ᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ
ᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠠᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ (ᠪᠠᠰᠡᠯᠧᠦᠢᠰ)
Napoli BW 2013-05-16 16-24-01 DxO.jpg
ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠫᠧᠷᠰᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ III ᠳᠠᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ᠃ ᠨᠧᠠᠫᠣᠯᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠫᠣᠮᠫᠧᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠣᠽᠠᠢᠺ᠂ ᠨᠧᠠᠫᠣᠯᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠬᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠦᠽᠧᠢ᠃
ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 336-323
ᠭᠷᠧᠺ Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας
ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠷᠭᠡᠮ ᠡᠯᠯᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠧᠭᠧᠮᠣᠨ᠂ ᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠠᠷᠠᠣᠨᠫᠧᠷᠰᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠩᠰᠢᠬᠤ
ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 356 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 7 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 20
ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠠᠨᠢ ᠫᠧᠯᠯᠠ
ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 323 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 10 ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ 11 (32 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ)
ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠪᠢᠯᠤᠨ
ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ II ᠹᠢᠯᠢᠫ
ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ IV ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ
ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠷᠣᠺᠰᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ
ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠢᠷᠠ
ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ IV ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ
ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ II ᠹᠢᠯᠢᠫ
ᠡᠬᠡ ᠡᠫᠢᠷᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠶᠠᠰ

ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ (ᠭᠷᠧᠢᠭ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας ᠪᠤᠶᠤ Μέγας Ἀλέξανδρος,[1] Mégas Aléxandros; ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 356 BC - ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 323),[2] ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ III ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ (ᠭᠷᠧᠢᠭ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' ὁ Μακεδών) ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠷᠧᠺᠡᠶᠢᠨ [3] ᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ (ᠪᠠᠰᠡᠯᠧᠦᠢᠰ) (ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 336–323) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠷᠧᠺᠴᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[4][5][n 1]

ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠣᠷᠢᠨᠹᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ[6] ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ II ᠹᠢᠯᠢᠫᠡᠶᠢᠭ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠠᠢ[7]᠃ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠵᠤ ᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠷᠰᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠴᠢᠰᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠾᠧᠮᠧᠨᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠷᠤ ᠬᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯᠣᠭᠣ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠴᠠᠰᠢ ᠠᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢᠷᠢᠢ ᠠᠹᠢᠨᠢᠺᠢᠭᠴᠧᠢᠭᠠᠵᠠᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲᠰᠣᠭᠳᠠᠮᠧᠰᠣᠫᠣᠲ᠋ᠠᠮᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠫᠠᠩᠵᠠᠪ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠦᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠷᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠺᠠᠷᠹᠠᠭᠧᠨᠷᠣᠮᠢᠪᠧᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠷᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯ ᠡᠷᠡᠮᠡᠯᠵᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠠᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ᠂ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠷᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ "ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠯᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ" ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠦᠨᠵᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠴᠠᠢ᠃

ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ 12 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ᠂ ᠬᠤᠮᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠣᠣᠷ᠂ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠵᠢᠭ᠂ ᠸᠢᠷᠦᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠷᠪᠢᠰᠦᠯ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢᠳᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠥᠬᠦᠴᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃[8][9] ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠣᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ᠂ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠯᠯᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ᠂ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠬᠣᠣᠰᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠯᠠ ᠮᠥᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠳᠣ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠬᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[10] ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠷᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠯᠬᠠᠷᠨᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠪᠡᠷᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨᠡᠬᠡᠷ 2 ᠡᠪᠡᠷᠲᠦ ᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠰᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦᠮᠢ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. Alexander. Online Etymology Dictionary. 2008-05-20 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  2. The birth of Alexander. Livius. 2008-05-20 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ - Leo Depuydt, 'The Time of Death of Alexander the Great: 11 June 323 BC, ca. 4:00-5:00 PM' in: Die Welt des Orients 28 (1997) 117-135.
  3. Pomeroy, S.; Burstein, S.; Dolan, W.; Roberts, J. (1998). Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509742-4.  -Hammond, N. G. L. (1989). The Macedonian State: Origins, Institutions, and History. Oxford University Press, 12–13. ISBN 0-19-814883-6; -Perseus By Daniel Ogden; -Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians By Bob Brier, A. Hoyt Hobbs; -A Survey of Historic Costume By Phyllis G. Tortora, Keith Eubank ; -Jesus of History, Christ of Faith, By Thomas Zanzig; -Territory By David Storey; -The Man in the Garden By Bronwyn Johnson ; -Why the Nativity? By David Jeremiah; -Zinc By Leon Gray; -A Historical Atlas of India By AishaKhan ; -Real Things in Nature By Edward Singleton Holden; -Women's Roots By June Stephenson; -The Great White Lies By Howard Randal Cox; -Writing in Ancient Egypt By Jil Fine; -Encountering Ancient Voices By Corrine L. Carvalho; -漫遊世界文明學英語 (20k+2cd) Published by 寂天文化 ISBN 9861840575, 9789861840574 ; -Shema is for Real By Joel Lurie Grishaver, Deena Bloomstone; -The Candlestick By E. Paul Braxton; moreover the Argead Dynasty, to which Alexander belonged claimed direct descend from Argos.
  4. ᠣᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠄ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ <ref> ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠄ name ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ danforth ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠬᠠᠨᠭᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
  5. ᠣᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠄ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ <ref> ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠄ name ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ stoneman ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠬᠠᠨᠭᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
  6. Sacks, David, (1995), Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World, London: Constable and Co. Ltd, ISBN 0-09-475270-2, p. 16.
  7. Bowra, C. M., [1957] (1994), The Greek Experience, London: Phoenix, Orion Books Ltd, ISBN 1-85799-122-2, p. 9.
  8. Alexander's death riddle is 'solved'. BBC (1998-06-11). 2008-05-20 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  9. Alexander the Great and West Nile Virus Encephalitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008-05-20 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  10. Alexander probably had greater affection for Achilles than for any other historical figure. Lysimachus, one of his boyhood tutors, indulged this fancy by some shamelessly ingratiating nomenclature: Alexander he called Achilles, Philip Peleus and himself Phoenix. Certainly, it seems true that Alexander modelled himself to a degree on the central figure of Homer's Iliad: both of them were prone to stewing sulks, and both held their horses in lofty regard. Macedonian society in general, it seems, was self-consciously Homeric, especially in the art of war.

ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction, edited by A.B. Bosworth, E.J. Baynham. New York: Oxford University Press (USA), 2002 (Paperback, ISBN 0-19-925275-0).
  • Baynham, Elizabeth. Alexander the Great: The Unique History of Quintus Curtius. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998 (hardcover, ISBN 0-472-10858-1); 2004 (paperback, ISBN 0-472-03081-7).
  • Brill's Companion to Alexander the Great by Joseph Roisman (editor). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2003.
  • Cartledge, Paul. Alexander the Great: The Hunt for a New Past. Woodstock, NY; New York: The Overlook Press, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 1-58567-565-2); London: PanMacmillan, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 1-4050-3292-8); New York: Vintage, 2005 (paperback, ISBN 1-4000-7919-5).
  • Dahmen, Karsten. The Legend of Alexander the Great on Greek and Roman Coins. Oxford: Routledge, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-415-39451-1; paperback, ISBN 0-415-39452-X).
  • De Santis, Marc G. 《At The Crossroads of Conquest.》 Military Heritage, December 2001. Volume 3, No. 3: 46–55, 97 (Alexander the Great, his military, his strategy at the Battle of Gaugamela and his defeat of Darius making Alexander the King of Kings).
  • Fuller, J.F. C; A Military History of the Western World: From the earliest times to the Battle of Lepanto; New York: Da Capo Press, Inc., 1987 and 1988. ISBN 0-306-80304-6
  • Gergel, Tania Editor Alexander the Great (2004) published by the Penguin Group, London ISBN 0-14-200140-6 Brief collection of ancient accounts translated into English
  • Larsen, Jakob A. O. "Alexander at the Oracle of Ammon", Classical Philology, Vol. 27, No. 1. (Jan., 1932), pp. 70–75.
  • Lonsdale, David. Alexander the Great, Killer of Men: History's Greatest Conqueror and the Macedonian Way of War, New York, Carroll & Graf, 2004, ISBN 0786714298
  • Pearson, Lionel Ignacius Cusack. The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great. Chicago Ridge, IL: Ares Publishers, 2004 (paperback, ISBN 0-89005-590-4).
  • Thomas, Carol G. Alexander the Great in his World (Blackwell Ancient Lives). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0631232451; paperback, ISBN 063123246X).

ᠭᠷᠧᠺ/ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • A. Shapur Shahbazi, "Iranians and Alexander", American Journal of Ancient History n.s. 2 (2003), 5–38: the Persian side of the story.
  • R.J. van der Spek, "Darius III, Alexander the Great and Babylonian scholarship" in: Achaemenid History 13 (2003), 289–346: an overview of several Babylonian sources
  • Two chapters of Jona Lendering's Dutch book Alexander de Grote, which uses the cuneiform sources, are available in translation. In this chapter, he argues that at Gaugamela, Alexander attacked a Persian army that was looking for an excuse to run away; and in this chapter, he offers a Babylonian perspective on Alexander's final days.

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ

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