ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠭᠤᠳᠠ
ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠷᠴᠠᠳᠠᠰᠤ

██ 0-20 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ

██ 20-65 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ

██ >65 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ

ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠦᠳ

██ ᠪᠠᠮᠪᠠᠢ (ᠱᠢᠲ)

██ ᠫᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠹᠣᠷᠮ

██ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠧᠨ

██ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ

██ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠸᠭᠳᠺᠠᠨ ᠫᠯᠤᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ

██ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ (ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ) ᠴᠠᠷᠴᠠᠳᠠᠰᠤ

ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ (ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ: γη᠂ ge, "ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ"; ᠪᠠ λόγος᠂ logos, "ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ") ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡᠰᠦᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠰᠲᠷᠤᠶᠢᠺᠲ᠋ᠦᠶᠢᠷᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ᠂ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ᠂ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠨᠠᠷᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ᠂ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠢ (ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠢ᠂ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷᠵᠡᠰᠤᠷᠠᠨ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠢ) ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠦ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠤ ᠠᠯ-ᠷᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠠ-ᠪᠢᠷᠦᠨᠢ (Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni) (МЭ 973-1048) ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ ᠱᠧᠨ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠠ (Shen Kua) (МЭ 1031-1095) ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠰᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠢᠷᠡᠰᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠮᠳᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠳᠡᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

1556 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠴᠢ ᠭᠧᠣᠷᠭ ᠠᠭᠷᠢᠺᠣᠯᠠ (1494-1555) ᠍ ᠦᠨ "De re metallica libri XII" ᠨᠣᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠬᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ᠂ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷᠬᠥᠩᠭᠡᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠢᠵᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠷᠪᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠨᠢᠺᠣᠯᠠᠰ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠨᠠ (1638-1686) ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠷᠠᠬᠢ (ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠪᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ) ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠸᠢᠯᠢᠶᠮ ᠰᠮᠢᠲ (1769-1839) ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠶᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃

ᠵᠡᠮᠰ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠳᠤᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 1785 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ "ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ" (Theory of the Earth) ᠥᠭᠥᠯᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠨ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠰᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 1795 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 2 ᠪᠣᠲᠢ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠵᠣᠷᠵᠧᠰ ᠺᠦᠪᠧᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠪᠷᠣᠩᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷᠲ ᠨᠠᠷ 1811 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠦᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠸᠢᠯᠢᠶᠮ ᠰᠮᠢᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠫᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠢᠺ - ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠷᠴᠠᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ

ᠴᠢᠷᠠᠯᠵᠠ ᠯᠢᠧᠯᠯ (Charles Lyell) "ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ" (Principles of Geology) ᠨᠣᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 1830 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1875 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠨᠢᠹᠣᠷᠮᠢᠰᠮ (uniformitarianism) ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠢᠪᠴᠤᠳᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠴᠤ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠨᠢᠹᠣᠷᠮᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ (ᠰᠦᠢᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ - catastrophism) ᠪᠣᠯ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠦᠢᠷᠡᠯ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠦᠢᠷᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ "ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ" ᠍ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ 100,000 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

20 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯ 1960 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠫᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠷᠴᠠᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ  ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 1908 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠺ ᠪᠤᠷᠰᠯᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠯᠣᠷ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠠᠯᠹᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠸᠧᠭᠧᠨᠧᠷ (1912) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠤ ᠳᠤᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠮᠧᠰ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ 1960 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠫᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠢᠩᠲᠦᠷᠢᠭᠦᠵᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ - ᠬᠡᠷᠪᠡ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠩᠲᠦᠷᠢᠭᠦᠵᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠣᠭᠲᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠᠯ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠩᠲᠦᠷᠢᠭᠦᠵᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠢᠩᠲᠦᠷᠢᠭᠦᠵᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ ᠪᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢ ᠳᠤᠰᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠠᠶᠢᠺ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ᠃

ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ - ᠬᠡᠷᠪᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠨ ᠣᠭᠲᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠᠯ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠡᠷᠪᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠤᠴᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠᠯ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠴᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠥᠭᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠡᠮᠬᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ - ᠬᠡᠮᠬᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠬᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠬᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠢᠷᠡᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠬᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠬᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠮᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠬᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠹᠣᠷᠮᠠᠼᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠤᠨᠢᠹᠣᠷᠮᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ - ᠣᠳᠣ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠢ ᠱᠣᠲᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠴᠢ᠂ ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢᠴᠢ ᠵᠡᠮᠰ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠳᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ "ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ", "ᠣᠳᠣ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠦᠯᠬᠢᠭᠦᠷ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ - ᠬᠡᠷᠪᠡ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠢᠺ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠷᠲᠥᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ᠂ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠰᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ᠂ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ - ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠮᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠭ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠂ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ (ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠮᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ) ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠸᠢᠯᠢᠶᠮ ᠰᠮᠢᠲ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠺᠯᠢᠨᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠺᠯᠢᠨᠠᠯ ᠰᠲᠷᠺᠲᠡᠭᠦᠷ

ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠦᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Commons
Викимедиа дуу дүрсний сан: Category:Geology
http://wiki.uhaan.com/index.php?title=ᠭᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ&oldid=432918》 ᠍  ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ

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