ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ

ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠵᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠳᠤ 《ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠵᠢ》 ᠨᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠨᠢᠮ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠯᠴᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠦ᠋ᠷᠢᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠦ᠋ᠷᠢᠯᠢᠽᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ 《ᠮᠣᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ》 ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠮᠣᠨᠢᠰᠲ ᠣᠨᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠣᠨᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠸᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠪᠠ ᠫᠯᠦᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠳᠧᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ; ᠨᠧᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠮᠣᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠫᠢᠷᠢᠳ᠋ᠭᠡᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠴᠢᠳ 1-2 ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠣᠷᠲ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠢᠳᠧᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ 2 ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ: ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ? ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ? ᠢᠳᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠫᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠷᠧᠳᠦ᠋ᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠣᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠰ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠪᠢᠶᠧᠺᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠰ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠦᠨ ᠣᠪᠢᠶᠧᠺᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠷᠧᠳᠦ᠋ᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠤᠭᠤᠬᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠲ᠋ᠦᠶᠢᠧᠨᠼ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ Jerry fodor ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠹᠰᠢᠬᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢᠳᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ; ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢᠴᠢ Mary Midyley ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠸᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ᠂ ᠹᠧᠨᠣᠮᠧᠨᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ᠂ ᠢᠳᠧᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ᠂ ᠸᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠲᠡᠰᠦ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠯᠢᠭ-ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ-ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ 19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠺᠠᠷᠯ ᠮᠠᠷᠺᠰ heyel ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠫᠣᠽᠢᠲ᠋ᠢᠸᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

《Axial age》 ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ajita kesakambal; payasi; ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ carvaka, ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠫᠷᠣᠫᠤᠨᠧᠨᠲ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ 《600bc》 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠫᠷᠣᠫᠤᠨᠧᠨᠲ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Nyaya-viasesika ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ (600 bᠰ-100 bc) ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠᠶᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠢᠰᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ jaina ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬun zi (312-320bc) ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠷᠧᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ Yang xiong ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ Wang chony ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢᠴᠢ Anaxagoras (500-428bc); epicurus Democritus ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠴᠢ de rerum natura by Lucretius (99bc-55bc) ᠨᠢ epicurus ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ Democritus ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠮᠠᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠰᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠰ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ De rerum nuture ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠰ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠦᠨ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ᠂ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠰᠠᠯᠬᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ Jayaraashi bhatta (6 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ) ᠨᠢ ttwopaplavasimha ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ Nyaya sutra ᠶᠡᠫᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢᠴᠤᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ carvaka ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ 1400 AD ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃12 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ Al-Andalusi ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹ ᠤᠨ IBN Tu FAIL ᠨᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ Pierre ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠳᠤᠸᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ jean meslier, julien offroy de la mettrie, paul-henri Thiry baron d holdbach, Denis diderot Luywiy Feuerbach ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ john walking stewart ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Schopenhaver ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠣᠪᠢᠶᠧᠺᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠪᠢᠶᠧᠺᠲ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ

ᠮᠠᠷᠺᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ 1870 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠺᠰᠢᠰᠮ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ Karl Mark ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠺᠠᠷᠯ-ᠮᠠᠷᠺᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠹᠧ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠡᠩᠭᠧᠯᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠧᠭᠧᠯᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠳᠧᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠶᠡᠯᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠬᠢ ᠵᠠᠮᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠶᠠᠯᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠷᠺᠰ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠢᠳᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ᠂ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ 20 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠷᠺᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠩᠭᠧᠯᠰ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠫᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠮᠠᠷᠺᠰ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠴᠢᠳᠣᠳ Daneil Dennett, Willard Van Orman Quine, Donald Davidson, John Rogers Searle ᠪᠠ Jerry fodor ᠨᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠷᠧᠳᠦ᠋ᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠶᠡᠷᠭᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠬᠠᠨ Paul Patricia Churchland ᠨᠠᠷ ᠷᠠᠳᠢᠺᠠᠯ ᠺᠣᠨᠲ᠋ᠷᠠᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ eliminavist ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠲᠡᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠯᠢᠮᠢᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ 《ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ》 ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠷᠧᠲ᠋ᠤᠶᠢᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠯᠢᠮᠢᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ Revisionary ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ 19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠣᠨᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠫᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷᠲ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠸᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠮᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠺᠣᠰᠮᠠᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠸᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

Werner Heisenbery ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠨᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠭᠡᠷᠢᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠴᠢᠳ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠷᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ Notre dame Alvin plantinga ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠫᠷᠣᠹᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ Divinity Keith Ward ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠷᠣᠹᠧᠰᠰᠣᠷ Emiritus Regius ᠨᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ  ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠴᠢᠳ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠴᠢ Paul Davies ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ John Gribbin ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠺᠸᠠᠨᠲ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ chaos ᠍ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠺᠸᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ: ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ: ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ᠂ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ Locke ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ Berkely ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠᠯ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠳᠡᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨeyel ᠪᠠ Berkely ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯᠳᠦᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠳᠤᠸᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠪᠠ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠪᠢᠶᠧᠺᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠲ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠷᠧᠳᠦ᠋ᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠸᠢᠰᠲ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠣᠨᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯᠴᠢ John Polkinghorne ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠢ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠮᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠴᠦᠰᠲᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠰ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠪᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠴᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ (Polkinghorne ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠬᠣᠣᠰ ᠮᠣᠨᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠮᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ) ᠹᠰᠢᠬᠠᠯᠣᠭᠢᠰᠲ Iman dts Baruss ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠾᠧᠮ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ 《ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠭᠤ》 ᠰᠾᠧᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠰᠦᠪᠢᠶᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠪ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠺᠠᠳᠧᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

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