ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠ
هزاره
Sarwar Danish in 2011-cropped.jpg Karim Khalili in December 2010-cropped.jpg
Sima Samar of Afghanistan in 2011.jpg Habiba Sarabi in April 2011-cropped.jpg
Sayed Anwar Rahmati of Afghanistan in June 2010-cropped.jpg Abdul Haq Shafaq in 2012-cropped.jpg
ᠰᠠᠷᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠨᠢᠰᠢ ·ᠺᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠯᠢ
ᠰᠢᠮᠠ ᠰᠠᠮᠤᠷ ·ᠬᠠᠪᠢᠪᠠ ᠰᠠᠷᠠᠪᠢ
ᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠩᠸᠠᠷ ᠷᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠢ ·ᠠᠪᠳᠤᠯ ᠬᠠᠺ ᠱᠠᠹᠠᠺ</br>
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ
ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 5.4-8.1 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ
ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ
Flag of Afghanistan.svg ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ 2,685,000-5,370,000 [1]
Flag of Iran.svg ᠢᠷᠡᠨ 1,567,000
(1993 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ)
[2][3]
Flag of Pakistan.svg ᠫᠠᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ 956,000 [2]
Flag of Europe.svg ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ 180,000 [4]
Flag of Australia.svg ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯ 50,000
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) 54,230
Flag of Canada.svg ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ 48,090
Flag of Turkey.svg ᠲᠦᠷᠺ 33,320
ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ

ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨᠢᠭᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠨ

ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ

ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ

ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ

ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ

ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠ, ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ[5] (ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ هزاره, «ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ») ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨᠢᠭᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠳ ᠫᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠲᠠᠵᠢᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ 3 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠰᠤ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠ (9% ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 18% ᠍ ᠰ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ) ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃[6][7][8][1][9][10] ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠫᠠᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠯᠸ ᠨᠢᠺᠣᠯᠠᠸᠢᠴ ᠭᠤᠮᠢᠯᠧᠸ "ᠡᠲᠨᠠᠭᠧᠨᠧᠽ ᠢ ᠪᠢᠣᠰᠹᠧᠷᠠ ᠽᠧᠮᠯ" ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ "ᠮᠣᠭᠣᠯ" , ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠵᠢᠩᠬᠢᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠢ "ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠ" ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ:

"ᠳᠷᠧᠸᠨᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠷᠦᠰᠢ ᠢ ᠸᠧᠯᠢᠺᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠫᠢ" ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠨ ᠤ "ᠠ МОГЛО ЛИ БЫТЬ ИНАЧЕ?" ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ: -ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤ ᠸ ᠡᠲᠡᠬ ᠰᠲᠷᠠᠨᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠵᠠᠸᠣᠶᠧᠸᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠫᠷᠧᠳᠺᠠᠮᠢ᠂ ᠰᠣᠬᠣᠷᠠᠨᠢᠯᠢᠰᠢ ᠯᠢᠱᠢ ᠺᠠᠺ ᠷᠧᠯᠢᠺ ᠲᠤ - ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠧᠢᠴ ᠤ ᠸ ᠵᠠᠫᠠᠳᠠᠨᠠᠮ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠧ (ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠ ᠮᠥᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠴᠣᠷᠴᠠᠢ).[11]

"ᠷᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠮ ᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢᠢ: ᠡᠫᠣᠬᠢ ᠢ ᠴᠢᠸᠢᠯᠢᠰᠠᠼᠢᠢ" ᠨᠣᠮ: ᠢᠷᠠᠨᠰᠺᠧ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤ ᠫᠷᠢᠨᠢᠯ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠸ 1295 ᠭ᠃, ᠲᠠᠺ ᠺᠠᠺ ᠢᠽ ᠵᠠ ᠪᠤᠱᠧᠸᠠᠸᠱᠧᠢ ᠸᠣᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠧ ᠮᠤᠭᠯᠢ ᠸᠧᠷᠨᠦ᠋ᠲ ᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠢ᠃ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠫᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠺᠢ – ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠧᠢᠴ ᠤ – ᠨ ᠤᠨᠧ ᠵᠢᠪᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠸ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠫᠨᠨᠠᠢ ᠴᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ (ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ 1295 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠵᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠴᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠳ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ).[12]

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ᠂ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠤᠤᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠨᠴᠤᠤᠳ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠢᠷᠠᠨᠴᠤᠤᠳ ᠴᠤ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠭᠦᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠡᠭᠦᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠠᠢ᠃13-14 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠷᠤᠯᠠᠳ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ[13] ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ Xᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨ᠂ ᠫᠠᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠬᠠᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠬᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠬᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ᠂ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠳ ᠡᠯᠠᠮᠳ᠋ᠷᠠᠪᠢᠳᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠫᠧᠷᠰᠫᠤᠱᠲᠤᠩᠪᠧᠯᠤᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠠᠨᠴᠤᠤᠳ ᠵᠠᠪᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠵᠢᠺᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠵᠢᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠵᠢᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠳ ᠧᠦᠷᠣᠫᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠺᠠᠰᠫ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠺᠠᠰᠫ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠮ ᠤᠺ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨ ᠷᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠮ ᠥᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠢᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ 3 ᠣᠶᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠴᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[14]

ᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ᠂ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Afghanistan. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (December 13, 2007). December 26, 2007 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  2. 2.0 2.1 Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/.
  3. Census of Afghans in Pakistan, UNHCR Statistical Summary Report (retrieved December 27, 2007)
  4. The population of people with descent from Afghanistan in Canada is 48,090. Hazaras make up an estimated 15-20% of the population of Afghanistan depending to the source. The Hazara population in Canada is estimated from these two figures. Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada
  5. ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ "ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ III ᠪᠣᠲᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 56 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠳ 20 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 55 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠫᠦᠰᠢᠲᠦᠩ᠂ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠵᠢᠺ᠂ ᠦᠽᠪᠧᠺ᠂ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ᠂ ᠮᠣᠭᠣᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃
  6. L. Dupree, "Afghānistān: (iv.) ethnocgraphy", in Encyclopædia Iranica, Online Edition 2006, (LINK).
  7. CIA World Factbook.
  8. "A survey of the Afghan people - Afghanistan in 2006", The Asia Foundation, technical assistance by the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS; India) and Afghan Center for Socio-economic and Opinion Research (ACSOR), Kabul, 2006, PDF.
  9. Kamal Hyder reports (12 Nov 2011). Hazara community finds safe haven in Peshawar. Aljazeer English. November 13, 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  10. Ethnic Groups of Afghanistan. Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan (1997). the original on 2012-07-14 ᠍ ᠰ ᠠᠷᠬᠢᠸᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 2010-09-18 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 《In 1996, approximately 40 percent of Afghans were Pashtun, 11.4 of whom are of the Durrani tribal group and 13.8 percent of the Ghilzai group. Tajiks make up the second largest ethnic group with 25.3 percent of the population, followed by Hazaras, 9-18 percent; Uzbeks, 6.3 percent; Turkmen, 2.5 percent; Qizilbash, 1.0; 6.9 percent other.
  11. [1]
  12. http://thelib.ru/books/gumilev_lev_nikolaevich/ritmy_evrazii_epohi_i_civilizacii-read-10.html
  13. ᠳ᠃ᠮᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠷ᠂ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ᠂ УБ, 1969
  14. GoGo ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ: 3 ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠷᠠ ᠣᠶᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ

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