥ-8 (1997), ᠶᠡᠬᠡ 20 (1999) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠋ ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ БНТУ ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠨᠣ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ УАЦЭ (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) ᠍ ᠳᠦ 1952 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠰᠥᠷᠬᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1987 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠵᠦ᠂ 2005 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ) ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[11] ᠲᠦᠷᠺ 1974 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ БНКипУ ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠺᠠᠫᠷᠤᠰᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠲᠤ 1983 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠫᠷᠤᠰ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ УКБНТҮ (ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠠᠫᠷᠤᠰ) ᠍ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃[12] ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠺᠠᠫᠷᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ УАЦЭ (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) ᠍ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠢᠮᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[12] 1991 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ᠃[13]

ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ 81 «ᠢᠯᠡ» (il, ᠴᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ «ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ») ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ 923 «ᠢᠯᠴᠢ» (ilçe, ᠴᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ «ᠰᠤᠮᠤ») ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 81 ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠳᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ 7 «ᠪᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡ» (bölge, ᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ «ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ»᠂ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ «ᠮᠤᠵᠢ»᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ «ᠪᠥᠰᠡ») ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠤᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠢᠯᠡ (ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 9670 km2 ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ᠂ 933,000 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

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ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ 800 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ᠂ 1600 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠥᠨᠴᠥᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 783,562 km2 ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[14] ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 37 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠮᠨᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠭᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃[15] ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ 97% (ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ) ᠨᠢ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ 3% (ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠹᠷᠠᠺ) ᠨᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃[16] ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠰᠹᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠢᠭᠠᠨᠲᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠳᠠᠷᠳᠠᠨᠧᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠭᠧᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠵᠤᠷᠪᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠵᠢᠶ ᠠ (252 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠵᠤᠷᠪᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ), ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨ (268 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ), ᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠨ (9 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ), ᠢᠷᠡᠨ (499 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ), ᠢᠷᠠᠺ (352 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ), ᠰᠢᠷᠢᠢ ᠠ (822) ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ (240 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ) ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ (206 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ) ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠦᠪᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ 3000 ᠮᠢᠯᠯᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠨᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠤᠨᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠫᠣᠨᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠤᠯᠠᠯᠠᠰ᠂ ᠲᠠᠪᠷᠠ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠵᠤᠨ᠂ ᠴᠢᠭᠢᠭᠯᠢᠭ ᠡᠪᠦᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠴᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠰᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ᠂ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠠᠤᠯᠠᠯᠠᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠢᠭᠷᠧᠦᠹᠷᠠᠲ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠺᠰ᠂ ᠺᠤᠰᠤᠤᠮᠠᠺᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠧᠨᠳᠧᠷᠧᠰ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃[17] ᠮᠥᠨ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠷᠠᠲ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ (5,137 m), ᠸᠠᠩ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ (3,755 km2) ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃.

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ (ilk öğretim okulu) ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠯᠡᠰᠦᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠬᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠦᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 9 ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ 3 ᠪᠢᠰᠢ 4 ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠠᠬᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠣᠯᠭᠣᠬᠤ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ᠃ ᠰᠤᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠦᠷᠢ᠂ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠯᠢᠩ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠦᠢᠴᠡᠬᠦᠶᠢᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠠᠮᠢᠷ᠂ ᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

«ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠᠰᠠᠷᠠᠢ» ᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ - ᠠᠯᠢ ᠰᠠᠮᠢ ᠶᠡᠩ ᠲᠠᠮᠢᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ

ᠬᠥᠯ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠮᠢᠷ᠂ ᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[18] ᠬᠥᠯ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠯᠢᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ᠂ ᠳᠤᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ «ᠹᠧᠨᠧᠷᠪᠠᠬᠼᠧ»᠂ «ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠᠰᠠᠷᠠᠢ»᠂ «ᠪᠧᠱᠢᠺᠲ᠋ᠠᠰ»᠂ «ᠲᠷᠠᠪᠽᠣᠨᠰᠫᠣᠷ» ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠯᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠰᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠭ 2002 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠍ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠮᠧᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠣᠷ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡ᠂ ᠰᠠᠭᠰᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠠᠭᠰᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ «ᠠᠨᠠᠳᠣᠯᠣᠡᠹᠧᠰ»᠂ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ «ᠹᠧᠨᠧᠷᠪᠠᠬᠼᠧ» ᠪᠠᠭ ᠲᠢᠪ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃[19] NBA ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠢᠳᠠᠶᠡᠳᠦ ᠲᠦᠺᠣᠭᠯᠤ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠰᠠᠭᠰᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲᠣᠳ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠃ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ «ᠶᠠᠭᠯᠢ ᠭᠦᠷᠧᠱ» (ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠥᠬᠡᠴᠦᠳ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠦᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯ ᠠ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠳᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃[20] ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ᠂ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠮᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠰᠢᠷ ᠳᠣᠭᠤ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃[21] ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠪᠣᠷᠭᠣᠴᠣᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢᠮ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠶᠢᠮᠤᠨᠤᠬᠠᠯᠢᠯ ᠮᠤᠲᠤᠯᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠣᠮᠣᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠯᠠᠪᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. The World Factbook :Turkey
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2012. International Monetary Fund (2012).
  3. Gini Index. World Bank.
  4. Çarkoğlu, Ali (2004). Religion and Politics in Turkey
  5. BBC. Turks elect ex-Islamist president
  6. Turkish Directorate General of Press and Information (2001-10-17). "Turkish Constitution]". Turkish Prime Minister's Office.
  7. "Erdogan’s sudden crackdown rocks Istanbul"
  8. Turkish Directorate General of Press and Information (2004-08-24). "Political Structure of Turkey". Turkish Prime Minister's Office.
  9. BBC. Euro court backs Turkey Islamist ban
  10. BBC. "Turkey's Kurd party ban criticised"
  11. "Chronology of Turkey-EU relations". Turkish Secretariat of European Union Affairs
  12. 12.0 12.1 Mardell, Mark (2006-12-11). "Turkey's EU membership bid stalls". BBC.
  13. İdris Bal (2004). Turkish Foreign Policy In Post Cold War Era.
  14. "UN Demographic Yearbook, accessed April 16, 2007". (PDF)
  15. Immerfall, Stefan. Handbook of European Societies: Social Transformations in the 21st Century. Springer, 417–. ISBN 978-0-387-88198-0. 
  16. Turkey. Turkish Odyssey.
  17. ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ - III ᠪᠣᠲᠢ᠃ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ᠃ 1988
  18. Burak Sansal. Sports in Turkey. allaboutturkey.com.
  19. Historic achievements of the Efes Pilsen Basketball Team. Anadolu Efes Spor Kulübü
  20. Burak Sansal (2006). "Oiled Wrestling".
  21. Gegner, Christiane. "FILA Wrestling Database"

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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