ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ
Cow portrait.jpg

ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ
ᠠᠭᠷᠣᠪᠢᠽᠢᠨ᠋ᠧᠰ · ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ
ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ · ᠠᠭᠷᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢ
ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ
ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠹᠧᠷᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ
ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠹᠧᠷᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ </br> ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ
ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠹᠧᠷᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ
ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠭ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ
ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ
ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ
ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ
ᠨᠧᠣᠯᠢᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ
ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ
ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ
ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ</br>

ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠪᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ
ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ · ᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ
ᠪᠡᠯᠴᠢᠭᠡᠷᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ
ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ · ᠮᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ
ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ · ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
ᠬᠣᠨᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ
ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ

ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠣᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ
ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ
ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ

ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠥᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠴᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ (ХАА) ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠥᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ᠂ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯ᠂ ᠴᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ (practical ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠳᠤ) ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ᠂ ᠰᠠᠯᠤᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃

2006 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ 36 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠢ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ[1] (1996 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ 42% ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ) ХАА ᠍ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠤᠨᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ 2006 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠵᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ 5% ᠍  ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[2]

ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠭ

ᠲᠣᠶᠢᠮᠣ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠡᠷᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠮ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ᠂ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠮᠡᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠥᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠭᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋᠂ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ХАА ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠭ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭ᠂ ᠭᠣᠶᠣᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ᠂ ᠮᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠪᠣᠷᠳᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤ ᠰᠢᠷᠢᠦᠰᠦ ᠨᠣᠣᠰᠣ᠂ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ (ᠴᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠰᠢᠬᠢᠷᠡᠲᠡᠨᠣᠯᠰᠫᠢᠷᠲᠬᠤᠪᠠᠨᠴᠠᠷ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ)᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠤᠨ (ᠬᠥᠪᠥᠩᠨᠣᠣᠰᠣᠣᠯᠣᠰᠣ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯᠹᠯᠠᠺᠰ ︵flax ︶) ᠂ ᠲᠦᠯᠡᠰᠢ ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ (ᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠢ ᠮᠠᠷᠢᠸᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ(marijuana)ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠢ (opium)ᠺᠣᠺᠠᠶᠢᠨ(cocaine)) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠭᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ᠃ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠷᠳᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠨᠰᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠼᠢᠲ(insecticide)᠂ ᠫᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠼᠢᠲ(pesticide)᠂ ᠹᠦᠩᠭᠢᠼᠢᠲ(fungicide)᠂ ᠬᠥᠷᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠮᠡᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠡᠭ᠃

1970 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠷᠳᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠫᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠼᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠷᠦᠰᠤᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 1980 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠬᠢᠷᠳᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠬᠢᠷᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1950 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ 1984 ᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ХАА ᠍ᠵᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ 250% ᠍  ᠪᠠᠷ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[3] ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠭᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠫᠷᠧᠰᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠺᠣᠮᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ (combine harvester)  ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠣᠭᠵᠣᠮ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ (ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠦ) ᠃

ХАА ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠭᠢᠳ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠣᠨᠢᠺ᠂ ᠭᠢᠪᠷᠢᠳᠧᠽᠠᠼ᠂ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ᠂ ᠬᠥᠷᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠧᠨᠧᠵᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠴᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠢᠪᠠ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠤᠰᠤᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ᠂ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ᠂ ᠴᠢᠭᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ᠃

ᠮᠥᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠰᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠠᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠯᠳᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠤᠰᠠᠦᠬᠡᠷᠲᠡᠮᠡᠭᠡᠨᠣᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ᠂ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠰᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠢ ᠥᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠᠰᠦ᠋ᠥᠨᠳᠡᠭᠡ᠂ ᠨᠣᠣᠰᠣ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠭᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃ (ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠲᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠦ)᠃

ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ᠂ ᠨᠢᠰᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠷᠭᠡ᠂ ᠠᠴᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠂ ᠲᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠵᠢ᠂ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠣᠷᠳᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠬᠤ᠂ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠶᠢᠮᠣ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠧᠨᠧᠵᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠢ ᠣᠨᠣᠪᠴᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠴᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ᠃ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠰᠢᠶ ᠠ

ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠺᠠᠳᠧᠮᠢ ᠨᠢ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠭᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ 20 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠢᠳᠡᠭ 20 ᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠨ 2.5 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠨ 130 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃[4]

ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠢᠰᠰᠢᠰᠢᠫᠢ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠷᠳᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠸᠺᠰᠢᠺᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠩ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠬᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ХАА ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠰᠢᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠥᠯᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠢᠵᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠡᠢ

ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠫᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠨᠲ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠵᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ    ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠪᠠ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠢᠣᠬᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠳᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃


ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠰᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠧᠨᠧᠵᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠨᠢ 1950 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ᠂ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠽᠣᠲᠹᠣᠰᠹᠣᠷ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠬᠢᠷᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ХАА ᠍  ᠵᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠭ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃

ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Agriculture ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ Agri ᠨᠢ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ "ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ᠂ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ agerculture ᠨᠢ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ cultura ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ (ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠰᠥ) ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠤᠳᠬᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠰᠥ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠮᠧᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠳᠤᠭᠤᠷ᠂ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 3000 ᠣᠨ

ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠤᠰᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ХАА ᠍ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ХАА ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠠ ᠮᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠮᠧᠰᠣᠫᠠᠲᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠰᠢᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ (Fertile Crescent) ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 9500 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠹᠧᠷᠮᠧᠷ ︵farmer ᠂ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠨ ︶ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠠ ᠮᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠴᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠮᠧᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠡᠪᠡᠷᠲᠦ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠢᠸᠠᠨᠳᠧᠦᠰᠡᠪᠡᠭ ᠵᠠᠷᠮ᠎ᠠᠢᠰᠬᠦᠯᠡᠩ ᠪᠤᠷᠴᠠᠭᠬᠣᠨᠢᠨ ᠸᠠᠨᠳᠧᠦᠹᠯᠠᠺᠰ ︵flax ︶ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 7000 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠴᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 9000 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠢᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠬᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ(archaeology) ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠤᠴᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ  ᠦ ᠮᠧᠷᠭᠤᠷᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠠᠷᠬᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠯᠲᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 6000 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ХАА ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠸᠠᠩᠳᠤᠢᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠷᠴᠠᠭᠠᠽᠤᠶᠢᠺᠢᠲᠠᠷᠣ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ᠂ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠴᠥᠭᠦᠷᠦᠮ᠂ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠬᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠣᠰᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠮ᠂ ᠤᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠭᠵᠣᠮ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 5000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠮᠧᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠴᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ᠂ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠩ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠢᠭᠷᠧᠦᠹᠷᠠᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠢ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ-ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠡᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠬᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠦᠬᠡᠷᠬᠣᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠢᠬᠤᠯᠤᠰᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠷᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 5200 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ [1] ᠲᠥᠮᠥᠰᠥᠯᠣᠣᠯᠢᠴᠢᠨᠵᠦᠦᠬᠤᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠸ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠴᠠᠭᠺᠠᠨᠠᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦᠳ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠᠵᠢᠨ ᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠵᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠣ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠯᠠᠤ  ᠶᠢ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠷᠣᠮᠣᠴᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠦᠳ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠮᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ХАА[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ  ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠍  ᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠭᠢᠳ᠋ᠷᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠢᠳ᠋ᠷᠣᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ᠂ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠳᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠬᠢᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠰᠢᠩᠭᠦ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠵᠦᠷᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠮᠢᠰ᠂ ᠭᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰᠦ᠂ ᠬᠥᠪᠥᠩ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠴᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠥᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠮᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦᠷᠵᠢ᠂ ᠬᠥᠪᠥᠩ᠂ ᠪᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰᠦ᠂ ᠭᠠᠳᠢᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠮᠢᠰ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠵᠢᠡᠷ ᠴᠠᠷᠭᠤᠰᠤ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠡᠯᠭᠦᠴᠡᠵᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠨᠵᠢᠰᠤ ᠍ ᠵᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ХААᠵᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠯᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠹᠠᠢᠢᠯ:Clark's Sector Model.png
ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ

1492 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠣᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ︵sprout ︶ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠥᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠯᠣᠣᠯᠢᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢᠲᠥᠮᠥᠰᠥᠺᠠᠺᠠᠣᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠴᠢᠨᠵᠦᠦᠺᠣᠹᠧᠰᠢᠬᠢᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠰᠢᠩᠭᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠠᠪᠠᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠳᠤᠭᠤ᠂ ᠨᠣᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ (ᠨᠣᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠤᠮᠪᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠷ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ) ᠂ ᠠᠳᠤᠭᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠠᠳᠤᠭᠤ᠂ ᠡᠯᠵᠢᠭᠡᠫᠣᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

2005 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ

1800 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠷᠲ᠂ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ 19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ᠂ 20 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠭᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠠᠷᠭᠸᠨ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠢᠨᠢᠰᠷᠸᠯᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ  ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠯᠦᠲ᠋ᠠᠵᠢᠨᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 2005 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃


ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

2004 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠯᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ᠂ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ
(ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ) 2004 ᠣᠨ
ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ 2,263
ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠲᠠᠲᠤ ᠭᠤᠸᠠ 866
ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠦᠷᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠳᠤ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ 715
ᠰᠦ᠋ 619
ᠵᠢᠮᠢᠰ 503
ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ 259
ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ 133
ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤ (2001 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ) 130
ᠥᠨᠳᠡᠭᠡ 63
ᠪᠤᠷᠴᠠᠭᠲᠤ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ 60
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠤᠨ 30
ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ:
ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ᠂ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ)
[5]
ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ
(ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ) 2004 ᠣᠨ
ᠰᠢᠬᠢᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠰᠢᠩᠭᠦ 1,324
ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢ 721
ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ 627
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 605
ᠲᠥᠮᠥᠰᠥ 328
ᠰᠢᠬᠢᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠢᠨ 249
ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠷᠴᠠᠭ 204
ᠳᠠᠯᠤ ᠮᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ ᠵᠢᠮᠢᠰ 162
ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠢ 154
ᠯᠣᠣᠯᠢ 120
ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ:
ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ᠂ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ)
[5]


ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ
ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠦᠮ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠣᠤᠷ

ᠵᠡᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠠᠷᠪᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ᠂ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠵᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠭᠠᠩ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠡᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠲᠠ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠯᠢᠰᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ᠂ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠣᠷᠲ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢᠬᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠰᠣᠷᠲᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1920 ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ 30 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠸᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠣᠷᠲ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠡᠯᠴᠢᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1950 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠤᠲᠤᠭᠧᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ (ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ) ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠷᠲ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ᠂ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢ᠂ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠴᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[6][7]

1900 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠾᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ 2.5 ᠲᠣᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ 2001 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 9.4 ᠲᠣᠨ ᠢ 1 ᠾᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 1900 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ 1 ᠾᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ 1 ᠲᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ 1990 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 2.5 ᠲᠣᠨᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ 1 ᠾᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ 2 ᠲᠣᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ᠂ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠤ 1 ᠲᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠲᠤ ᠤᠰᠤᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ 3.5 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ 4 ᠲᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯ 1 ᠾᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ 8 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠲᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ᠂ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠷᠲ᠂ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[8][9][10]

ХАА ᠨᠢ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ (ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠠᠷᠪᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠡᠷ ) ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠴᠣ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 60 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠭ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠯᠣᠣᠯᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠯᠣᠣᠯᠢᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠷᠲ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ (ᠹᠷᠢᠳᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠲᠤᠨ 1975) ᠂ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ 50 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠤᠢᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠸᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠮᠢᠨ B2 ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ  ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 38% ᠍ ᠪᠠᠷ᠂ ᠸᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠮᠢᠨ C ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ  ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ 15% ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ (ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰ᠂ ᠷᠤᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠨ 2004)᠃

ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠵᠢᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠣᠷᠲ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠰᠣᠷᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠥᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ХАА ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤᠰᠠᠮ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠮᠠᠭ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ (Aquaculture)᠃

ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃

ᠮᠥᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ : ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳᠵᠢᠮᠢᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ

ᠮᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠥᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠰᠠᠷᠠᠪᠴᠢ᠂ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠯᠢᠰᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠡᠯᠴᠢᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠪᠴᠡᠯᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 68% ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠴᠢᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ [11]

ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠸᠠᠰᠢᠩᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠥᠷᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ. ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (c.2005)

ХАА ᠨᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠬᠦᠷᠢᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠪᠠᠯ:

ХАА ᠍ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠣᠢ ᠮᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠴᠢ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ (biodiversity) ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠶᠢᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ХАА ᠨᠢ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠲᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ  ᠦᠰᠤᠳ ᠦᠬᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ (ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠦᠬᠡᠷ᠂ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ) ᠰᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ХАА ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ 70% ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ 30% ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[12] ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠧᠢᠯᠺᠠ ᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠳᠨᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ 2 ᠡᠺᠸᠢᠸᠠᠯᠧᠨᠲ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 18% ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠩ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠪᠠᠯ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ 13.5% ᠍ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠠᠽᠣᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠺᠰᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ 65% ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠩ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠤ 37% ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 64% ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠮᠢᠶᠠᠺ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠺᠣᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯᠯᠢᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[13]

ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠮᠦᠰᠳᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠴᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠤ᠂ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠣᠰᠯᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ᠂ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠪᠴᠤᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠯᠧᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠰᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷᠯᠡᠭᠡ᠂ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠮᠲᠠ᠂ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠩ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠯᠴᠢᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠰᠢᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ᠂ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠰᠤᠯᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠴᠣ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ (ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ)᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠡᠺᠣᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠧᠨᠧᠵᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠺᠣᠯᠣᠭ  ᠤᠨ(ecological) ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠮᠡᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠯᠢᠰᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠬᠦ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠬᠣᠣᠷ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢᠵᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠯᠢᠰᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠷᠯᠢᠰᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ᠂ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠭᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠷᠯᠢᠰᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ:

  • ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ: ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠣᠷ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠃
  • ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ: ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠃[14][15]
  • ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ: ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ᠃
  • ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ
  • ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ
  • ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ
  • ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ

ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

2001 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 7 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠨᠵᠠᠰ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠰᠺᠧᠯ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠤᠭᠠᠷᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ᠃ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠪᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠷᠭᠤᠮ (Sorghum) ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠪᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ 7 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ᠃

ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ

ХАА ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃[16] ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦᠯ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ᠂ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠭᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡ ᠱᠤᠤᠭᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠦᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠳᠦᠯᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠯ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ᠂ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠬᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠪᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠡᠷᠦᠰᠳᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ (ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠪᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ) ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦᠯ ᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠯ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ᠂ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠤ᠂ ᠦᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠦᠰᠳᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ᠃

  • ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 516 ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ (1992-2005) ᠂ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ 101 ᠨᠢ ᠲᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠣᠮᠵᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠦᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  • ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 243 ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦᠯ ᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠪᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ 5% ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[17]

ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠳ

ХАА ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ 1992 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 2000 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠯ ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ 42% ᠨᠢ ХАА ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠢ 15 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[18]

ХАА ᠳᠠᠬᠢ 15 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ 17 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦᠯ ᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠯ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠦᠰᠳᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠯ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠦᠰᠳᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ 4 ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[19] ХАА ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ᠂ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠲᠤ᠂ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠬᠦ ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦᠯ ᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠷᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭ᠃

  • 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ 1.26 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ 20 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 699,000 ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ 337000 ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  • ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 1990 ᠍ ᠡᠴᠡ 1996 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ 103 ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 40 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠦᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  • 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 27,600 ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦᠯ ᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠯ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ 8,100 ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠦᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[17]

ᠮᠥᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. International Labour Organization Key Indicators of the Labour Market 2007, chapter 4 p. 6
  2. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html#Econ.
  3. Can We Feed the World Without Industrial Agriculture?
  4. http://www.greatachievements.org/greatachievements/ga_7_2.html.
  5. 5.0 5.1 FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAOSTAT). 2007-10-11 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  6. Stadler, L. J.; G. F. Sprague (1936-10-15). "Genetic Effects of Ultra-Violet Radiation in Maize. I. Unfiltered Radiation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 22 (10): 572-578. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
  7. Berg, Paul; Maxine Singer (2003-08-15). George Beadle: An Uncommon Farmer. The Emergence of Genetics in the 20th Century. Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 0-87969-688-5. 
  8. Ruttan, Vernon W. (Winter 1999). "Biotechnology and Agriculture: A Skeptical Perspective". AgBioForum 2 (1): 54-60. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
  9. Cassman, K. (1998-12-05). "Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: The Challenge of increasing crop yield potential and precision agriculture". Proceedings of a National Academy of Sciences Colloquium, Irvine, California. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
  10. Conversion note: 1 bushel of wheat = 60 pounds (lb) ≈ 27.215 kg. 1 bushel of corn = 56 pounds ≈ 25.401 kg
  11. FAO Database, 2003
  12. Food and Agricultural Organization of the U.N. retrieved 27 jun 2007
  13. Livestock’s long shadow: Environmental issues and options
  14. Rising food prices curb aid to global poor
  15. Record rise in wheat price prompts UN official to warn that surge in food prices may trigger social unrest in developing countries
  16. NIOSH- Agriculture. United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2007-10-10 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  17. 17.0 17.1 NIOSH- Agriculture Injury. United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2007-10-10 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  18. NIOSH [2003]. Unpublished analyses of the 1992–2000 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Special Research Files provided to NIOSH by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (includes more detailed data than the research file, but excludes data from New York City). Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Safety Research, Surveillance and Field Investigations Branch, Special Studies Section. Unpublished database.
  19. BLS [2000]. Report on the youth labor force. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, pp. 58–67.
  • Artz, F. B, (1980), ‘The Mind of the Middle Ages’; Third edition revised; The University of Chicago Press,
  • Bolens, L. (1997), `Agriculture’ in Encyclopedia of the history of Science, technology, and Medicine in Non Western Cultures, Editor: Helaine Selin; Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht/Boston/London, pp 20-2
  • Collinson, M. (editor): A History of Farming Systems Research. CABI Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-85199-405-9
  • Crosby, Alfred W.: The Columbian Exchange : Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. Praeger Publishers, 2003 (30th Anniversary Edition). ISBN 0-275-98073-1
  • Davis, Donald R., and Hugh D. Riordan (2004) Changes in USDA Food Composition Data for 43 Garden Crops, 1950 to 1999. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 23, No. 6, 669-682.
  • Friedland, William H. and Amy Barton (1975) Destalking the Wily Tomato: A Case Study of Social Consequences in California Agricultural Research. Univ. California at Sta. Cruz, Research Monograph 15.
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  • Watson, A.M (1974), ‘The Arab agricultural revolution and its diffusion’, in The Journal of Economic History, 34,
  • Watson, A.M (1983), ‘ Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World’, Cambridge University Press
  • Wells, Spencer: The Journey of Man : A Genetic Odyssey. Princeton University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-691-11532-X
  • Wickens, G.M.(1976), ‘What the West borrowed from the Middle east’, in Introduction to Islamic Civilization, edited by R.M. Savory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
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