ᠮᠠᠮᠣ᠋ ᠸᠣᠯᠳᠧ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠮᠠᠮᠣ᠋ ᠸᠣᠯᠳᠧ
ᠬᠥᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠲᠯᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ
ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠤᠯᠠᠰ: {{{ᠤᠯᠠᠰ}}}
ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ
ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠧᠭᠭ᠎ᠠ 《ᠮᠠᠮᠣ᠋》 ᠸᠣᠯᠳᠧ
ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1932 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 12
ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠯᠯᠧ
ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 2002 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 5 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 26
 
ᠮᠧᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ
ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ
ᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠮᠧᠬᠢᠺᠣ 1968 ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠹᠣᠨ
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥ ᠮᠧᠬᠢᠺᠣ 1968 10,000 ᠮ
ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠸᠨ 1972 ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠹᠣᠨ
ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠮ
ᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠯᠠᠭᠣᠰ 1973 ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠹᠣᠨ

ᠳᠧᠭᠭ᠎ᠠ 《ᠮᠠᠮᠣ᠋》 ᠸᠣᠯᠳᠧ (Degaga (《Mamo》) Wolde, 1932 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 12 – 2002 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 5 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 26) ᠨᠢ ᠡᠲ᠋ᠢᠣᠫ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠭᠴᠢ᠂ 1968 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠹᠣᠨ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠬᠥᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠲᠯᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠸᠣᠯᠳᠧ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠯᠯᠧ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠮᠣ ᠠᠶᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ[1]᠃ 1951 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠳᠠᠳᠢᠰ-ᠠᠪᠧᠪᠠ ᠷᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ᠂ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ 1953 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ 1955 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ[2]

ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠣᠳ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 1956 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ 800 ᠮ᠂ 1,500 ᠮ᠂ 4x400 ᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠤᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠠᠪᠧᠪᠧ ᠪᠢᠺᠠᠯ ᠡᠲ᠋ᠢᠣᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1960 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠣᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠣᠩ ᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠺᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠭᠴᠦ᠂ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠲ᠋ᠢᠣᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠣᠳ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠰᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠸᠣᠯᠳᠧ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠣᠳ ᠡᠲ᠋ᠢᠣᠫ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ 800 ᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠳ ᠮᠥᠰᠰᠠ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ᠂ ᠸᠣᠯᠳᠧ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠣᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠄ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ <ref> ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ︔ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠪᠰᠢ name ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ︕.

1960 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠸᠣᠯᠳᠧ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠦᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 1964 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠣᠳ 10,000 ᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ 4 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠠᠪᠧᠪᠧ ᠪᠢᠺᠠᠯ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠹᠣᠨ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1968 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠹᠣᠨ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠸᠣᠯᠳᠧ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠹᠣᠨ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 10,000 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠮᠧᠳᠠᠯ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1972 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 40 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢ ᠸᠣᠯᠳᠧ ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠹᠣᠨ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ 3 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠮᠧᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠵᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ 3 ᠍ ᠷᠲ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠡᠲ᠋ᠢᠣᠫ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠮᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠤᠲᠤᠯ ᠬᠥᠯᠳᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭᠣᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠄ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ <ref> ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ︔ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠪᠰᠢ name ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ︕. ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠺᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 2 ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠹᠣᠨ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠮᠧᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 2 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠸᠣᠯᠳᠧ 1973 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠠᠹᠣᠨ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

1993 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠸᠣᠯᠳᠧ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠩᠭᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠮᠧᠩᠭᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠤ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠧ ᠮᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠧᠷᠷᠣᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠤ 2002 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ 6 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠨᠣᠰᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ 9 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠢᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠰᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠥᠭᠴᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 2 ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠷᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ 3 ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ[3]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. The Ordeal of Mamo Wolde (accessed 12 September 2006)
  2. Vettenniemi, Erkki (2002). The Life and Trials of Malmo Wolde (accessed 15 September 2006)
  3. Amnesty International article on Mamo Wolde (accessed 15 September 2006)

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ