ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠨᠶᠤ-ᠢᠣᠷᠺ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ᠂ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠲᠥᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ (civilization) ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠸᠠᠷᠪᠤᠷᠴᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ᠂ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠬᠢᠴᠠ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ᠂ ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ᠂ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ᠂ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥ᠂ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ᠂ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠬᠢᠲ᠋ᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ᠂ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ᠂ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠵᠦᠢ Civilization ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭᠦᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠤ civilis ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ByzantineEmperor Justinian ᠨᠢ ᠷᠣᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ Corpus Juris Civilis ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 11 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Bologna ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠷᠣᠹᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠤᠳ Corpus Juris Civilis ᠍ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1388 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ civil ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ 1704 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ civilization ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Civilization ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ᠂ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠵᠠᠩᠰᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠵᠠᠩᠰᠢᠯ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠵᠠᠩᠰᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ᠂ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠠᠷᠬᠢᠲ᠋ᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ᠂ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

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