ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠸᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲᠤ᠋

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ
 -  ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ1 ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ II ᠢᠯᠢᠽᠡᠪᠡᠢᠰ
 -  ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠨᠠᠨᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠩᠳᠤ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠵᠣᠩᠺᠢ
 -  ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠯᠣᠺᠣᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠰᠮᠢᠲ
 -  ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠯᠢᠠᠴᠠ
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 2.1
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ () 4,268,0004 
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ () 4,143,2795 
ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠧᠺᠰ  0.943 (19)
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ )
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ +137
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ 64
1 "ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ" ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃&nbsp᠂ [1][2]
2 ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ 100% ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ (ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ)᠃ [3]
3&nbsp᠂ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃
4 2008 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 30 ᠍ ᠤ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ  [1]
5&nbsp᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ 2006 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ᠃ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ [2]PDF (370 KB)
6 ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠯᠦᠲ᠋ᠠᠶᠢᠨᠰᠠᠨ ᠦ ДНБ ᠍ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ᠃
7 ᠴᠡᠳᠬᠧᠮ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ 45 ᠮᠢᠨᠦ᠋ᠲ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃
8 ᠨᠢᠦ᠋ᠡᠺᠦ᠋ᠺ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠲᠣᠺᠥᠯᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ cctld ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ .nu᠂ .ck᠂ .tk ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃


ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ (ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ 新西兰᠂ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ New Zealand) ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ  ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ (ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ (ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠪᠠᠯ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠷᠲ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ/ᠷᠠᠺᠤᠷᠠᠴᠧᠲ᠋ᠭᠡᠮ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ) ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋  ᠢ Aotearoa ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠᠯ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠦ᠋ᠡᠲᠣᠺᠧᠯᠤᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ (ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋  ᠦᠨᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠳ᠋ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ) ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠠᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠵᠢᠡᠷ 2000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠰᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠺᠠᠯᠧᠳᠣᠨᠢᠹᠢᠵᠢᠲᠣᠩᠭ᠋ ᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠤ ᠤᠬᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠳ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠷᠤᠨᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠴᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠵᠢᠴᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ 13 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠷᠯᠢᠭ᠂ 3 ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠷᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠬᠡᠳᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠴᠢ 1 ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠢᠭᠯᠢᠭ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠤᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠭᠤᠤᠯ ᠮᠦᠷᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠴᠦᠬᠦᠷᠡᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠠᠽᠢᠶᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠨᠧᠽᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ II ᠢᠯᠢᠽᠡᠪᠡᠢᠰ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋  ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ᠂ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ  ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋  ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠩᠭᠡᠲᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[4]

ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠶᠢᠯᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠳᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ Te Ika a Māui (ᠮᠠᠦ᠋ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤ)᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ Te Wai Pounamu (ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠰᠤ) ᠪᠤᠶᠤ Te Waka o Aoraki (ᠠᠷᠠᠺᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠡᠨᠦ ᠵᠠᠪᠢ) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ[5]᠃ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ Aotearoa (ᠦᠭᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠᠯ "ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ")[6] ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠶᠢᠯᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠤ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ 1642 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠪᠧᠯ ᠲᠠᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ Staten Landt ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠠᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ 1615 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠺᠣᠪ ᠯᠡᠮᠡᠷ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Nova Zeelandia ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠵᠦᠶ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠡᠢ[7]᠃ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠨ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ 1645 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠵᠦᠶ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠢᠣᠬᠣᠨ ᠪᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ[8]᠃ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠮᠰ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠺ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠡᠯᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ New Zealand ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠨᠮᠠᠷᠺ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ  ᠦᠨ 800-1300 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠨᠧᠽᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠶᠤᠮ[5]᠃ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠯᠡᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠵᠦ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠢᠪᠢ (ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠫᠤ (ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠤᠪᠤᠭ) ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠴᠡᠳᠬᠧᠮ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠵᠤ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠮᠣᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠵᠡᠢ[9][10]

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯ 1642 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠪᠧᠯ ᠲᠠᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ ᠶᠤᠮ[11]᠃ ᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1768 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠮᠰ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ[11]᠃ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠺ 1769 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠢ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠪᠡ᠃ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠺ ᠢ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋᠍᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠤᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠠ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠸᠠᠷ᠂ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ᠂ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠣᠳᠣ᠂ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ᠂ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠮᠥᠰᠥ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠤᠱᠺᠧᠲ ᠫᠤᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠷᠢᠯᠤᠩᠭᠤᠲᠠ ᠮᠤᠱᠺᠧᠲ ᠫᠤᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 19 ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠢᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃


ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠽᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠷᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠸᠢᠯᠤᠮ ᠬᠣᠪᠰᠣᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠳᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡ᠂ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠲᠤᠮᠢᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠸᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 1840 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 6 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠯ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠤ ᠰᠠᠨᠳᠤᠷᠤᠤ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ  ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠣᠪᠰᠣᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ 1840 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠺᠢᠶᠠᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ 1841 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠺᠯᠧᠨᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠯᠭᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠸᠯᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1840 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠨᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ᠂ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 'Pakeha' ᠍ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠢᠪᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠵᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠯᠡᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠰᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠤᠮ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰᠴᠤ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 1860-1870 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠤᠭ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠭᠤᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠪᠰ ᠹᠣᠨ ᠲᠧᠮᠫᠰᠺᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠫᠤᠤᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ

1852 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ  ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ 1854 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 1856 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ 1860 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1863 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠠᠯᠹᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠳᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠲ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠢ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ (ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ) ᠸᠧᠯᠯᠢᠩᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠮᠵᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1865 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1893 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠶᠢᠴᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠰᠤᠩᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1907 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠨᠢᠨ᠂ 1947 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠸᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠮᠢᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1890 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠷᠦᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠯᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠤᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ 1930 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠤ ᠯᠠᠢᠪᠣᠷ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠺᠼᠢᠣᠨᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
Tino rangatiratanga (ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢ) ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠷᠬᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠥᠪᠲᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ᠂ ᠸᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠯ᠎ᠡ᠃ 1975 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠣᠮᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠸᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1985 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠭᠣᠮᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠩᠭᠦᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ 1970 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠰᠴᠤ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠪᠡ᠃ 1970 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠪᠠ᠃ 1980 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠷᠣᠵᠧᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠯᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠯᠠᠢᠪᠣᠷ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ "ᠷᠣᠵᠧᠷᠨᠤᠮᠢᠺᠰ" ᠭᠡᠵᠤ ᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠮᠰᠦᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ II ᠢᠯᠢᠽᠡᠪᠡᠢᠰ
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠨᠠᠨᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠩᠳᠤ

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠨᠢ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[12] ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠺᠣᠳᠣᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ 1986 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ II ᠢᠯᠢᠽᠡᠪᠡᠢᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1974 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠍ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠨᠠᠨᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠩᠳᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠢᠲᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠮᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠣᠭᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠫᠠᠷᠠᠯᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠢᠲᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠬᠦ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠩᠺᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮᠳᠤ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠨᠢ 120 ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ 2005 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠯ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ "ᠪᠢᠬᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ" ("ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷ" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠭᠡ) ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢᠩ᠂ ᠸᠧᠯᠯᠢᠩᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 2003 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠯᠣᠨᠳᠣᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠵᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠯᠢᠠᠴᠠ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠵᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋  ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ᠂ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ ᠠ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠤᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠦᠭᠦᠭᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠵᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ: 2005 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ 2006 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ II ᠢᠯᠢᠽᠡᠪᠡᠢᠰ᠂ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠠᠷᠲᠷᠠᠢᠳᠤ᠂ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠬᠧᠯᠧᠨ ᠺᠯᠠᠷᠺ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠭᠡᠷᠲᠦ ᠸᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠯᠢᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠴᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠲᠧᠯᠧᠺᠣᠮᠨᠶᠤ ᠵᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠯᠠ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ (ᠲᠧᠷᠧᠽᠠ ᠭᠡᠲᠦᠲᠤᠩᠢ) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ᠂ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠴᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠨᠢ Asia Pacific Economic Coopration , ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠯᠲᠠᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ-ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
HMNZS Canterbury (L421) ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠭ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1939 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 3 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠮᠠᠶᠢᠺᠯ ᠵᠣᠽᠧᠹ ᠰᠠᠪᠢᠵᠤ᠋ "ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ᠠᠴᠤᠳ  ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠴᠢᠷᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 1951 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ Australia᠂ New Zealand᠂ United States ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠸᠢᠶᠠᠲᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠰᠤᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠶᠢᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ 1973 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[13]

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠨᠣ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠮᠤᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠸᠢᠶᠠᠲᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠷ ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠴᠡᠯ᠂ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠽᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠪᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
ᠯᠣᠨᠳᠣᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠺᠣᠮᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ

Australia᠂ New Zealand᠂ United States ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1985 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ 1987 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃[14][15][16] 1986 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠡᠭᠢᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1987 ᠣᠨ ᠤ  ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ᠂ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠪᠢᠴᠤᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠢᠪᠢᠴᠤᠦᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠮᠠᠯᠠᠶᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ( ᠠᠢᠨᠳᠦᠢᠨᠧᠰᠢᠶ ᠠ  ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ᠂ ᠰᠥᠨᠥᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ), ᠸᠢᠶᠠᠲᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 2008 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ  ᠳᠤ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋  ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ: ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠴᠣᠮᠬᠤᠳᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 2001 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠧᠯᠠᠠᠳ᠋ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ: ᠺᠠᠫᠷᠤᠰᠰᠦᠮᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠣᠰᠣᠨᠢᠶ᠎ ᠠ ᠬᠧᠷᠦᠼᠧᠭᠣᠪᠢᠨᠠᠰᠢᠨᠠᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠤᠯᠠᠺᠠᠮᠪᠤᠵᠠᠢᠷᠡᠨ/ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ᠂ ᠪᠤᠩᠨᠸᠢᠯᠯᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠢᠮᠣᠷᠰᠣᠯᠣᠮᠣᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[17]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. New Zealand's National Anthems. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 2008-02-17 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  2. Protocol for using New Zealand's National Anthems. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 2008-02-17 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  3. Language spoken (total responses) for the census usually resident population count, 2006. Statistics New Zealand (2006-12-21). 2008-02-20 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  4. New Zealand, Index of Economic Freedom
  5. 5.0 5.1 Mein Smith (2005) pg 6.
  6. King (2003) pg 41.
  7. Wilson, John (2007-09-21). Tasman’s achievement. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. 2008-02-16 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  8. Mackay (1986) pg 52–54.
  9. Clark (1994) pg 123–135
  10. Davis, Denise (2007-09-11). Moriori The impact of new arrivals. Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. 2008-02-17 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  11. 11.0 11.1 Mein Smith (2005), pg 23.
  12. Over the course of her reign The Queen has been a regular visitor to New Zealand, paying 10 visits. The Monarchy Today. 2007-09-28 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  13. Patman (2005) pg 8.
  14. Lange (1990).
  15. Dewes, Kate. Legal challenges to nuclear weapons from AOTEAROA/NewZealand. disarmsecure.org. 2007-09-28 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  16. Green, Robert. The Naked Nuclear Emperor — Debunking Nuclear Deterrence. disarmsecure.org. 2007-09-28 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  17. New Zealand Defence Force Overseas Operations. nzdf.mil.nz (2008-01-22). 2008-02-17 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • David Bateman, ed. Bateman New Zealand Encyclopedia (2005)
  • Keith Sinclair and Raewyn Dalziel. A History of New Zealand (2000)
  • A. H. McLintock, ed. Encyclopedia of New Zealand 3 vols (1966)
  • New Zealand Official Yearbook (annual)

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Commons
Викимедиа дуу дүрсний сан: New Zealand

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ