ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ
ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ: ᠫᠯᠧᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠼᠧᠨ(更新世) - ᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ
Pioneer 10 ᠪᠠ Pioneer  11 ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ  ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ
Pioneer 10 ᠪᠠ Pioneer 11 ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ
ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠯ
ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ: ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ
ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ: ᠬᠥᠪᠴᠢᠲᠡᠨ
ᠠᠩᠭᠢ: ᠬᠥᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ
ᠪᠠᠭ: ᠫᠷᠢᠮᠠᠲ
ᠣᠪᠤᠭ: ᠬᠥᠮᠦᠨᠢᠳ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ: ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ
ᠵᠦᠢᠯ: ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ (H. sapiens)
ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ: H. s. sapiens
ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ
Homo sapiens sapiens

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ (ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Homo sapiens ) ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠫᠷᠢᠮᠠᠲ (Primates) ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠬᠥᠮᠦᠨᠢᠳ (Hominidae) ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠤ (ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ: H. s. sapiens)᠎ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ [1][2]ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ᠂ ᠰᠡᠳᠭᠢᠭᠦ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠴᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠨᠴᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠯᠳᠡᠪ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠳᠧᠽᠣᠺᠰᠢᠷᠢᠪᠨᠢᠺᠯᠧᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ︵DNA︶ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 200,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠨ[3]᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 2012 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ 70 ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[4]

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ Australopithecus afarensis ᠍ ᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠢᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ Homo sapiens ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ "ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ" ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ (Homo sapiens) ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ Homo sapiens sapiens ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ Homo sapiens ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 160,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ Homo sapiens idaltu ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[5]᠃ 130,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ᠂ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠠᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ [6][7]

Homo sapiens ᠍ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠫᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ 2 ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠰᠠᠷᠮᠠᠭᠴᠢᠨ: ᠪᠨᠣᠪᠣ (Pan paniscus) ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠮᠫᠠᠨᠽᠧ (Pan paniscus) ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ "ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ" (ᠰᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ) ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠨᠣᠪ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠰᠢᠮᠫᠠᠨᠽᠧ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ "6.5 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠨᠣᠪᠣ/ᠰᠢᠮᠫᠠᠨᠽᠧ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ 10 ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠤ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ 10 ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠨᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ 2 ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠰᠠᠷᠮᠠᠭᠴᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠧᠽᠣᠺᠰᠢᠷᠢᠪᠨᠢᠺᠯᠧᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠍ ᠦᠨ 95% ᠨᠢ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠴᠠᠢ[8][9][10][11]᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠰᠢᠮᠫᠠᠨᠽᠧᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 5 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠭᠣᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ  ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ 8 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

1990 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ 40,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[12]᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ 100,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠤ ᠰᠢᠷᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ᠂ ᠡᠯᠳᠡᠪ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ 800,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠣᠮᠣ ᠰᠠᠫᠢᠧᠨᠰ ᠯᠠ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠰᠴᠦ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ 40,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠯᠪᠢᠷ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ (ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ) ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ᠂ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰᠴᠤᠳ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠤᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠨᠳᠢᠶᠠᠨᠴᠤᠤᠳ᠂ ᠰᠢᠪᠸᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠠᠯᠢᠰᠺ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠪᠢ ᠬᠢᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠹᠢᠨ-ᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳᠰᠢᠪᠸᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠩᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ 10,000 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ᠂ ᠰᠺᠠᠨᠳᠢᠨᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠴᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠹᠢᠨ ᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠺᠠᠨᠳᠢᠨᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠᠴᠤᠳ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠰᠯᠠᠸᠶᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠧᠦᠷᠣᠫᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

Y ᠳᠧᠽᠣᠺᠰᠢᠷᠢᠪᠨᠢᠺᠯᠧᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠ-3

ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ 100,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ᠰᠢᠪᠢᠷᠢ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠺᠠᠨᠳᠢᠨᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ᠂ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠲ᠋ᠦᠩᠬᠦᠰ ᠤᠳ C3 ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠩ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠲ᠋ᠦᠩᠬᠦᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠵᠠᠢ᠃ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠪᠸᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠫᠠᠯᠧᠣᠠᠽᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠺᠠᠭᠢᠷᠺᠧᠲᠨᠢᠪᠬ᠂ ᠰᠠᠮᠤᠧᠳᠢ᠂ ᠡᠰᠺᠢᠮᠣᠰ ᠤᠳ N, Q ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠢᠪᠸᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠢᠷᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠭᠦᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠯᠪᠢᠷ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠹᠢᠨ ᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠢᠨᠳᠢᠶᠠᠨᠴᠤᠤᠳ᠂ ᠰᠢᠪᠸᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠰᠠᠯᠵᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ᠃ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠂ ᠤᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠦᠺᠷᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠹᠢᠨ ᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ᠂ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ᠂ ᠦᠺᠷᠠᠶᠡᠨᠳ ᠤᠤᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠪᠸᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠᠪᠤᠲᠤᠩᠯᠳᠠᠺᠬᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ᠂ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ᠂ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ , ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠋ᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠪᠷᠦᠨᠧᠢᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠢᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠺᠠᠮᠪᠤᠵᠠᠸᠢᠶᠧᠲ᠋ᠨᠠᠮ 2 ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

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ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ-ᠫᠠᠫᠦᠠ

ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠳ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ᠂ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠵᠤᠤᠪᠠᠩ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠧᠦᠷᠣᠫᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠴᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠪᠣᠭᠣᠷ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠺᠷᠠᠨᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠠᠮ᠂ ᠬᠠᠴᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠣᠪᠣᠭᠣᠷ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ᠂ ᠳᠣᠷᠰᠣᠭᠣᠷ ᠰᠢᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠴᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠪᠣᠭᠣᠷ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ᠂ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠦᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠫᠠᠫᠦᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠫᠠᠫᠦᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠫᠠᠫᠦᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠫᠦᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠰᠢᠷᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠩᠬᠡᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ᠂ ᠨᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷ᠂ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠶᠠᠭ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠮᠥᠨ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦᠷᠬᠡᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ᠂ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ᠂ ᠠᠶᠤᠩᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠴᠤᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠭᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠵᠤᠤᠪᠠᠩᠳᠠᠭᠤ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ᠂ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣ 3 ᠭᠠᠫᠯᠣ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠴᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ᠂ ᠪᠤᠲᠤᠩ᠂ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠭᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠵᠤᠤᠪᠠᠩ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠤᠲᠠᠼ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ᠂ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲᠣᠳ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠥᠯᠳᠥᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲᠣᠳ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ᠂ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲᠣᠳ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃

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ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠨ᠋ᠲ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ
ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ

ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ᠂ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ᠂ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠴᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠴᠢᠷᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠫᠯᠣᠭᠷᠦᠶᠢᠫ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ᠂ ᠪᠤᠲᠤᠩ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣ ᠰ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ DM174 ᠭᠠᠫᠯᠣᠭᠷᠦᠶᠢᠫ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠤᠷᠠᠨᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠷ᠂ ᠴᠤᠸᠠᠰ᠂ ᠦᠽᠪᠧᠺ᠂ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ᠂ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ᠂ ᠺᠠᠸᠬᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠹᠢᠨ ᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠣ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠧᠦᠷᠣᠫᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ᠂ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠥᠷᠥ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪ ᠠᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ[13] ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠣᠳᠣ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠬᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[14]᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠪᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ (homogeneous)[15][16][17][18], ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢ (genetically diverse) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ[19]᠃ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ "ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ" ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ "ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ" ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠥᠩᠭᠡᠵᠢ 5-15% ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[20]᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[21][22]

ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ

ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠤᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠷᠤᠭ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 6,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠡᠢ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ᠂ ᠲ᠋ᠦᠩᠬᠦᠰ ᠤᠳ , ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ᠂ ᠺᠧᠯᠲ ᠦᠳ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠴᠤᠳ (ᠢᠷᠡᠨ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ), ᠰᠯᠠᠸᠶᠠᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠩ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠢ᠃ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠪᠢᠯᠤᠨᠠᠺᠺᠠᠳᠰᠢᠮᠧᠷᠴᠤᠳ᠂ ᠲᠦᠺᠠᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠧᠲ ᠲᠦᠯᠤᠪᠡᠶᠢᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠷᠣᠮᠣᠴᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠺᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠯᠯᠴᠤᠳᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤᠳᠢᠮᠧᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠮᠤᠷᠣᠮ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠹᠢᠨ ᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠫ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲ ᠦᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ᠺᠣᠫ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ᠂ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠨᠲᠷᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ Homo sapiens ᠨᠢ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠪᠠᠨᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ 200,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ Homo erectus ᠍ ᠰ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ 40,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ᠂ 10,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠵᠠᠢ[23]᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ Homo sapiens ᠍ ᠤᠳ Homo erectus ᠍ ᠰ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ (ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ Homo neanderthalensis - ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢ ᠳᠤ 2 ᠰᠠᠶᠠᠰ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 10,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠣᠲᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ (ᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ), ᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡᠡᠰᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠦ᠂ ᠲᠣᠰᠬᠣᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠂ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 6,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠤᠯᠠᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠮᠧᠰᠣᠫᠣᠲ᠋ᠠᠮᠢᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠢ᠂ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ᠂ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ᠂ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ 2,000–3,000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠫᠧᠷᠰᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠡᠷ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠦᠰᠦᠷᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠪᠡ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ 17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ᠂ 18 ᠪᠠ 19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠠᠮ᠂ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠮᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ (ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠦ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ) ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩᠭᠠᠩ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ᠃

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ (ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤᠶᠢᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠣᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ), ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠳ᠋, ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠷ᠂ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ 6 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ 61% ᠨᠢ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ 14% ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ᠂ 13% ᠨᠢ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ᠂ 12% ᠨᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ᠂ 0.5% ᠨᠢ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠳ᠋ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠩ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1969, 1972 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 2 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠷᠣᠪᠣ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠳ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

1800 - 2000 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ 1 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ 6 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠪᠡ᠃ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 2.5 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠥᠰᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠬᠢᠷᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[24]

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠩ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ[25]᠃ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠪᠠᠯ᠂ 21 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[26][27]

ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠶᠡᠭᠷᠠᠮ (ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ)
ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ

ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠢ

ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ 1.5 - 1.8 ᠮ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[28][29]᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠫᠷᠢᠮᠠᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠦᠰᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ᠂ ᠰᠤᠭᠤ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ᠂ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠂ ᠲᠠᠴᠢᠷ ᠦᠰᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ[30]ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠷ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ᠂ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠩ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[31]᠃ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠤᠶᠠᠭ᠎ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠤᠶᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[32][33]᠃ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 7-8 ᠴᠠᠭ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ 9-10 ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨᠲᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠡᠰᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ 23 ᠬᠣᠣᠰ ᠾᠷᠣᠮᠣᠰᠤᠮ᠎ᠠᠲᠣᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ 22 ᠬᠣᠣᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠰᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠣᠣᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠾᠷᠣᠮᠣᠰᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 20,000-25,000 ᠭᠧᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠥᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ XY ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ХХ᠂ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ XY ᠾᠷᠣᠮᠣᠰᠤᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

5 ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠥᠪᠦᠷᠡᠯ

ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠥᠴᠡᠯᠭᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠥᠴᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠥᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ᠃ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠴᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠥᠨᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠰ ᠢ ᠽᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 38 ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠵᠢᠷᠮᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠥᠪᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠷᠨᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠬᠢᠳ

ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠦᠰᠳᠡᠯ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ᠂ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠭᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[34][35]᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠵᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 3 – 4 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠭᠷᠠᠮ᠂ 50 – 60 ᠰᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[36]᠃ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠂ 12 - 15 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠬᠢᠳ 18 ᠨᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠬᠥᠪᠡᠭᠦᠳ 21 ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠰᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩᠭᠠᠩ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ 84.8, ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠶᠢᠬᠢ 78.9 ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠰᠪᠠᠽᠢᠯᠢᠨ ᠳᠦᠡᠳ᠋ ДОХ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠳᠥᠩᠭᠡᠵᠢ 31.3 ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[37]ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠤ 5 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠤ 20 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ 60 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ[38]

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠦᠨ 2002 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ 100 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢ 210,000 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[39]᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ 60 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢ 100 ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ 81 ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠯᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠵᠦᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ

ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ "ᠳ᠋ᠣᠣ ᠳᠤ" ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠣᠮ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ "ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ" ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠮᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠬᠤ᠂ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ[40]᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠤᠬᠠᠮᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯᠵᠦᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠮᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠩ ᠰᠣᠪᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ[41]

ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

edit
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ
ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ 6,670,000,000 (2008 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 4 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ)
ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠰᠢᠯ (ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ) ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ km² ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠳᠤ 12.7 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ
ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ km² ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠳᠤ 43.6 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ
ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ (ᠬᠣᠲᠠ) ᠲᠣᠤᠺᠢᠣ᠋, ᠮᠧᠬᠢᠺᠣᠰᠠᠩ-ᠫᠠᠤᠯᠤᠪᠤᠢᠨᠣᠰ-ᠠᠶᠤᠷᠧᠰᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠪᠤᠯᠵᠠᠺᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠠᠱᠠᠩᠬᠠᠢᠬᠣᠩ ᠺᠣᠩᠮᠠᠨᠢᠯᠺᠠᠢᠷᠨᠶᠤ ᠢᠣᠷᠺᠯᠣᠰ ᠠᠨᠵᠧᠯᠧᠰᠰᠤᠤᠯᠮᠤᠮᠪᠠᠢᠮᠣᠰᠺᠸᠠᠯᠣᠨᠳᠣᠨᠫᠠᠷᠢᠰ
ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ (2000 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ) ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ 1.12 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ
ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ 480 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ
ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ 320 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ
ᠣᠷᠣᠰ 285 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ
ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ 265 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ
ᠬᠢᠨᠳᠢ 250 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ
ᠠᠷᠠᠪ 221 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ
ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷᠲᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ

ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠢᠶᠡᠩᠹᠦᠨᠲ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠯᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠦᠶᠢᠢᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷᠷᠦᠪᠯᠢᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ДНБ $36,356,240 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ
(ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $5,797 ᠠᠮᠠ᠃ᠳᠣᠯᠣ᠃)
ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ

ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ᠂ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯᠭᠡ᠂ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ᠂ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ᠂ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠵᠠᠩᠰᠢᠯ᠂ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ᠂ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠡᠯᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠬᠡᠯᠡ

ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯ᠂ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠥᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 5000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠱᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ᠂ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠤᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 6000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

Allegory of Music. ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠣᠲ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠯᠣᠷᠧᠨᠼ ᠯᠢᠫᠫᠢ᠂ 1594 ᠣᠨ

ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ᠂ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠦᠯᠬᠢᠭᠦᠷ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠩ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠷᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠮ᠂ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠮᠵᠢ᠂ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ 3 ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠵᠢᠰᠢᠯᠦᠭᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠤᠤᠯᠢᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭᠦᠯᠢᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠯᠠᠩ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ᠂ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠠᠷᠬᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ᠂ ᠸᠠᠭᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠭᠣᠶᠣᠯ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠯᠤᠩᠭᠢᠳᠠ᠂ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠡᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠠᠷᠬᠢᠲ᠋ᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠪᠡ᠃

ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯᠬᠣᠲᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ᠂ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠴᠥᠮᠥ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠶᠤ-ᠢᠣᠷᠺ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ᠂ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠷᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠬᠤ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠺᠧᠳᠧᠵᠢᠺ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠰᠠᠺᠢ᠂ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠰᠢᠮᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ 120,000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠰᠦᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ

ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ 20 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ 167-188 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠦᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[43]

ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠦᠢᠷᠡᠯ᠂ ᠭᠠᠮᠰᠢᠭ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠮ ᠵᠦᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠯᠦ᠋ᠷᠭ᠂ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠮ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ᠂ ᠫᠤᠤᠵᠢᠩᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠮᠠᠯᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ

ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠤᠯᠢᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠴᠡᠯ᠂ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥ᠂ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠪᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠯᠢᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

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ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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