ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠹᠠᠢᠢᠯ:ᠬᠢᠲᠠ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠪ᠃png
ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
汉族 / 漢族
ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ → ᠨᠠᠩᠭᠢᠶᠠᠳ᠂ ᠨᠠᠩᠭᠢᠶᠠᠳ
ᠣᠷᠣᠰ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ → ᠬᠠᠨᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠨ
ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ᠂ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ → ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ
ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ — 1,310,158,851 (ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ).
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ:
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ (ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) — 1,214,568,893 [1]

ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ (БНХятУ) — 22,575,365 [1]
Flag of Singapore.svg ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠠᠫᠦᠷ (БНСинУ) — 3,684,936 [2]
ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ:
Flag of Indonesia.svg ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ (БНИндУ) — 10,000,000 [3]
ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠲᠠᠢ (ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠩᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) — 7,053,240 [4]
Flag of Malaysia.svg ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠋ᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ — 6,590,500 [5]
Flag of the United States.svg ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ (ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) — 3,376,031 [4]
ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ — 1,364,215 [4]
Flag of Peru.svg ᠫᠧᠷᠤ — 1,300,000 [4]
Flag of Vietnam.svg ᠸᠢᠶᠧᠲ᠋ᠨᠠᠮ (БННЖВУ) — 1,263,570 [4]
Flag of Cambodia.svg ᠺᠠᠮᠪᠤᠵᠠ (ᠺᠠᠮᠪᠳᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) — 1,180,000 [6]
Flag of Myanmar.svg ᠮᠢᠶᠠᠭ᠍ᠮᠠᠷ (ᠮᠠᠶᠠᠬᠤ) — 1,146,250 [4]

ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ (ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) — 998,000 [4]
ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ (ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ)
ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭᠬᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ
ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ
ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠢᠯᠪᠠᠷᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃
ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡDharma Wheel.svg ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ (ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡᠨ),
Yin and Yang.svg ᠪᠣᠮᠪᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ (ᠳᠠᠣ),
ᠺᠥᠩᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ
ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ᠃
ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃
ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ
ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ

ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ (ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ, ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ kitad - ᠬᠢᠲ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 汉族 / 漢族 – Hànzú) ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠢᠵᠢᠯᠢᠰᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ 19.1% ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠶᠤᠮᠰᠠᠨᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠥᠭᠡ ᠰᠥᠭᠡᠮᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠴᠠᠢ᠃ 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 92% ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 1,214,568,893 ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ (БНХятУ) ᠍ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠵᠣᠨ ᠤ 98% – 22,575,365 ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠠᠫᠦᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ 74% ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠬᠦ 3,684,936 ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ 50 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠋ᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ (25%), ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ (14%), ᠹᠢᠯᠢᠫᠫᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦᠶᠢᠴᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ (ᠥᠭᠰᠥᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠤᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ)

ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ᠂ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠠᠳᠠ «ᠨᠠᠩᠭᠢᠶᠠᠳ»᠂ «ᠨᠠᠩᠭᠢᠶᠠᠳ»᠂ «ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ»᠂ «ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ» ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ 汉族, hànzú᠂ 漢人᠂ 汉人᠂ hànrén, 唐人᠂ Tángrén, 华人᠂ huárén ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠶᠢᠳᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃[7] ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠮ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠭᠦᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ 850 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ "ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ" (ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ 普通话 "ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ", ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Mandarin Chinese) ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ (90 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ), ᠶᠦ (ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠺᠠᠨᠲᠠᠨ᠂ 70 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ), ᠮᠢᠩ (50 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ), ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ (36 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ 7-13 ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ 5 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ (traditional) ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ 1950 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠯᠪᠠᠷᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ (simplified) ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠴᠤ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠷᠬᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ (106,230) ᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃[8]

ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠤᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠪᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢ ᠰᠢᠮᠠ ᠴᠢᠶᠠᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 2698-2599 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 221 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 7 ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠴᠢᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠨ᠂ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ 16 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠰᠦᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠰᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1368-1644 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠮᠢᠩ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ 1644-1911 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠨ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 20 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ 1911 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯᠴᠢᠩ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ 1934-1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1949 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html#People
  2. [1]ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Dead link
  3. [2], thejakartapost
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 :: Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission, R.O.C. ::. Ocac.gov.tw (2004-08-24). Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  5. Malaysia. State.gov (2010-07-14). Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  6. [3]
  7. * David Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987) , p. 312. "The mutual unintelligibility of the varieties is the main ground for referring to them as separate languages."
    • Charles N. Li, Sandra A. Thompson. Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar (1989), p 2. "The Chinese language family is genetically classified as an independent branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family."
    • Jerry Norman. Chinese (1988), p.1. "The modern Chinese dialects are really more like a family of language."
    • John DeFrancis. The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy (1984), p.56. "To call Chinese a single language composed of dialects with varying degrees of difference is to mislead by minimizing disparities that according to Chao are as great as those between English and Dutch. To call Chinese a family of languages is to suggest extralinguistic differences that in fact do not exist and to overlook the unique linguistic situation that exists in China."
  8. Kuang-Hui Chiu, Chi-Ching Hsu, Chinese Dilemma: How Many Ideographs are needed, National Taipei University, 2006

ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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