ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ᠍ᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ:Doljinsvren

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ

ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠷᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ᠃ 800000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 12-7 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠣᠨᠢ᠂ ᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠳᠡᠨ ᠢᠳᠡᠭᠡᠰᠢᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠫᠠᠯᠧᠣᠯᠢᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠣ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠠᠴᠠ 750000-800000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠫᠠᠯᠧᠣᠯᠢᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠧᠽᠣᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠨᠧᠣᠯᠢᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ᠂ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 2000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

Xᠦᠩᠨᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠩᠨᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠪᠯᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠳᠬᠦᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠬᠠᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠲᠠᠩᠰᠢᠬᠤ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ 150 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 100 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠠᠩᠰᠢᠬᠤ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠡᠩ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠮᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠩᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠤ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠴᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠥᠪ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠬᠤᠮ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠨᠡᠩ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠲᠣᠪᠣᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠠᠩᠭᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠺᠢᠪᠢᠵᠠᠨ 210-235 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠳᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (318-360 ᠣᠨ), ᠲᠣᠪᠠ ᠸᠡᠢ (ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ)ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (307-581 ᠣᠨ) ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ᠂ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠴᠢᠵᠤ IV ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠴᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ X-XI ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠴᠢᠰᠤ ᠰᠡᠯᠪᠢᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠦᠰᠢᠭ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠤᠭᠤ᠃ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬvᠨv ᠭvᠷᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠷᠨᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ vᠶᠡᠳ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠮᠣᠭᠯᠠᠩ ᠰᠠᠯᠬᠢ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠽvᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠬᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠲvvᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠭvvᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲvvᠬᠴ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ "ᠬvᠨv ᠨᠠᠷ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠬvᠴᠢᠷᠬᠡᠭᠵᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠪᠤᠮᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠳᠠᠮᠨᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠴᠢᠭᠢᠷᠠᠭ ᠬvᠴᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠠᠪᠬᠠᠯᠵᠢ ᠰᠠᠮᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠢ᠃.. ᠬvᠨvᠭ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠪᠠᠯ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠴᠠ᠂ ᠮᠣᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠨ" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠣᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ vᠯᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨvvᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠬvᠨv ᠭvᠷᠢᠨ vvᠰᠡᠬᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠯᠢᠨᠢ ᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠩ ᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ vᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ vᠨᠳᠡᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲvvᠬᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬvᠨv ᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬvᠨv ᠲᠡᠬᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠯᠢᠨᠢ ᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠣᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪvᠳvvᠯᠭvvᠳ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨvvᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠬvᠨv ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠳᠣᠨᠢ ᠱᠠᠨᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ vᠶᠡᠳ ᠳᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲvvᠬ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠩ ᠬᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠪvᠯᠡᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠬvᠨv ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠨvvᠵ ᠤᠭᠠᠨᠢ᠂ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲvvᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ vᠯᠳᠦᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ (ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 480-222) vᠶᠡᠳ ᠲvvᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲvvᠬᠴ ᠭvᠨᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰvᠬᠡᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠪvᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ vᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠤᠪᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠠᠣᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠺᠷᠢᠳ᠋ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠤᠨᠵᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠹ᠃ᠸ᠃ᠲᠣᠮᠠᠰ᠂ ᠣ᠃ᠮᠧᠨᠴᠢᠨ-ᠬᠧᠯᠹᠧᠨ᠂ ᠮᠠ ᠴᠢᠩᠰᠢᠤ᠂ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠭᠤᠪᠡᠢ᠂ ᠺ᠃ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠪᠢ᠂ ᠰᠢᠪᠢ᠂ ᠰᠦᠢᠫᠢ᠂ ᠰᠢᠫᠢ᠂ ᠰᠦᠢᠪᠢ᠂ ᠱᠢᠪᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠪᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠪ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠤᠨᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ vᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠫ᠃ᠫᠧᠯᠯᠢᠣ᠂ ᠹᠠᠨ ᠵᠤᠨᠶᠤ᠂ ᠰvᠷᠪᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬvᠨv ᠭvᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠶᠢᠳᠠᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ vᠶᠡᠳ ᠬvᠨvᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠤᠯᠤᠬᠠᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠬvv ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ vᠨᠳᠡᠰᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠱᠢ ᠬᠣᠸᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬvᠨv ᠨᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠵᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠨᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠨvvᠵ ᠠᠲᠲ᠋ᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ vᠨᠳᠡᠰᠯᠡᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠ¬ᠷᠢᠩ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠽvᠭ ᠨvvᠨ ᠡᠹᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬvᠨv ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠩᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯᠳᠦᠨ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ vᠯᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ 10 ᠲᠠᠩᠺᠠᠨᠺvᠮ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 1 ᠪᠤᠮ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ 50 ᠲᠠᠩᠺᠠᠨᠺvᠮ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬvᠨv ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠪᠠᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠬvᠴᠢᠷᠬᠡᠭᠵᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠱᠢ ᠬᠣᠸᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠯᠡᠩ ᠠᠪᠬᠠᠯᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬvᠴᠢᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠬvᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠲvvᠬ ᠱᠠᠰᠳᠢᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ vᠯᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠡᠩ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠬvᠨvᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠩᠯᠢᠩ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠹᠦᠦᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠲᠠ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠥᠷᠰᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠨᠡᠳᠲᠡ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠳᠢᠷᠴᠢ ᠬvᠴᠢᠷᠬᠡᠭᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠩᠭᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠽvᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠱᠢ ᠬᠣᠸᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠲᠠ ᠨᠢᠷᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠽvᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠡᠩ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠣᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠬᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ᠂ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠴᠣᠯᠠ ᠣᠯᠭᠣᠬᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠴᠢᠶᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠱᠢ ᠬᠣᠸᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ МЭ 181 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 45 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠦᠭᠶᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ vᠶᠡᠰ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠬᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠷᠲᠥᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠺᠢᠪᠢᠨᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪvᠳvᠭvᠨᠡ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠺᠢᠪᠢᠨᠡᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠥᠬᠦᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠥᠷᠨᠢᠵᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬvᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠰᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠩ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ᠂ ᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠠᠭvᠢᠳ ᠬvᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠢᠪᠢᠨᠡᠨ 3 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 7 ᠲᠠᠩᠺᠠᠨᠺvᠮ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ vᠬᠡᠷ᠂ ᠠᠳᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠡᠷᠬᠡvvᠯᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠱᠢ ᠬᠣᠸᠠᠢ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠽvᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠸᠣ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠡᠷᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ МЭ III ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠷᠨᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬvᠷ ᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠨ᠂ ᠲᠣᠪᠠ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ vvᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ vᠶᠡᠳ ᠮᠣᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲvvᠬᠴ ᠭ᠃ᠰvᠬᠡᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ ᠭᠤᠸᠠᠢ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠸᠠᠨᠢ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠮᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ My ᠬᠤᠪᠤ ᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰvᠮᠪᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠽvvᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠰᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ vᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠰᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲvvᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠰvᠮᠪᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠪᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠴᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠱᠠᠨᠦᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲvvᠨᠢᠭᠢ ᠬvv ᠮᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠸᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠪᠠᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠪᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠸᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠰvᠲᠠᠣ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠰvᠮᠪᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬvᠴᠢᠷᠬᠡᠭᠵᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲvvᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠪᠠᠪᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠰᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠣᠪᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠬvᠴᠢᠷᠬᠡᠭᠵᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠪᠠᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨvvᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠠᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭvᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠪᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪvᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭ ᠳᠠᠩ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠡᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠭvᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠪᠳᠡᠷᠡᠯᠴᠡᠨ ᠨvvᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠬᠤᠨᠢᠢ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠲvᠸᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠩ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠣᠪᠠ ᠸᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲvᠸᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠷᠢᠨᠵᠢᠨᠣᠮᠪᠣ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ vᠶᠡᠳ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠴᠢ᠂ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ МЭ 5 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠩᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪvᠷ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠰvᠮᠪᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠᠯ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠨᠢ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠪᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠵᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠣᠪᠠ ᠸᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠤᠱᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰvᠮᠪᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ vvᠰᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠲ᠋ᠦᠩᠬᠦᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠡᠰᠡ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠰᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢvvᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠭvᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬvᠨvᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠲᠣᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠴᠢ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠢᠪvᠷ ᠲᠤvvᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠷᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲvvᠬᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬvᠨv ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠰvᠮᠪᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠩ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠰᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠲvvᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠨᠥ vᠶᠡᠳ vᠯᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠳᠢᠷ ᠲvvᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠨ vᠯᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠣᠪᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳᠤᠯᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠺᠦᠶᠢᠨᠵᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠣᠴᠽᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ vᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤᠶᠢᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ Vvᠨᠳ: ᠲvᠰᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠬvᠨᠢᠭᠢᠭ ᠴᠵᠢᠴᠵᠢᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠰᠡᠴᠡᠨ᠂ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠮᠰᠠᠭ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠬvᠨᠢᠭᠢᠭ ᠬᠤᠯᠴᠵᠢᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠬᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠬvᠨᠢᠭᠢᠭ ᠹᠦᠴᠵᠢᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠴᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠰvᠮᠪᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ "ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤ" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠤᠤᠭᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ vᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠩ vᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡvvᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ "ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠰvᠮᠪᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠭvᠢ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠭᠡᠨᠡᠯ[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Infobox Military Conflict ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠭᠡᠨᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ 13 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠂ 1300 ᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ 13 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠭᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠫᠠᠷᠠᠯᠧᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠷᠲᠤᠷᠢᠭ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ 15 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠮᠥᠨ 19 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠩᠨᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠵᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠷ᠂ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ᠂ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ , ᠮᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠥᠮ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠭᠠᠪᠠ᠃ Urgench ᠍ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠩᠳᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ 2 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ 24 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ᠂ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ 1260 ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ 1300 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ 1258 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ 500 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ 1260 ᠣᠨᠢᠢ ᠠᠶᠤᠨ ᠯᠠᠯᠤᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠥᠰᠥᠯᠢᠮ ᠶᠥᠭᠢᠫᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠮᠤᠯᠤᠶᠢᠺᠰ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ West bank ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠴᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠵᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠸᠧᠲ᠋ᠨᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠬᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠯᠭᠦᠶᠢᠲᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠢᠩ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1368 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠡᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ 5 ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠍ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠣᠷᠣᠮ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠮᠠᠴᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠ ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨᠵᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠦᠪᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠽᠮ᠂ ᠮᠠᠪᠤᠷᠠᠨᠠᠨᠬᠤᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠢᠪᠠᠯᠢᠺ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠣᠰᠡᠰ᠂ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ᠂ ᠠᠷᠮᠠᠨᠢ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ -ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ(ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ 10 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ) ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠥᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠩᠵᠤᠨ ᠮᠦᠺᠠᠯᠢ(1170-1223) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢ 10 ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ Yelü Chuc ᠍ ᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠤᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ - ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠣᠪᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠳ᠂ ᠰᠮᠠᠯᠧᠩᠺᠰ᠂ ᠫᠰᠺᠣᠸ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠰᠤᠳᠠᠷᠤᠤ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ 1239 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠣᠪᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠳ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠨᠤᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ Teutonic ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠨᠧᠦᠢᠰᠺᠢ᠂ ᠨᠣᠪᠠᠭᠷᠣ᠋ ᠍ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠷᠲᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1274 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ - ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 2 ᠷ ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠠᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠬᠢᠳᠠᠨᠴᠤᠤᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ 1 ᠷ ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠭᠤᠪᠴᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠪᠴᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤᠳᠤᠷᠤᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1254 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 4 ᠷ ᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠭᠤᠪᠴᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠥᠭᠴᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ -1257 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠧᠲ᠋ᠨᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠤᠯᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳᠳᠡ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ Thăng Long (Hanoi) ᠍ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ King Than Tong ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠪᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠭᠤᠪᠴᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠡᠶᠢᠬᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ darughachis ᠍ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ 1264 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ 2 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 2 ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠮᠰᠠᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ 1278 ᠴᠠᠮᠫᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ King Ve Indrawarman ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1283 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳᠤᠷᠤᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠴᠠᠮᠫᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠴᠠᠮᠫᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ 2 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠭᠤᠪᠴᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠥᠭᠴᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠭᠡᠨᠡᠯ[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠭᠡᠨᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ 13 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠂ 1300 ᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ 13 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠭᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠫᠠᠷᠠᠯᠧᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠷᠲᠤᠷᠢᠭ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ 15 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠮᠥᠨ 19 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ

ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠩᠨᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠵᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠷ᠂ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ᠂ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ , ᠮᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠥᠮ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠪᠠ᠃ Urgench ᠍ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠩᠳᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ 2 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ 24 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ᠂ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ 1260 ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ 1300 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ 1258 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ 500 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ 1260 ᠣᠨᠢᠢ ᠠᠶᠤᠨ ᠯᠠᠯᠤᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠥᠰᠥᠯᠢᠮ ᠶᠥᠭᠢᠫᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠮᠤᠯᠤᠶᠢᠺᠰ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ West bank ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ

ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠴᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠵᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠸᠧᠲ᠋ᠨᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠬᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠯᠭᠦᠶᠢᠲᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠢᠩ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1368 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠡᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ 5 ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠍ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠣᠷᠣᠮ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠮᠠᠴᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠ ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨᠵᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠦᠪᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠽᠮ᠂ ᠮᠠᠪᠤᠷᠠᠨᠠᠨᠬᠤᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠢᠪᠠᠯᠢᠺ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠣᠰᠡᠰ᠂ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ᠂ ᠠᠷᠮᠠᠨᠢ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ -ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ(ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ 10 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ) ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠥᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠩᠵᠤᠨ ᠮᠦᠺᠠᠯᠢ(1170-1223) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢ 10 ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ Yelü Chuc ᠍ ᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠤᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ

- ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠣᠪᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠳ᠂ ᠰᠮᠠᠯᠧᠩᠺᠰ᠂ ᠫᠰᠺᠣᠸ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠰᠤᠳᠠᠷᠤᠤ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ 1239 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠣᠪᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠳ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠨᠤᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ Teutonic ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠨᠧᠦᠢᠰᠺᠢ᠂ ᠨᠣᠪᠠᠭᠷᠣ᠋ ᠍ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠷᠲᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1247 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ - ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 2 ᠷ ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠠᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠬᠢᠳᠠᠨᠴᠤᠤᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ 1 ᠷ ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠭᠤᠪᠴᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠪᠴᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤᠳᠤᠷᠤᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1245 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 4 ᠷ ᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠭᠤᠪᠴᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠥᠭᠴᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ

-1257 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠧᠲ᠋ᠨᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠤᠯᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳᠳᠡ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ Thăng Long (Hanoi) ᠍ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ King Than Tong ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠪᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠭᠤᠪᠴᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠡᠶᠢᠬᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ darughachis ᠍ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ 1264 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ 2 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 2 ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠮᠰᠠᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ 1278 ᠴᠠᠮᠫᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ King Ve Indrawarman ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1283 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳᠤᠷᠤᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠴᠠᠮᠫᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠴᠠᠮᠫᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ 2 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠭᠤᠪᠴᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠥᠭᠴᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Infobox Military Conflict

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: Mongol Empire
ᠮᠥᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ: Timeline of the Mongol Empire

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠭᠡᠨᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ 13 ᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠂ 1300 ᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

The Mongol Empire emerged in the course of the 13th century by a series of conquests and invasions throughout Central and Western Asia, reaching Eastern Europe by the 1240s. The speed and extent of territorial expansion parallels the Hunnic/Turkic conquests of the Migration period (the 6th century Turkic Khaganate).

The territorial gains of the Mongols persisted into the 15th century in Persia (Timurid dynasty) and in Russia (Tatar and Mongol raids against Russian states), and into the 19th century in India (the Mughal Empire).

Central Asia[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: Mongol invasion of Central Asia

Genghis Khan forged the initial Mongol Empire in Central Asia, starting with the unification of the Mongol and Turkic central Asian confederations such as Merkits, Tartars, Mongols, and Uighurs. He then continued expansion of the Empire via invasion of the Khwarezmid Empire in what is modern-day Iran.

Large areas of Islamic Central Asia and northeastern Iran were seriously depopulated,[1] as every city or town that resisted the Mongols was subject to destruction. In Termez, on the Oxus: "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, and divided in accordance with their usual custom, then they were all slain". Each soldier was required to execute a certain number of persons, with the number varying according to circumstances. For example, after the conquest of Urgench, each Mongol warrior – in an army group that might have consisted of two tumens (units of 10,000) – was required to execute 24 people.[2]

Middle East[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

The Mongols conquered, either by force or voluntary submission, the areas today known as Iran, Iraq, Syria, and parts of Turkey, with further Mongol raids reaching southwards as far as Gaza into the Palestine region in 1260 and 1300. The major battles were the Battle of Baghdad (1258), when the Mongols sacked the city which for 500 years had been the center of Islamic power; and the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, when the Muslim Egyptian Mamluks, were for the first time able to stop the Mongol advance at Ain Jalut, in the northern part of what today is known as the West Bank.

The Mongols were never able to expand farther than the Middle East due to a combination of political and geographic factors, such as lack of sufficient grazing room for their horses.

East Asia[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Genghis Khan and his descendants invaded China, and forced Korea to become a vassal through an invasion of Korea. They attempted an invasion of Japan and Vietnam. Their biggest conquest was in conquering China and setting up their own Yuan Dynasty, though it was eventually overthrown by the native Chinese in 1368, who launched their own Ming Dynasty.

Europe[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: Mongol invasion of Rus' ᠪᠠ Mongol invasion of Europe

The Mongols invaded and destroyed Kievan Rus, also invading Poland and Hungary, among others. Over the course of three years (1237–1240), the Mongols destroyed and annihilated all of the major cities of Eastern Europe with the exceptions of Novgorod and Pskov.[3]

Giovanni de Plano Carpini, the Pope's envoy to the Mongol Great Khan, traveled through Kiev in February 1246 and wrote:

"They [the Mongols] attacked Rus, where they made great havoc, destroying cities and fortresses and slaughtering men; and they laid siege to Kiev, the capital of Rus; after they had besieged the city for a long time, they took it and put the inhabitants to death. When we were journeying through that land we came across countless skulls and bones of dead men lying about on the ground. Kiev had been a very large and thickly populated town, but now it has been reduced almost to nothing, for there are at the present time scarce two hundred houses there and the inhabitants are kept in complete slavery."[4]

Political divisions and vassals[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

The Mongol world, ca. 1300. The gray area is the later Timurid empire.

The early Mongol Empire was divided into five main parts[5] and various appanage khanates. The most prominent sections were:

When Genghis Khan was campaigning in Central Asia, his general Muqali (1170–1223) attempted to set up provinces and establish branch departments of state affairs. Genghis's successor Ogedei abolished them, instead dividing the areas of North China into 10 routes (lu, 路) according to the suggestion of Yelü Chucai, a prominent Confucian statesman of Khitan ethnicity. Ogedei also divided the empire into separate Beshbalik and Yanjing administrations, while the Headquarters in Karakorum directly dealt with Manchuria, Mongolia and Southern Siberia. Late in Ogedei's reign, an Amu Darya administration was established. Under Mongke, these administrations were renamed Branch Departments.

Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan Dynasty, made significant reforms to the existing institutions. He established the Yuan Dynasty in 1271 and assumed the role of a Chinese emperor. The Yuan forces seized South China by defeating the Southern Song Dynasty, and Kublai became the emperor of all China. The territory of the Yuan Dynasty was divided into the Central Region (腹裏) and places under control of various Xing Zhongshusheng (行中書省, "branch secretariats") or the Xuanzheng Institute (宣政院).

Vassals and tributary states[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

The Mongol Empire at its greatest extent included all of modern-day Mongolia, China, parts of Burma, Romania, Pakistan, much or all of Russia, Siberia, Ukraine, Belarus, Cilicia, Anatolia, Georgia, Armenia, Persia, Iraq, and Central Asia. In the meantime, many countries became vassals or tributary states of the Mongol Empire.

European vassals[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • A number of Russian states, incl. the Republic of Novgorod, Pskov and Smolensk,[7] Batu khan attempted to invade in 1239, but could not reach the northern part of Russia due to the marshlands surrounding city-states such as Novgorod and Pskov. However, due to the combined effects of Mongol threats, invasion by the Teutonic order, and diplomacy by Alexander Nevsky, Novgorod and later Pskov accepted the terms of vassalage. By 1274, all remaining Russian principalities hadbecome subject to the Horde of Mongke-Temur.
  • Kingdom of Serbia.[8] Around 1288 Milutin launched an invasion to pacify two Bulgarian nobles in today's north-east Serbia, in the Branicevo region. However, those nobles were vassals of the Bulgarian prince of Vidin Shishman. Shishman attacked Milutin but was defeated and Milutin in return sacked his capital Vidin. But Shishman was a vassal of Nogai Khan, de facto ruler of the Golden Horde. Nogai Khan threatened to punish Milutin for his insolence, but changed his mind when the Serbian king sent him gifts and hostages. Among the hostages was his son Stefan Dečanski who managed to escape back to Serbia after Nogai Khan's death in 1299.

Southeast Asian and Korean vassals[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • Đại Việt (Vietnam).[9] After the Vietnamese captured the Mongol envoys sent to negotiate safe passage in order to attack Southern China, Mongol forces invaded the Trần Dynasty in 1257. The Mongols routed city defenders and massacred inhabitants of the capital Thăng Long (Hanoi). King Than Tong agreed to pay tribute to Mongke Khan if he would spare his country. When Kublai Khan demanded full submission of the Tran family, Mongol darughachis were well received,[10] though the relationship between the two states deteriorated in 1264. After a series of invasions in 1278-1288, the king of Đại Việt (Trần Dynasty) accepted Mongol suzerainty. By that time, each side had suffered heavy losses due to the large but ineffective wars.
  • Champa.[9] Although King Ve Indrawarman of Champa expressed his desire to accept Yuan rule in 1278, his son and subjects ignored his submission. In 1283, Mongol army was driven from the country and their general was killed, even though they repeatedly defeated all Champa forces in open battle. The king of Champa started sending tribute two years later to avoid further Mongol invasions.
  • Khmer empire.[9] In 1278, a Mongol envoy was executed by the Khmer king. An envoy was sent again to demand submission while the Yuan army was besieging the fortress in nearby Champa. After this second envoy was imprisoned, 100 Mongol cavalry were sent into Khmer territory. They were ambushed and destroyed by the Khmer. Later, the King of the Khmer Empire asked a pardon and sent tribute in 1285, as he found his country in a position among belligerent neighbors and an enraged Kublai Khan.
  • Sukhothai Kingdom and Chiangmai or Taiyo. When Kublai Khan sent Mongol forces to protect his vassals in Burma, Thai states, including Sukhotai and Taiyo, accepted Mongol supremacy. King Ramkhamhaeng and other Thai and Khmer leaders visited the Yuan court to show their loyalty several times.[11]
  • The Kingdom of Goryeo. The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Goryeo, from 1231 to 1270. There were six major campaigns at tremendous cost to civilian lives throughout the Korean peninsula, ultimately resulting in Korea becoming a vassal of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty for approximately eighty years.[12] The Mongol Empire and the Kingdom of Goryeo tied with marriages as Mongol and Korean royalty intermarried. A Korean princess became the Qi Empress through her marriage with Ukhaantu Khan, and their son, Biligtü Khan of Northern Yuan, became a Mongol Khan. King Chungnyeol of Goryeo married a daughter of Kubilai Khan, and marriages between Mongols and Koreans continued for eighty years. The Goryeo dynasty survived under Mongolian influence until King Gongmin began to push Mongolian garrisons back starting in the 1350s.

Middle East vassals[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: Franco-Mongol alliance
  • The Principality of Antioch and the County of Tripoli.[13] - The small crusader state paid annual tributes for many years.The closest thing to actual Frankish cooperation with Mongol military actions was the overlord-subject relationship between the Mongols and the Franks of Antioch and others. Mongols lost their vassal and ally Franks as the fall of Antioch in 1268 and Tripoli in 1289 to the Mamluks.
  • The Empire of Trebizond- The Seljuks and the military forces of Trebizond were defeated by the Mongols in 1243 . After that, Kaykhusraw II, the Sultan of Iconium was compelled to pay tribute and supply annually horses, hunting dogs, and jewels. The emperor Manuel I of Trebizond, realizing the impossibility of fighting the Mongols, made a speedy peace with them and, on condition of paying an annual tribute, became a Mongol vassal. The empire reached its greatest prosperity and had opportunity to export the produce of its own rich hinterland during the era of Ilkhans. But with the declineof Mongol power in 1335, Trebizond suffered increasingly from Turkish attacks, civil wars, and domestic intrigues.[14]

Tributary states[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • The indigenous people of Sakhalin. The Mongol forces made several attacks on Sakhalin, beginning in 1264 and continuing until 1308.[15] Economically, the conquest of new peoples provided further wealth for the tribute-based Mongol Dynasty. The Nivkhs and the Oroks were subjugated by the Mongols. However, the Ainu people raided Mongol posts every year.[16] The native Gǔwéi people finally accepted Mongol supremacy in 1308, and made tributary visits to Yuan posts for the next a few decades.
  • The Byzantine empire.[17] When an Egyptian diplomat was arrested by emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, Sultan Baibars insisted his ally Berke Khan to attack the Greek Empire. In the winter of 1265 Nogai Khan led a Mongol raid on Byzantine Thrace with his vassal Bulgaria. In the spring of 1265 he defeated the armies of Michael and freed the diplomat and former Seljuk sultan Kaykaus II. Instead of fighting, most of the Byzantines fled. Michael managed to escape with the assistance of Italian merchants. After this Thrace was plundered by Nogai's army, and the Byzantine emperor signed a treaty with Berke of the Golden Horde, giving his daughter Euphrosyne in marriage to Nogai. Michael also sent much valuable fabric to the Golden Horde as a tribute thereafter. But the court of Byzantium had good relationship with both Golden Horde and Ilkhanate as allies.
  • Small states of Malay Peninsula. Kublai sent surrounding nations his envoys to demand their submission in 1270-1280. Most of states in Indo-China and Malay accepted the demand. According to Marco Polo, those subjects sent tribute on to the Mongol court, including elephants, rhinoceroses, jewels and a tooth of Buddha. One notable scholar identified that these acts of submission were more ceremonial in some regard. During the Mongol invasion of Java in 1293, small states of Malay and Sumatra submitted and sent envoys or hostages to them. Native people of modern Taiwan and Philippines helped the Mongol armada but they were never conquered.

Timeline[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

See also[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

References[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. World Timelines - Western Asia - AD 1250-1500 Later Islamic
  2. "Central Asian world cities", University of Washington.
  3. History of Russia, Early Slavs history, Kievan Rus, Mongol invasion
  4. The Destruction of Kiev
  5. A COMPENDIUM OF CHRONICLES: Rashid al-Din's Illustrated History of the World (The Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, VOL XXVII) ISBN 0-19-727627-X, the reign of Mongke
  6. A.P.Grigorev and O.B.Frolova-Geographicheskoy opisaniye Zolotoy Ordi v encyclopedia al-Kashkandi-Tyurkologicheskyh sbornik,2001-p. 262-302
  7. ᠯᠠ᠃ᠨ᠃ᠭᠤᠮᠢᠯᠧᠸ - ᠳᠷᠧᠸᠨᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠷᠦᠰᠢ ᠢ ᠸᠧᠯᠢᠺᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠫᠢ
  8. 8.0 8.1 ᠷᠢᠨᠴᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠨ - ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠦ
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Rene Grousset - Empires of Steppes, ᠵ᠃ᠪᠣᠷᠣ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠫᠯᠣᠮᠠᠲ ᠱᠠᠰᠰᠲᠢᠷ II ᠪᠣᠲᠢ
  10. The History of Yuan Dynasty, J.Bor, p.313, Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol empire, p.581
  11. The Empire of the Steppes by Rene Grousset, trans. N. Walford, p.291
  12. Expanding the Realm
  13. Reuven Amitei Press Mamluk Ilkhanid war 1260-1280
  14. A History of the Byzantine Empire by Al. Vasilief, © 2007
  15. Mark Hudson-Ruins of Identity, p.226
  16. Brett L. Walker-The Conquest of Ainu Lands, p.133
  17. ᠷᠢᠨᠴᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠ-ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠨ: ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠦ᠂ ᠵ᠃ᠪᠣᠷᠣ: ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠫᠯᠣᠮᠠᠲ ᠱᠠᠰᠰᠲᠢᠷ II ᠪᠣᠲᠢ

External links[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Mongol Empireeu:Mongoldar inbasioak fa:حمله مغول fr:Conquêtes mongoles ms:Garis masa pencerobohan Mongol no:De mongolske invasjoner pt:Linha do tempo das invasões mongóis tr:Moğol istilaları zh:蒙古人西征

Herodotus[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: Histories (Herodotus)

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ, ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠰᠤᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠧᠺcᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ 9 ᠍ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ᠂ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠰᠯᠢᠶᠠ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠠᠳ Euterpe, Thaleia, Melpomene, Terpsichore, Erato, Polymnia, Ourania ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ Calliope ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ 9 ᠨᠣᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ᠂ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ /ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ/ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠯᠠ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠣx /ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ 4 ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ/ ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃.[1]

  • Cyrus, 557-530 BC: Book 1;
  • Cambyses, 530-522 BC: Book 2 and part of Book 3;
  • Darius, 521-486 BC: the rest of Book 3 then Books 4,5,6;
  • Xerxes, 486-479 BC: Books 7, 8, 9.

ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ᠂ ᠵᠣᠬᠣᠯᠴᠢ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠵᠠᠩᠰᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠭᠷᠧᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠠᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠴᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[2] ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ 3 ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠥᠨ Xerxes ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ᠂ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠯᠳᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃[3]ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠴᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠯ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ "ᠤᠬᠤᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠪᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ 1 ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ" ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃" (Book 4, 30)[4] ᠤᠬᠤᠷᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ 2 ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ: ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠨᠢ 2 ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ , ᠮᠥᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠰᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠴᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[5][6]ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂(over-arching) ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠣᠮᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠯᠠᠪᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ- ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠴᠤᠳ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[7] Herodotus's method of enquiry in fact presents a world where everything is potentially important[5] - ᠶᠠc ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[8] ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ Dionysius of Halicarnassus ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠲᠠᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ(De Thuc. 23). ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠵᠢᠩᠬᠢᠨᠢ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠨ Homeric ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠮᠠᠭ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ , ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃[9]




ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

His statue in Bodrum, ancient Halicarnassus. He has been called "The Father of History" (first conferred by Cicero) and "The Father of Lies".[10] As these epithets imply, there has long been a debate—at least from the time of Cicero's On the Laws (Book 1, paragraph 5)—concerning the veracity of his tales and, more importantly, the extent to which he knew himself to be creating fabrications.

ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ

Ἡροδότου Ἁλικαρνησσέος ἱστορίης ἀπόδεξις ἥδε᠂ ὡς μήτε τὰ γενόμενα ἐξ ἀνθρώπων τῷ χρόνῳ ἐξίτηλα γένηται᠂ μήτε ἔργα μεγάλα τε καὶ θωμαστά᠂ τὰ μὲν Ἕλλησι᠂ τὰ δὲ βαρβάροισι ἀποδεχθέντα᠂ ἀκλεᾶ γένηται᠂ τὰ τε ἄλλα καὶ δι' ἣν αἰτίην ἐπολέμησαν ἀλλήλοισι᠃[11]



Translation: </br> ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠺᠠᠷᠨᠠᠰᠠᠰᠤᠰ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠨᠠᠰ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[12]

ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ Dionysius of Halicarnassus ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ 7 ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠬᠢ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ᠂ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠵᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠰᠬᠦᠯᠡᠩ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[13] ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠠᠯ Dionysius of Miletus, Charon of Lampsacus, Hellanicus of Lesbos, Xanthus of Lydia ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ Hecataeus of Miletusᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠵᠠᠩᠰᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠯᠠᠰ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠦᠬᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃(and the authenticity of these is debatable)[14] Genealogies:

Hecataeus the Milesian ᠨᠢ ᠮᠢᠨᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠯᠢᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[15]

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ "ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ" ᠍ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ "ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ" ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠵᠤ᠂ Hecataeus ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ "ᠡᠲᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ"[16] ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠥᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠤᠤ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠵᠢᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ Hecataeus ᠍ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ 1 ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠢ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ᠂ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠪᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ Athenian ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠭᠣᠮᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ [17] ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠨ Hecataeus, ᠢᠯᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ Porphyry ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ Eusebius.[18] ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠳᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ Hecataeus ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠮᠠᠲᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠲᠠᠷᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠬᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠍ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ' (Periegesis/Periodos ges), ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ (Histories 2.73).[19] ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ Hecataeus ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠰᠬᠡᠨ᠃[20] ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠪᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠯᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[16][21] ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠷᠤᠰ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠲᠣᠶᠢᠮᠣᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠭ ᠠᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ: ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠮᠰᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠬᠡᠮ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

His debt to previous authors of prose 'histories' might be questionable but there is no doubt that he owed much to the example and inspiration of poets and story-tellers. For example, Athenian tragic poets provided him with a world-view of a balance between conflicting forces, upset by the hubris of kings, and they provided his narrative with a model of episodic structure. His familiarity with Athenian tragedy is demonstrated, for example, in a number of passages echoing Aeschylus's Persae, including the epigrammatic observation that the defeat of the Persian navy at Salamis caused the defeat of the land army (Hist. 8.68 ~ Persae 728). The debt may have been repaid by Sophocles because there appear to be echoes of The Histories in his plays, especially a passage in Antigone that resembles Herodotus's account of the death of Intaphernes (Histories 3.119 ~ Antigone 904-20)[22] - this however is one of the most contentious issues in modern scholarship.[23]

Homer was another inspirational source.

"In the scheme and plan of his work, in the arrangement and order of its parts, in the tone and character of the thoughts, in ten thousand little expressions and words, the Homeric student appears." - George Rawlinson[24]

Just as Homer drew extensively on a tradition of oral poetry, sung by wandering minstrels, so Herodotus appears to have drawn on an Ionian tradition of story-telling, collecting and interpreting the oral histories he chanced upon in his travels. These oral histories often contained folk-tale motifs and demonstrated a moral, yet they also contained substantial facts relating to geography, anthropology and history, all compiled by Herodotus in an entertaining style and format.[25] It is on account of the many strange stories and the folk-tales he reported that his critics in early modern times branded him 'The Father of Lies'.[26] Even his own contemporaries found reason to scoff at his achievement. In fact one modern scholar[27] has wondered if Herodotus left his home in Asiatic Greece, migrating westwards to Athens and beyond, because his own countrymen had ridiculed his work, a circumstance possibly hinted at in an epitaph said to have been dedicated to Herodotus at Thuria (one of his three supposed resting places):

Herodotus the son of Lyxes here
Lies; in Ionic history without peer;
A Dorian born, who fled from Slander's brand
And made in Thuria his new native land.[28]

Yet it was in Athens where his most formidable contemporary critics could be found. In 425 BC, which is about the time that Herodotus is thought by many scholars to have died, the Athenian comic dramatist, Aristophanes, created The Acharnians, in which he blames The Peloponnesian War on the abduction of some prostitutes - a mocking reference to Herodotus, who reported the Persians' account of their wars with Greece, beginning with the rapes of the mythical heroines Io, Europa, Medea and Helen.[29][30] Similarly, the Athenian historian Thucydides dismissed Herodotus as a 'logos-writer' or story-teller.[31] Thucydides, who had been trained in rhetoric, became the model for subsequent prose-writers as an author who seeks to appear firmly in control of his material, whereas Herodotus with his frequent digressions appeared to minimize (or possibly disguise) his auctorial control.[32] Moreover, Thucydides developed a historical topic more in keeping with the Greek lifestyle - the polis or city-state - whereas the interplay of civilizations was more relevant to Asiatic Greeks (such as Herodotus himself), for whom life under foreign rule was a recent memory.[31]

Although The Histories were often criticized in antiquity for bias, inaccuracy and plagiarism — Lucian of Samosata attacked Herodotus as a liar in Verae Historiae and went as far as to deny him a place among the famous on the Island of the Blessed — modern historians and philosophers take a more positive view of Herodotus's methodology, especially those searching for a paradigm of objective historical writing. A few modern scholars have argued that Herodotus exaggerated the extent of his travels and invented his sources[33] yet his reputation continues largely intact: "The Father of History is also the father of comparative anthropology",[26] "the father of ethnography",[34] and he is "more modern than any other ancient historian in his approach to the ideal of total history."[6]

Herodotus[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Herodotus
Purported bust of Herodotus
Purported bust of Herodotus
ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ c. 484 BC
ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ Halicarnassus, Caria, Asia Minor
 ᠨᠠᠰᠤ
ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ
ᠥᠳᠥ᠃ ᠭᠠᠰ᠃
ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:C. (aged around 60)
Thurii, Calabria or Pella, Macedon
ᠠᠵᠢᠯ Historian

Herodotus (Greek: Ἡρόδοτος Hēródotos) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the 5th century BC (c. 484 BCᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:C.). He has been called the "Father of History" since he was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange them in a well-constructed and vivid narrative.[35] The Historiesᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Emdashhis masterpiece and the only work he is known to have producedᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Emdashis a record of his "inquiry" (or ἱστορία historía, a word that passed into Latin and took on its modern meaning of history), being an investigation of the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars and including a wealth of geographical and ethnographical information. Although some of his stories were not completely accurate, he claimed that he was reporting only what had been told to him. Little is known of his personal history since ancient records are scanty, contradictory and often fanciful.

Herodotus[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂[36] ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠪᠢᠽᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠳᠠ:

"ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠮᠰᠢᠮᠡᠷ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠵᠥᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢᠩ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃.." - George Rawlinson.[37]

ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠯᠠ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦᠷᠬᠡᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ:[38][39] ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ 484 BC ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ Halicarnassus ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂᠃. ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠢᠽᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠳᠠ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ Lyxes Dryo ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ᠂Theodorus ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ᠃Panyassis, a.ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ Persian ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ Artemisia ᠍ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ Persian ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠭᠷᠧᠺᠷᠦᠦ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ Halicarnassus ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ Lygdamis Athen ᠍ ᠤᠨ Delian League, ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ 454 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠣᠲᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ Samos (III, 39-60) ᠍ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ᠂ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ Samos ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ Lygdamis ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠮᠲᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠠᠳ ᠳᠥᠬᠥᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠬᠢᠷᠳᠠᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ Halicarnassus ᠍ ᠦᠨ Dorian ᠬᠣᠬᠣᠲ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠰᠠᠳᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ Dorian ᠬᠣᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠪ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠴᠦᠰᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠶᠥᠭᠢᠫ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ Persian ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠣᠷ Persian ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ . ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠠᠯ: ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Halicarnassus ᠮᠥᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ 447 BC ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ Periclean Athens, ᠍ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠴᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠦᠨ Alcmaeonids, ᠰᠢᠭ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ Eusebius[40] ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ Plutarch,[41] ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ Athenian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠰᠰᠧᠮᠪᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠ ᠥᠭᠴᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ Athenian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ Athenian ᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠰᠧᠮᠪᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 443 BC- ᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Athenian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ Thurium ᠍ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ Herodotus of Thurium ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠂ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪᠡᠯᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ Peloponnesian War (VI,91; VII,133,233; IX,73) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Athens ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠬᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ᠎ᠡxᠡᠰᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ 60 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ᠂ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

Herodotus[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠤᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ[ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠷᠡᠴᠦᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ , ᠡᠷᠡᠴᠦᠳ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃
Reconstruction of the Oikumene (inhabited world) ancient map from Herodotus, ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:C..

ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

Croesus Receiving Tribute from a Lydian Peasant, by Claude Vignon.

ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ: ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Nile ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠥᠰᠥ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠴᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ᠂ ᠴᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ (2:18ff). Hᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤ Phoenicia ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠳᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ Africa ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ "ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭᠦᠷᠦᠦ ᠰᠡᠯᠢᠭᠦᠷᠳᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠪᠠ" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠯᠳᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ India ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ [42]

Gold dust and nuggets.

ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ 19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ Gelonus ᠍ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 1975 ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ Troy ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ 1000 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢᠯᠣᠭᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ Heracleion ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠢᠪᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠶᠥᠭᠢᠫ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ "Naucratis stela" ᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ Heracleion ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ New Kingdom.

ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠲᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢᠴᠢ Michel Peissel- ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ᠂Pakistan, ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 3 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠨ ᠤ 102 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ 105 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠢᠷᠣᠳᠣᠳᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠷᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ This region, he reports, is a sandy desert, and the sand there contains a wealth of fine gold dust. These giant ants, according to Herodotus, would often unearth the gold dust when digging their mounds and tunnels, and the people living in this province would then collect the precious dust. Now, Peissel says that in an isolated region of Pakistan, in the Pakistani-controlled part of Kashmir that is known as the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA), on the Deosai Plateau there exists a species of marmot, (the Himalayan Marmot), (a type of burrowing squirrel) that may have been what Herodotus called giant "ants". Much like the province that Herodotus describes, the ground of the Deosai Plateau is rich in gold dust. According to Peissel, he interviewed the Minaro tribal people who live in the Deosai Plateau, and they have confirmed that they have, for generations, been collecting the gold dust that the marmots bring to the surface when they are digging their underground burrows. The story seems to have been widespread in the ancient world, because later authors like Pliny the Elder mentioned it in his gold mining section of the Naturalis Historia.

Bobak marmot in central Asia.

Even more tantalizing, in his book, The Ants' Gold: The Discovery of the Greek El Dorado in the Himalayas, Peissel offers the theory that Herodotus may have become confused because the old Persian word for "marmot" was quite similar to that for "mountain ant". Because research suggests that Herodotus probably did not know any Persian (or any other language except his native Greek), he was forced to rely on a multitude of local translators when travelling in the vast multilingual Persian Empire. Therefore, he may have been the unwitting victim of a simple misunderstanding in translation. As Herodotus never claims to have himself seen these "ant/marmot" creatures, it is likely that he was simply reporting what other travellers were telling him, no matter how bizarre or unlikely he personally may have found it to be. In the age when most of the world was still mysterious and unknown and before the modern science of biology, the existence of a giant ant may not have seemed so far-fetched. The suggestion that he completely made up the tale may continue to be thrown into doubt as more research is conducted.[43][44]

With that said, Herodotus did follow up in passage 105 of Book 3, with the claim that the "ants/marmots" are said to chase and devour full-grown camels; again, this could simply be dutiful reporting of what was in reality a tall tale or legend told by the local tribes to frighten foreigners from seeking this relatively easy access to gold dust. On the other hand, the details of the "ants" seem somewhat similar to the description of the camel spider (Solifugae), which are said to chase camels, have lots of hair bristles, and could quite easily be mistaken for ants. On account of the fear of encountering one, there have been "many myths and exaggerations about their size".[45] Images of camel spiders[46][47] could give the impression that this could be mistaken for a giant ant, but certainly not the size of a fox.
  1. Larcher, Pierre-Henri (1829). Larcher's Notes on Herodotus. London: John R. Priestley, 526. 
  2. Robin Waterfield (trans.) and Carolyn Dewald (ed.), The Histories by Herodotus, University of Oxford Press (1998), Introduction pages xii - xiii
  3. Henry R. Immerwahr, 'Herodotus', in The Cambridge History of Classical Greek Literature: Greek Literature, P.Easterling and B.Knox (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), page 434
  4. Aubrey de Selincourt (trans.), Herodotus:The Histories, Penguin Classics (1972), page 280
  5. 5.0 5.1 Robin Waterfield (trans.) and Carolyn Dewald (ed.), The Histories by Herodotus, University of Oxford Press (1998), Introduction pages xvii
  6. 6.0 6.1 Oswyn Murray, 'Greek Historians' in The Oxford History of the Classical World, J.Boardman, J.Griffin and O.Murray (ed.s), Oxford University Press (1986) page 189
  7. Henry R. Immerwahr, 'Herodotus', in The Cambridge History of Classical Greek Literature: Greek Literature, P.Easterling and B.Knox (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), page 437-8
  8. Henry R. Immerwahr, 'Herodotus', in The Cambridge History of Classical Greek Literature: Greek Literature, P.Easterling and B.Knox (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), page 428
  9. Henry R. Immerwahr, 'Herodotus', in The Cambridge History of Classical Greek Literature: Greek Literature, P.Easterling and B.Knox (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), page 436
  10. David Pipes. Herodotus: Father of History, Father of Lies. 2009-11-16 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  11. ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Herodotus
  12. Aubrey de Selincourt (trans.), Herodotus: The Histories, Penguin Classics, 1972, page 41
  13. A.R.Burn, Herodotus: The Histories, Penguin Classics, 1972, page 23, citing Dionysius On Thucydides
  14. A.R.Burn, Herodotus: The Histories, Penguin Classics, 1972, page 27
  15. FGH I, F.I
  16. 16.0 16.1 Oswyn Murray, 'Greek Historians' in The Oxford History of the Classical World, J.Boardman, J.Griffin and O.Murray (ed.s), Oxford University Press (1986) page 188
  17. ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Herodotus, ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Herodotus
  18. Preparation of the Gospel, X,3
  19. Henry R. Immerwahr, 'Herodotus', in The Cambridge History of Classical Greek Literature: Greek Literature, P.Easterling and B.Knox (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), pages 430, 440
  20. Henry R. Immerwahr, 'Herodotus', in The Cambridge History of Classical Greek Literature: Greek Literature, P.Easterling and B.Knox (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), page 431
  21. A.R.Burn, Herodotus: The Histories, Penguin Classics, 1972, pages 22-3
  22. Henry R. Immerwahr, 'Herodotus', in The Cambridge History of Classical Greek Literature: Greek Literature, P.Easterling and B.Knox (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), pages 427, 432
  23. Richard Jebb (ed), Antigone, Cambridge University Press, 1976, pages 181-82 n.904-920
  24. George Rawlinson, The History of Herodotus Vol.1, D.Appleton and Company, New York (1859), page 6 Google copy
  25. Oswyn Murray, 'Greek Historians' in The Oxford History of the Classical World, J.Boardman, J.Griffin and O.Murray (ed.s), Oxford University Press (1986) page 190-91
  26. 26.0 26.1 A.R.Burn, Herodotus: The Histories, Penguin Classics, 1972, page 10
  27. George Rawlinson, The History of Herodotus Vol.1, D.Appleton and Company, New York (1859), page (details later)
  28. A.R.Burn, 'Introduction' in Herodotus: The Histories, Penguin Classics, 1972, page 13
  29. The Peloponnesian War, Lawrence A.Tritle, Greenwood Publishing Group 2004, page 147-48
  30. Herodotus and Greek History John Hart, Taylor and Francis 1982, page 174
  31. 31.0 31.1 Oswyn Murray, 'Greek Historians' in The Oxford History of the Classical World, J.Boardman, J.Griffin and O.Murray (ed.s), Oxford University Press (1986) page 191
  32. Robin Waterfield (trans.) and Carolyn Dewald (ed.), The Histories by Herodotus, University of Oxford Press (1998), Introduction pages xviii
  33. Fehling, Detlev. Herodotos and His "Sources": Citation, Invention, and Narrative Art. Translated by J.G. Howie. Arca Classical and Medieval Texts, Papers, and Monographs, 21. Leeds: Francis Cairns, 1989.
  34. C. P. Jones, ("ἔθνος and γένος in Herodotos"), The Classical Quarterly, New Series, 46 (2):315; 1996
  35. New Oxford American Dictionary, "Herodotos", Oxford University Press
  36. A.R.Burn, Herodotus: The Histories, Penguin Classics (1972), page 7
  37. George Rawlinson, The History of Herodotus Vol.I, D.Appleton and Co., New York (1859), page 1)
  38. George Rawlinson, The History of Herodotus Vol.I, D.Appleton and Co., New York (1859), Introduction)
  39. A.R.Burn, Herodotus: The Histories, Penguin Classics (1972), Introduction
  40. Eusebius Chron. Can. Pars. II p339, 01.83.4 (cited by George Rawlinson, The History of Herodotus Vol.I, D.Appleton and Co., New York (1859), Introduction)
  41. Plutarch De Malign. Herod. II p862 A (cited by George Rawlinson, The History of Herodotus Vol.I, D.Appleton and Co., New York (1859), Introduction)
  42. The Indian Empire The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 272.
  43. Simons, Marlise. Himalayas Offer Clue to Legend of Gold-Digging 'Ants'. New York Times: 25 November 1996.
  44. Peissel, Michel. "The Ants' Gold: The Discovery of the Greek El Dorado in the Himalayas". Collins, 1984. ISBN 978-0002725149.
  45. Wikipedia. Solifugae. 2008-02-20 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  46. Camel Spiders (Main Page)
  47. Camel Spiders (Pictures)