ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ

ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ (《ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ》 ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ scientia ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡᠢ) ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠ᠂ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ [1][2] ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ (applied science) ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ 2 ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ  ᠢ 3 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ (formal science) ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠭᠡᠯᠯᠣᠭᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯᠣᠨᠣᠯᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ [3] ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠢᠪᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠦᠨ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

18-19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠬᠦᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠᠬᠦ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠳᠡᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠳᠧᠳᠦ᠋ᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠯᠣᠭᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ «ᠠᠵᠢᠭᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ᠂ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠰ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠰ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ» ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ᠂ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠪᠴᠢᠶᠡᠷᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠴᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠲᠤᠰᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠮᠰᠢᠭᠲᠤ 10 ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ  ᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ  ᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠷᠮᠠᠭᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠦᠮᠡ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠭᠠᠳ ᠴᠤ ᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ  ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠢ ᠴᠤᠬᠤᠮ ᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠨᠴᠢ ᠵᠢᠳᠬᠦᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠴᠦ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠮᠰᠢᠭᠲᠤ 10 ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ

ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠲᠦ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠴᠢ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ  ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠢᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠨᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ  ᠠᠯᠢᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨᠠᠪᠠ᠂ ᠶᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠪᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠣᠭᠲᠠᠷᠭᠤᠢ᠂ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠂ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃

ᠹᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ

ᠹᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠹᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠰ ᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 1926 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠯᠶᠢᠰ (Gilbert Lewis) ᠹᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠷᠬᠠᠯ   ᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠲᠦ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠴᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠱᠢᠲᠡᠢ  ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠷᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ

ᠺᠣᠠᠷᠺ (quark)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺᠣᠠᠷᠺ ᠨᠢ ᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ  ᠦᠭᠡᠢ 《ᠺᠣᠠᠷᠺ》 ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 1995 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃


ᠮᠠᠰ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1774 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ ᠠᠨᠲᠤᠨ ᠯᠠᠪᠠᠵᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ (Antoine Lavoisier) ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ  ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠴᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠣᠲᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃


ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠯᠢᠪᠠ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ 《ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ》 ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠥᠴᠥᠬᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠤᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠥᠮ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠬᠦ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ  ᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠨᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠣᠷ ᠬᠥᠨᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠪᠣᠷ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1915 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠯᠰ ᠪᠣᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠪᠴᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠤᠰᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠬᠤᠤᠰ ᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠱᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 1905ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ᠂ 1915 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠲᠠ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠬᠤᠶᠢᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ  ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠰᠦᠷᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ᠂ ᠣᠭᠲᠠᠷᠭᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠰᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠬᠠᠳᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠭᠷᠠᠮ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠢᠪᠠ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ  ᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ᠂ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠳᠬᠠᠯ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠬᠢᠬᠡᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠽᠣᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

《ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠮ》 ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ 2013 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ 1964 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠲᠦ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠫᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠬᠢᠬᠡᠤᠰ (Peter Higgs) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢᠨᠤᠰ ᠡᠩᠭᠯᠧᠷᠲᠦ ( Francois Englert) ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢᠢᠯᠠ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠢᠬᠡᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠽᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠮ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤᠶᠢᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠯᠵᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ