ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ 汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, 中文
ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢ᠃ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ), ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ (ᠥ᠃ᠬ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ), ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠠᠫᠦᠷ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ 3 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢᠳ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠋ᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳᠬᠣᠲᠣᠩ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ 1.3 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ
ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠯ
ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ-ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ
  • ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ
    • ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠬᠡᠪ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ
ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ
ᠶᠦ
ᠮᠢᠩ
ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
ᠬᠠᠺᠺᠠ
ᠭᠠᠨᠢ
ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ (ᠥ᠃ᠬ ᠬᠠᠨᠵᠤ)
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ

ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Flag of the Republic of China.svg ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ
Flag of Singapore.svg ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠠᠫᠦᠷ
ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ:

Flag of the United Nations.svg ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ)
ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ: ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ[1]
ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ: ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ
ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ
ISO 639-1 zh
ISO 639-2 chi (B)
zho (T)
ISO 639-3 zho – ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ
ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ:
cdo – Min Dong
cjy – Jin Chinese
cmn – Mandarin Chinese
cpx – Pu Xian
czh – Huizhou Chinese
czo – Min Zhong
gan – Gan Chinese
hak – Hakka Chinese
hsn – Xiang Chinese
mnp – Min Bei Chinese
nan – Min Nan Chinese
wuu – Wu Chinese
yue – Yue Chinese
och – Old Chinese
ltc – Middle Chinese
lzh – Classical Chinese
New-Map-Sinophone World.PNG
ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ:

██ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ

██ 5,000,000 ᠍ ᠰ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ

██ 1,000,000 ᠍ ᠰ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ

██ 500,000 ᠍ ᠰ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ

██ 100,000 ᠍ ᠰ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ

██ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ

ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ (ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 汉语/漢語 Hànyǔ; 华语/華語 Huáyǔ; 中文 Zhōngwén) ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ᠂ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[2]

ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ-ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳᠠᠳᠠ (ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ) ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ «ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ» ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠭᠡᠴᠢ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ 《ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ》 ᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ «ᠬᠡᠯᠡ» ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[3]

ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ (ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠂ 850 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ), ᠸᠤ (90 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ), ᠶᠦ (ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠺᠠᠨᠲᠠᠨ᠂ 70 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ), ᠮᠢᠩ (50 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ), ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ (36 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ 7-13 ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠴᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ/ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢᠩ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ (Pu tong hua/普通话) ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ (ᠥ᠃ᠬ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ) ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ᠂ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠠᠫᠦᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ 4 ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠴᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠢᠯᠪᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠫᠢᠨᠢ-ᠢᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠶᠡᠭᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠫ-ᠫᠢᠨᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠦᠢᠨᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. china-language.gov.cn (ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ)
  2. * David Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987) , p. 312. 《The mutual unintelligibility of the varieties is the main ground for referring to them as separate languages.》
    • Charles N. Li, Sandra A. Thompson. Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar (1989), p 2. 《The Chinese language family is genetically classified as an independent branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.》
    • Jerry Norman. Chinese (1988), p.1. 《The modern Chinese dialects are really more like a family of language.》
    • John DeFrancis. The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy (1984), p.56. 《To call Chinese a single language composed of dialects with varying degrees of difference is to mislead by minimizing disparities that according to Chao are as great as those between English and Dutch. To call Chinese a family of languages is to suggest extralinguistic differences that in fact do not exist and to overlook the unique linguistic situation that exists in China.》
  3. Mair, Victor H. (1991). "What Is a Chinese 《Dialect/Topolect》? Reflections on Some Key Sino-English Linguistic Terms" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers.
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