ᠮᠠᠰᠰᠠᠴᠢᠰᠧᠲ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠰ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠮᠠᠰᠰᠠᠴᠢᠰᠧᠲ᠋ᠲᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ
Commonwealth of Massachusetts
{{{ᠨᠡᠷᠡ}}} ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠰᠰᠠᠴᠢᠰᠧᠲ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠰ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
[[{{{ᠨᠡᠷᠡ}}} ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ|ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ]] [[{{{ᠨᠡᠷᠡ}}} ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ|ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ]]
ᠬᠣᠴᠢ(ᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ): Bay State
ᠤᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ: Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem (ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠯᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠬᠢ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ)
{{{ᠨᠡᠷᠡ}}} ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠰᠲᠠᠨ
ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠰᠲᠠᠨ
ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠣᠰᠲᠠᠨ
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ  [[ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ|ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ 44 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ]]
 - ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ 27,336 км²
 - ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ 295 km
 - ᠤᠷᠲᠤ 182 km
 - ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ % 25.7
 - ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠷᠢᠭ 41° 14′ N - 42° 53′ N
 - ᠤᠷᠲᠤᠷᠢᠭ 69° 56′ W - 73° 30′ W
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ  ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ 14 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ
 - ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ 6,449,755 (2007 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ)[1]
 - [[ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ|ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠰᠢᠯ]] 312.7/км²
[[ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ|ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ 3 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ]]
 - ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ  $56,592 (7)
ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ  
 - ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠭᠷᠡᠶᠢᠯᠣᠺ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ[2]
1,064 ᠮ
 - ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ 150 ᠮ
 - ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ[2]
0 ᠮ
[[ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ|ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ]]  1788 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 6 (6)
ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠯ ᠫᠠᠲᠷᠢᠺ (АН)
ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠢᠮ ᠮᠥᠷᠦᠷᠡᠢ (АН)
ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠧᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲ ᠲᠦ ᠺᠧᠨᠨᠡᠳ᠋ (АН)
ᠵᠣᠩ ᠺᠧᠷᠷᠢ (АН)
ᠺᠣᠩᠷᠧᠰᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ [[ᠮᠠᠰᠰᠠᠴᠢᠰᠧᠲ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠰ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠣᠩᠷᠧᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ|ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ]]
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ: UTC-5/-4
ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ MA Mass. US-MA
ᠸᠪᠰᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ www.mass.gov
ᠪᠣᠰᠲᠠᠨ

ᠮᠠᠰᠰᠠᠴᠢᠰᠧᠲ᠋ᠲᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ (ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Commonwealth of Massachusetts) ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠃ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠷ ᠡᠴᠦᠳ-ᠠᠶᠢᠯᠧᠨᠳᠺᠣᠨᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨᠨᠶᠤ-ᠢᠣᠷᠺ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠸᠧᠷᠮᠣᠨᠲᠨᠶᠤ-ᠬᠡᠮᠫᠰᠢᠷ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ 6.4 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠣᠯᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠠᠰᠰᠠᠴᠢᠰᠧᠲ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ДНБ ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠮᠠᠰᠰᠠᠴᠢᠰᠧᠲ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠰ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠫᠯᠪᠦᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠰᠰᠠᠴᠢᠰᠧᠲ᠋ᠲᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ 1620-1630 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ XVIII ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ "ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠢ" ᠭᠡᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 19 ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠰᠠᠴᠢᠰᠧᠲ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠰ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠰᠠᠴᠢᠰᠧᠲ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠰ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢᠳᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠰᠠᠴᠢᠰᠧᠲ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠰ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠡᠷᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠳᠠᠮᠰᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠺᠧᠨᠨᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃

ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠰᠠᠴᠢᠰᠧᠲ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠰ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠠᠯᠢᠩ ᠬᠥᠯᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠷᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠩᠭᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠰᠰᠠᠴᠢᠰᠧᠲ᠋ᠲᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠵᠦ᠂ 1990 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃

ᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/NST-ann-est.html 2007 Population Estimates
  2. 2.0 2.1 Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). 2006 ᠣᠨ ᠤ November 6 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠨᠣᠮᠵᠦ᠋ᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠣᠶᠢᠮᠣ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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  • Works Progress Administration. Guide to Massachusetts (1939)

ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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  • Adams, James Truslow. Revolutionary New England, 1691-1776 (1923)
  • Adams, James Truslow. New England in the Republic, 1776-1850 (1926)
  • Andrews, Charles M. The Fathers of New England: A Chronicle of the Puritan Commonwealths (1919), short survey
  • Conforti, Joseph A. Imagining New England: Explorations of Regional Identity from the Pilgrims to the Mid-Twentieth Century (2001)
  • Cumbler, John T. Reasonable Use: The People, the Environment, and the State, New England, 1790-1930 (1930), environmental history
  • Fischer, David Hackett. Paul Revere's Ride (1994), 1775 in depth
  • Green, James R., William F. Hartford, and Tom Juravich. Commonwealth of Toil: Chapters in the History of Massachusetts Workers and Their Unions (1996)
  • Huthmacher, J. Joseph. Massachusetts People and Politics, 1919-1933 (1958)
  • Labaree, Benjamin Woods. Colonial Massachusetts: A History (1979)
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783-1860 (1921)
  • Peirce, Neal R. The New England States: People, Politics, and Power in the Six New England States (1976), 1960-75 era
  • Porter, Susan L. Women of the Commonwealth: Work, Family, and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century Massachusetts (1996)
  • Sletcher, Michael. New England (2004).
  • Starkey, Marion L. The Devil in Massachusetts (1949), Salem witches
  • Tager, Jack, and John W. Ifkovic, eds. Massachusetts in the Gilded Age: Selected Essays (1985), ethnic groups
  • Zimmerman, Joseph F. The New England Town Meeting: Democracy in Action (1999)

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ