ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ

ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠠᠷᠬᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ᠂ ᠵᠡᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠲᠦᠯᠬᠢᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠺᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠰᠧᠨ (1788–1865) ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠡ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ: ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤᠳ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 1200-500 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 1200-200 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 1200-ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ 400 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 400-ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ 200 ᠣᠨ᠂ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 100-ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ 500 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 400-ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ 50 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 1200-ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ 700 ᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

<timeline> ImageSize = width:444 height:55 PlotArea = left:15 right:15 bottom:20 top:10 AlignBars = justify

Colors =

   id:time value:rgb(0.7,0.7,1) #
   id:period value:rgb(1,0.7,0.5) #
   id:age value:rgb(1,0.4,0.4) #
   id:era value:rgb(1,0.85,0.5) #
   id:eon value:rgb(1,0.85,0.7) #
   id:filler value:gray(0.8) # background bar
   id:black value:black

Period = from:-9300 till:2013 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:1000 start:-9300 ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:100 start:-9300

PlotData =

 align:center textcolor:black fontsize:10 mark:(line,black) width:15 shift:(0,-5)
 bar:  color:filler 
 from:-9300 till:-3250 shift:(0,7) text:ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ
 from:-9300 till:-3250 shift:(0,-7) text:(ᠨᠧᠣᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ)
 from: -3250 till: -1200 text:ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ
 bar:  color:age 
 from: -1200 till: 600 text:ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ

</timeline>

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ YII- III ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠱᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠵᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠡᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠵᠠᠪᠰᠡᠩ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠥᠬᠡ᠂ ᠬᠤᠷᠴᠠ ᠤᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠮᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠲᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠯᠪᠡᠭ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠠᠯ᠂ ᠨᠡᠩ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠬ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠵᠡᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠭᠡᠷ᠂ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠭᠡ᠂ ᠴᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠤᠪᠰᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠳᠠᠮᠠᠨᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠴᠢᠨᠳᠠᠮᠠᠨᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ 《ᠳᠦᠨᠵᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠩᠬᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠷᠤᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠰᠢ》 《ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ》 ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠢᠨᠵᠠᠯ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠯᠤᠬ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠨᠤᠮᠤ ᠰᠤᠮᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠷ ᠸᠠᠭᠠᠷ᠂ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠠᠷᠤᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠲᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ᠂ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠦᠭᠦᠷ᠂ ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠮᠣᠭᠠᠢ᠂ ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ᠂ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠤᠪᠰᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠲᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠣᠪᠳᠣ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠦᠭᠦᠷ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠳᠠ᠂ ᠬᠣᠩᠭᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ᠂ ᠬᠥᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠮᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨᠬᠣᠩᠭᠣᠷ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ᠂ ᠭᠣᠪᠢ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

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