ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (1945)
ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ: ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ-ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ (1945)
ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ᠂ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ᠃
ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 09-20
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ/ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ-ᠭᠣ
ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ/ᠮᠡᠩᠢᠩ
ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ
ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ
ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠃
ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠢᠭᠣ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ
ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ
ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠍ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠴᠤ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ
Flag of the Soviet Union 1923.svg ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1924-1940).svg ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ
Flag of Manchukuo.svg ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ-ᠭᠣ
Menjiang Flag 1945.svg ᠮᠡᠩᠵᠢᠩ
(ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ)
ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ
Flag of the Soviet Union 1923.svgᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠸᠠᠰᠡᠯᠧᠦᠢᠰᠺ ᠦ
Flag of the Soviet Union 1923.svg ᠷᠣᠳᠢᠶᠣᠨ ᠮᠠᠯᠢᠨᠠᠪᠰᠺ ᠦ
Flag of the Soviet Union 1923.svg ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠮᠧᠷᠧᠼᠺᠣᠸ
Flag of the Soviet Union 1923.svg ᠮᠠᠺᠰᠢᠮ ᠫᠦᠺᠠᠸ
Flag of the Soviet Union 1923.svg ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠱᠧᠸ
Flag of the Soviet Union 1923.svg ᠨᠧᠣᠨ ᠠᠨᠲᠠᠨᠠᠪ
Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1924-1940).svg ᠬᠣᠷᠯᠤ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠣᠶᠢᠪᠠᠯᠰᠠᠩ
Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠳᠠ ᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠼᠣ表达式错误:无法识别的词语“strong”
Flag of Manchukuo.svg ᠫᠦ-ᠢ表达式错误:无法识别的词语“strong”
ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ
:
1,685,500 ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ[1]
26,137 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠤ
1,852 ᠭᠢᠪᠢᠼ
5,556 ᠲᠠᠩᠺ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠤ
5,368 ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ:
16,000-21,000 ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ
ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ:
1,217,000 ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ
5,360 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠤ
1,155 ᠲᠠᠩᠺ
1,800 ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ
1,215 ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠭᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ[2]
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠢᠭᠣ:
200,000 ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ[3]
ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ:
10,000 ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ
ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ
9,726 ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠰᠢᠷᠬᠠᠲᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ
ᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ WIA[1]
83,737 ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ
640,276 ᠣᠯᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ

ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠣᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠮᠠᠴᠵᠦᠷᠰᠺᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠲᠷᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠢᠴᠧᠰᠺᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠤᠫᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠯᠨᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠫᠧᠷᠠᠼᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ) 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 9 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠭᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ-ᠭᠣᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠷᠤ ᠴᠥᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ 4 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮᠵᠢᠮᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠡᠪᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠮᠡᠩᠢᠩ (ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ), ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠭᠡᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ "ᠪᠤᠯᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ", "ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ᠂ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠦ (ᠭᠣᠮᠢᠨᠳᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ) ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠭᠲᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 2 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ 3 ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠸᠠᠨᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠡᠭᠰᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠮᠰᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[2][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

1983 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢ ᠳᠡᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠭᠯᠠᠨᠼ]] ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ "ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠤᠭ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃[2] 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 9 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 10 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 《ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ》 ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠺᠸᠠᠨᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠯᠢᠨ᠂ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ 1,3 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ , ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠢᠭᠣ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ 200 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠣᠹᠢᠼᠧᠷ᠂ 1215 ᠲᠠᠩᠺ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ 6640 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠤ᠂ ᠮᠢᠨᠦᠮᠢᠶᠣᠲ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ 1907 ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 25 ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠢᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 18.0 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠢᠽ 10.0 ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠣᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠥᠪ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠺᠣᠮᠠᠨᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠪᠤ᠂ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠲ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠫᠷᠦᠰ᠂ᠴᠧᠬᠣᠰᠯᠣᠸᠠᠺ᠂ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠢ᠂ᠤᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ 6,16,35,39,53 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠷᠣᠨᠲᠣᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠷᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 9-12 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ km ᠵᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ᠂ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ᠂ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ 1.7 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ 5250 ᠲᠠᠩᠺ᠂ 29835 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠤ᠂ ᠮᠢᠨᠦᠮᠢᠶᠣᠲ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ 5171 ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ 93 ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠣᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠣᠫᠧᠷᠠᠼ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ 70-90 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ 1.5-1.7 ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ 4-4.5, ᠲᠠᠩᠺ 5-8, ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ 2.6 ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠲᠠ ᠴᠤᠬᠢᠬᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠣᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ᠂ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠮᠨᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠣᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠮᠠᠨᠧᠸᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠣᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠣᠫᠧᠷᠠᠼᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠷᠣᠨᠲ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ 6 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠭᠸᠠᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠᠯ ᠫᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠨᠧᠸᠷᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ 6 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠭᠸᠠᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠤᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠢ᠂ ᠴᠧᠬᠣᠰᠯᠣᠸᠠᠺ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ ᠣᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠭᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠷᠣᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠣᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ 1000 ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠮ km ᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠨᠧᠸᠷᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭᠲᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ 6 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠭᠸᠠᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 450 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ km ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠤᠯᠠᠯᠠᠰ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠫᠧᠷᠠᠼ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠨᠢ 6 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠭᠸᠠᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠹᠷᠣᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠤᠩᠭᠢᠳᠠ 300 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ km ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠤᠨᠲᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ 1936 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 《ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠺᠣᠯ》 ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦᠳᠡ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 10 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠪᠠ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ 5, 6, 7, 8 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠲᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠢᠽ᠂ 7 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠭᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠭᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠠᠳᠠ᠂ ᠲᠠᠩᠺ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠤ᠂ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣ᠋ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠢᠽ᠂ ᠬᠢᠮᠮᠦᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ᠂ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ᠂ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠲᠤ ᠣᠲᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠳ 《ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠷᠣᠨᠲ》 ᠍ ᠤᠨ 《ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ》 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠠᠷᠱᠠᠯ ᠴᠣᠶᠢᠪᠠᠯᠰᠠᠩ᠂ ᠳᠡᠰᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᡀᠠᠭᠸᠠᠰᠦ᠋ᠷᠦᠩ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠥᠵᠠᠢ᠃

1935-1945 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠴᠤ 80 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠲᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠴᠦ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ 100 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠷᠦᠪᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠣᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨ᠋ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ- ᠲᠠᠮᠰᠤᠭᠤᠪᠤᠯᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠠᠮ (380 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ), ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ- ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨᠪᠤᠯᠠᠭ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠲᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠴᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 9 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠨᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ- ᠵᠢᠬᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠵᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠴᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠱᠧᠨᠰᠢᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠷᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ᠂ ᠶᠠᠩᠳᠤ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠲᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ 13 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ 150 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠴᠥᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠨᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ (ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ 450 km ᠳᠦ) ᠴᠠᠰᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠪᠠ᠃ МАХЦ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ 5, 7 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠢᠽ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 17 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠹ ᠤᠨᠢᠨ᠂ 20 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠴᠠᠺᠣᠤ᠂ 21 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠯᠤᠨᠢᠬᠤ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃

МАХЦ ᠍ ᠦᠨ 7, 8 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠢᠽ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ 8:20 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠢᠬᠦᠭ ᠠᠪᠤᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ 8000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ᠂ 9126 ᠸᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠣᠸ᠂ 123 ᠫᠦᠯᠧᠮᠶᠣᠲ᠂ 15 ᠮᠢᠨᠦᠮᠢᠶᠣᠲ᠂ 6 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠤ᠂ 3 ᠲᠠᠩᠺ᠂ 300 ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠂ 42 ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠯᠵᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠺᠸᠠᠨᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ aᠷᠮ ᠢ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠪᠠ᠃ 6 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠢᠽ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 21 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠨᠵᠢᠲᠤᠩ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠭᠤᠶᠤᠪᠡᠶᠢᠺᠣᠤ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ (ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ 1010 km ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ) 5 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠢᠽ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 22 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠤᠯᠪᠠ᠃

8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 9 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ-ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ᠂ ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠨᠽᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 11 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠥᠨᠢᠳ᠂ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ (ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ 200 km) ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠴᠠᠰᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠪᠰᠠᠷ (8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 13), ᠵᠠᠩᠪᠡᠢ (8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 18) ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠩᠴᠠᠬᠦᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠤᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ 560 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠩᠴᠠᠬᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠦᠰᠢᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠦ 《ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠ》 ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ МАХЦ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠨᠢᠶᠠᠨᠲᠠᠶᠢᠰᠦ᠋ᠷᠦᠩ ᠦᠨ 7 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠭᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠠᠳᠠ᠂ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ 27 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠮᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠠᠳᠠ 3 ᠬᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠰᠢᠷᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠡᠪᠳᠡᠨ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 21 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ 78 ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ 200 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠭᠥᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ 594 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠣᠯᠵᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ 12318 ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠣᠯᠵᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠠᠳᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣ᠋ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠳᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠨ ᠤᠭ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠦᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠬᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤᠭᠲᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ II ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ II ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠴᠠᠩ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠴᠤ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠨ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 2 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ 《ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠲ᠋ᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠺᠸ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ》 ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠯ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ 《ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠭᠣᠭᠴᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ》 ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Glantz, David M. & House, Jonathan (1995), When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, ISBN 0-7006-0899-0, p. 300
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 LTC David M. Glantz, "August Storm: The Soviet 1945 Strategic Offensive in Manchuria". Leavenworth Papers No. 7, Combat Studies Institute, February 1983, Fort Leavenworth Kansas.
  3. Jowett, Rays of The Rising Sun, Pg. 36
  4. "Battlefield - Manchuria - The Forgotten Victory", Battlefield (documentary series), 2001, 98 minutes.
  5. Hayashi, S. (1955). Vol. XIII - Study of Strategic and Tactical peculiarities of Far Eastern Russia and Soviet Far East Forces. Japanese Special Studies on Manchuria. Tokyo, Military History Section, Headquarters, Army Forces Far East, US Army.
  6. Drea, E J. (1984). Missing Intentions : Japanese Intelligence and the Soviet Invasion of Manchuria, 1945. Military Affairs 48(2): 66-73.
  7. Robert Butow, Japan's Decision to Surrender, Stanford University Press, 1954 ISBN 978-0-8047-0460-1.
  8. Richard B. Frank, Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire, Penguin, 2001 ISBN 978-0-14-100146-3.
  9. Robert James Maddox, Hiroshima in History: The Myths of Revisionism, University of Missouri Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0-8262-1732-5.
  10. Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan, Belknap Press, 2006 ISBN 0-674-01693-9.

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