ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ

ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠮᠰᠠᠷ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠮᠰᠠᠷ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ 1654 ᠤᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠰᠺᠷᠧᠲ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ᠂ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠪᠢᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢᠺᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠨᠠᠯᠢᠽᠢ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠮᠣᠭᠣᠷᠪᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠷᠢᠴᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠹᠣᠨ ᠮᠠᠶᠢᠽᠧᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠭᠲᠠᠷᠭᠤᠢ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠍ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠮᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠸ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠺᠰᠢᠣᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠺᠰᠢᠣᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠢ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ 1933 ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃[1]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠣᠮ ᠵᠦᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • Pierre Simon de Laplace (1812). Analytical Theory of Probability. 
The first major treatise blending calculus with probability theory, originally in French: Théorie Analytique des Probabilités.
  • Andrei Nikolajevich Kolmogorov (1950). Foundations of the Theory of Probability. 
The modern measure-theoretic foundation of probability theory; the original German version (Grundbegriffe der Wahrscheinlichkeitrechnung) appeared in 1933.
  • Patrick Billingsley (1979). Probability and Measure. New York, Toronto, London: John Wiley and Sons. 
  • Henk Tijms (2004). Understanding Probability. Cambridge Univ. Press. 
A lively introduction to probability theory for the beginner.
  • Gut, Allan (2005). Probability: A Graduate Course. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0387228330. 

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