ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
«ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ» ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠴᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠ᠃ «ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ» ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ
ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ
ᠪᠤᠷᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠨ
Selenginskie buryaty.jpg
ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠯᠡᠩᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ
ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ — ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ (ᠪᠤᠷᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ)
ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ — 550 ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ (2010 ᠣᠨ). ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ:

ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ (ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) — 461,389 (ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ)[1]

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ)45,087 (ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ) [2]

Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ (ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) — 10,000 (ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ)
ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨᠢᠭᠢ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ (ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ
ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ), ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠪᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ
ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ
ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ
ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡDharma Wheel.svg ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ (ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ),
ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠩ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ
ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨ)
ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨᠪᠤᠯᠭᠤ ᠳᠤᠰᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠣᠩᠭᠣᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠣᠷᠢᠴᠣᠨᠣᠭᠣᠯ

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ[3] (ᠪᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ) — ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ 3 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ "ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ", ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ "ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ" ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ 461,389[4], ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ 45,087[5], ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ 10,000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ "ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ" ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ "ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ", ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ "ᠪᠤᠷᠶᠶᠠᠳᠤ" ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ "ᠪᠤᠷᠶᠶᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠷᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ "ᠵᠣᠨ", "ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ", "ᠠᠷᠠᠳ" ᠶᠤᠮ ᠤᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠪᠰᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷᠦᠵᠦᠮᠦᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ "ᠪᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤ", ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠦᠳ "ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦ", ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ "ᠪᠠᠷᠶᠶᠠᠳᠤ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 1240 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠢ:

  1. "ᠪᠤ" ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ (ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ᠂ ᠰᠡᠴᠡᠨ) "ᠣᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃
  2. "ᠪᠤᠷᠢ" (ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ "ᠴᠢᠨᠣ᠎ᠠ") ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ "ᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠠ" (ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ "ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠴᠢᠨᠣ᠎ᠠ") ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃32-hh
  3. "ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ" ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ – ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠺ ᠤᠭ ᠤᠵᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠣᠮᠲᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠯ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃
  4. "ᠪᠠᠷᠰ ᠲᠤ" (ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ "ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ" ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ "ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠦ") ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠨᠣ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠴᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃
  5. "ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ" ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠭᠡ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠤᠨᠵᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠣᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠵᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ 90 ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠩᠭᠡᠷ 3 ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠪᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠴᠣᠩᠭᠣᠣᠯᠢ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠩᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠶᠢᠳᠦᠯ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ
ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ (buriyad)
ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ
ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ1 ᠪᠤᠷᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ
2 ᠪᠤᠷᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ3 ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ (buriad)
ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠶᠢᠳᠦᠯ
ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲ (ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲ᠋ ᠍ ᠤ)
ᠡᠬᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ᠂ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ:
1 – 1958 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ᠂ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠳᠬᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
2 – ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ᠂ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠳᠬᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ
3 – ᠶᠠ᠃ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠯ (1966), ᠴ᠃ᠳᠠᠮᠳᠢᠨᠰᠦ᠋ᠷᠦᠩ (1982)

ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 6 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠷᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠳᠦᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳ᠂ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ-ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ 1800 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ 90 ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠮ ᠣᠲᠣᠭ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ᠂ ᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ᠂ ᠬᠣᠷᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠬᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠯᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠴᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ 20 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠴᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠨᠣᠨ ᠤᠯᠵᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢ᠂ ᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠨᠢᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠯᠡᠩᠭᠡ-ᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠩᠬᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠵᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢᠩ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠴᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠳᠤᠯᠠᠩ ᠬᠠᠳᠤᠬᠤ᠂ ᠵᠢᠮᠢᠰ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ᠂ ᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠩ ᠰᠤᠷᠮᠠᠭᠠᠢ᠃ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠴᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠤᠯᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠦᠵᠢᠭ ᠪᠦᠵᠢᠬᠦ᠂ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠲᠤᠤᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠣᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1207 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ 14-17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ: ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳᠮᠣᠭᠣᠯᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠵᠦᠩᠭᠠᠷᠬᠣᠱᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠲᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠬᠣᠲᠣᠭᠣᠶᠢᠳ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠲᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠲᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠮᠣᠭᠣᠯᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ
16 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠪᠢᠷᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ- ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ᠃ ᠺᠠᠯᠮ ᠤᠺᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ᠃ 16 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠪᠸᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠧᠯᠧᠰ᠂ ᠲᠧᠯᠧᠦ᠋ᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠺᠢᠷᠭᠢᠽᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠰᠢᠪᠸᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠷᠭᠢᠽ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ 2 ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠬᠠᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠵᠤᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ (ᠳᠠᠦ᠋ᠷ ᠤ) ᠣᠨᠣᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ᠂ ᠨᠣᠨᠰᠤᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1900 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳᠴᠤᠳ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ᠂ ᠰᠡᠯᠡᠩᠭᠡ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠵᠦᠯᠭᠦ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ᠂ ᠰᠠᠶᠠᠩᠢ ᠠᠤᠯᠠᠯᠠᠰ᠂ ᠶᠡᠨᠢᠰᠧᠢ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠬᠢ᠂ ᠲᠠᠩᠨᠠ (ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠸᠠ) ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳ᠂ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ᠂ ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠨᠬᠡᠷᠡᠮᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠢ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠨ ᠭᠥᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠮᠠᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠵᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠰᠢ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ᠂ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃

1207 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ᠂ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ "ᠠᠷᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠮᠣᠳᠣᠨ" ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠲᠣᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠤᠪᠠ᠃ 14 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠮᠦ᠋ᠩᠬᠡ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠩ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ᠂ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ 3 ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠩᠬᠠᠢ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ  ᠦ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳᠴᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯ᠂ ᠰᠡᠯᠡᠩᠭᠡ᠂ ᠣᠨᠣᠨᠬᠥᠯᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷᠬᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠩᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢ᠂ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳᠴᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠰᠢᠶᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠰᠡᠴᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠨ  ᠦ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ 12 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ᠂ 14-17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ-ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 16-17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠪᠸᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠺᠧᠲ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠪᠸᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠢᠪᠸᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠴᠥᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ 1648 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠ᠂ 1652 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠵᠠᠨ ᠤ᠂ 1654 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠮ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠴᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃ 17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ  ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠦ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ  ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ  ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠩᠭᠦᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ 17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠷᠲᠥᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ  ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠭ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠦ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ  ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ  ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠴᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠮᠥᠷᠦᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠭᠦᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠣᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠦᠴᠢ᠂ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠳ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠲᠦᠰᠢᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠠᠭᠠᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠢ 1656 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ 1689 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠳᠤᠲᠠᠮᠠᠭ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ 1620 ᠍ ᠢᠤᠳ᠋ ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠩ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 77,000 ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 1767 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠺᠠ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 18 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠴᠠᠢ᠃[6]

ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠰᠢᠮᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1727 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[7]

1900 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠴᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠷᠢᠲᠥᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠷᠤ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1920 ᠍ ᠢᠤᠳ᠋ ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠳᠬᠦᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠦᠬᠡ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠠᠢ᠃ [8] 1925 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 9 ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ 450 ᠡᠷᠦᠬᠡ᠂ ᠤᠯᠵᠠ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ 1700 ᠡᠷᠦᠬᠡ᠂ ᠣᠨᠣᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ 1250 ᠡᠷᠦᠬᠡ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠯᠦᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ 400 ᠡᠷᠦᠬᠡ᠂ ᠢᠷᠦᠭᠡ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ 500 ᠡᠷᠦᠬᠡ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ 2000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ , ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ 15800 ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠤᠷᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃[8] ᠨᠥᠭᠦᠭᠡᠲᠡᠶᠢᠭᠦᠷ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠠᠨᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠪ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠴᠤᠳ᠂ ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ДХГ ᠍ ᠳᠦ ДХАТ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ (ᠰᠧᠺᠰᠣᠲ) ᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[8] 1930 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ-ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1929 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ

1927 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠩᠭᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠪᠠ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 35,000 ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠨᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠣᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 1937 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 10,000 ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠫᠤᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠠᠢ᠃

2 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ 13,000 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠦᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠶᠢᠴᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ 20% ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠠᠯ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠦᠰᠢᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠣᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠰ ᠭᠦᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ 1689 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ-ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ "ᠰ" ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠷᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ "ᠰ" ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ "ᠰ" ᠍ ᠢ "ᠬ" ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠨᠢ 1923-1958 ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ-ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠾᠷᠦ᠋ᠱᠸᠧᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ-ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠾᠷᠦ᠋ᠱᠸᠧ ᠮᠣᠰᠺᠸᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ-ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ᠂ ᠺᠠᠷᠧᠯ-ᠹᠢᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠹᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠬᠠᠰᠤᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ᠂ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠺᠠᠷᠧᠯᠹᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃[9][10] ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ЗГ ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠬᠢᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠩᠬᠢᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ᠂ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

1980 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠣᠷᠴᠢᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ [11]

2008 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠢ-ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠦ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠰᠤᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠸ᠃ᠫᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠤ ЗГ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠭᠤᠳᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ЗГ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠦ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠡᠶᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠍ ᠢ ᠺᠧᠮᠧᠷᠪᠣ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠢᠳᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ (17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ)

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠷᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳᠪᠤᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠬᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠣᠷᠡᠬᠢᠷᠢᠳᠰᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭᠤᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳᠴᠣᠨᠣᠭᠣᠯᠲᠠᠪᠤᠩᠭᠤᠳ (ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠩ ᠳᠤ) ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ 7 ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ 17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷᠨᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠷᠢ᠂ ᠡᠬᠢᠷᠢᠳ᠂ ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭᠤᠯ᠂ ᠴᠣᠨᠣᠭᠣᠯ᠂ ᠬᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠣᠷ ᠨᠢ 1680 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠡᠬᠢᠷ ᠲᠦᠬᠣᠷᠢᠬᠣᠩᠭᠣᠣᠳᠣᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠰᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭᠤᠯᠲᠠᠪᠤᠩᠭᠤᠳᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠠᠯ᠂ ᠠᠰᠢᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠢᠺᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠢ
  • ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭ
  • ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠢ
  • ᠣᠪᠭᠠᠨ
  • ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠢ
  • ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠳᠠᠢ
  • ᠬᠤᠷᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ
  • ᠣᠯᠽᠣᠨ
  • ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ
  • ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠩ ᠤᠳ

ᠡᠬᠢᠷ ᠲᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠠᠪᠠᠽᠠᠢ
  • Һᠡᠩᠭᠡᠯᠳᠡᠷ
  • ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ
  • Һᠡᠷᠡ
  • Һᠡᠷ ᠡһᠡᠯᠳᠡᠢ
  • ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠ
  • ᠭᠣᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ
  • ᠵᠣᠩᠬᠢ
  • ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨᠳᠠᠢ
  • ᠱᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ
  • ᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ
  • ᠪᠤᠶᠠᠨ

ᠬᠣᠷᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ
  • ᠬᠤᠸᠠᠰᠠᠢ
  • ᠬᠥᠪᠳ ᠦᠳ
  • ᠭᠤᠱᠠᠳ
  • ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ
  • ᠬᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ
  • ᠬᠤᠲᠠᠢ
  • ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ
  • ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠪᠠᠨ
  • ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ
  • ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ

ᠬᠣᠩᠭᠣᠣᠳᠣᠷ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠠᠰᠢᠬᠠᠢ
  • ᠲᠠᠪᠵᠠᠨ
  • ᠬᠠᠭᠲᠠ
  • ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠲᠦᠨ
  • ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠯᠳᠠᠢ
  • ᠱᠣᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ
  • ᠪᠠᠳᠢᠷᠠᠬᠠᠨ
  • Һᠠᠪᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ
  • ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ
  • ᠠᠱᠠᠲ
  • ᠬᠣᠯᠲᠣ
  • ᠳᠠᠰᠢ
  • ᠲᠡᠷᠲᠡ
  • ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠬᠠᠨ
  • ᠳᠣᠯᠢᠶᠠᠩᠭᠤᠳ
  • ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠨᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ
  • ᠳᠠᠷᠳᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ
  • ᠪᠤᠷᠶᠠᠤᠬ᠎ᠠ
  • ᠰᠢᠷᠤᠩᠬᠠᠨ
  • ᠪᠤᠯᠪᠤ
  • ᠤᠯᠢᠶᠠᠪᠠ
  • ᠬᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ

ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

16-17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

16-17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠷᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠠᠰᠢᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠯᠡᠩᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠡᠯᠡᠩᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠯᠢᠺᠠ᠂ ᠣᠨᠣᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ 550,000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ 445 ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ (2002 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠥᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ), 70 ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ (1998 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠦᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ), 25 ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ 1897 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰ᠃ᠫᠠᠲ᠋ᠺᠠᠨᠨᠣᠸ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ 288 ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ 383 ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ 118 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ 1 ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠯᠠ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨᠢᠭᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠᠠᠷᠤ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠸᠠᠭᠢᠨᠳᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ 1931 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ1939 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 16 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ᠂ 20 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

1741 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠮᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠴᠠᠩ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1914 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ 48 ᠳ᠋ᠠᠴᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ 16,000 ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠱᠠᠪᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ 1930 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠦᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠠᠷᠮᠠᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠥᠷᠨᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠣᠰᠢᠹ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠨᠢ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ 10 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ-ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ 17 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ᠂ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠠᠢ (1851 ᠣᠨ). 1917 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ 1921 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ᠂ 1922 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠣᠨᠢᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1923 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠴᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1992 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠮ᠃ᠨ᠃ ᠮᠧᠯᠬᠧᠸ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦᠦ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ᠂ ᠺᠢᠷᠧᠩ ᠢᠶᠠ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ᠂ ᠰᠠᠶᠠᠩᠢ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ᠂ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠴᠠᠢ᠃[12] ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠮ᠃ᠨ᠃ ᠮᠧᠯᠬᠧᠸ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠦᠭᠡ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠵᠦᠵᠦᠭᠡᠴᠢᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • [[]]

ᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • [[]]

ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠸᠢᠭᠮᠧᠳᠢᠶᠠ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ:
«ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ»

ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. ᠣᠹᠢᠼᠢᠠᠯᠩ ᠤᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠸᠰᠧᠷᠣᠰᠢᠰᠺᠣᠢ ᠫᠧᠷᠧᠫᠢᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠧᠯᠧᠨᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ 2010 ᠭᠣᠳᠠ᠃ ᠢᠨᠹᠷᠮᠠᠼᠢᠤᠨ ᠤᠧ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯ ᠤ ᠣᠪ ᠣᠺᠣᠨᠴᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠯᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠣᠠᠬᠤ ᠸᠰᠧᠷᠣᠰᠢᠰᠺᠣᠢ ᠫᠧᠷᠧᠫᠢᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠧᠯᠧᠨᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ 2010 ᠭᠣᠳᠠ
  2. ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ
  3. ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ "ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ" (ᠪᠤᠷ᠃ "ᠪᠤᠷᠶᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ"), "ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠵᠣᠨ", "ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ" (ᠪᠤᠷ᠃ "ᠪᠤᠷᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ") ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃
  4. ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ
  5. 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦᠩ
  6. ᠸᠯᠠᠳᠢᠮᠢᠷ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠲᠠᠸ᠃ ᠫᠷᠢᠰᠣᠧᠳᠢᠨᠧᠨᠧ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠢ ᠺ ᠷᠣᠰᠰᠢᠢ: ᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠫᠠᠷᠪᠠ᠂ ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠲ᠋ᠢᠺᠠ
  7. ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠪ ᠴᠢᠮᠢ ᠳᠤᠳᠣᠷᠵᠢᠶᠠᠪ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠵᠣᠨ
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 ᠰ᠃ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠳᠤᠭᠲᠤᠬᠤ - ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠬᠤᠤᠪᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠪᠬᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ
  9. ᠡᠲᠨᠢᠴᠧᠰᠺᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲ ᠸ ᠰᠸᠧᠲ᠋ᠧ ᠡᠲᠨᠣᠳᠧᠮᠣᠭᠷᠠᠹᠢᠴᠧᠰᠺᠢᠬ ᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠪ
  10. ᠱ᠃ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠳᠣᠷᠵᠢᠶᠠᠪ᠃ "ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤ: ᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠢ ᠰᠣᠸᠷᠧᠮᠧᠨᠨᠣᠰᠲ" ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ-ᠦᠳᠡ᠃ 2001
  11. http://baikaltravel.ru/buryatia/history/]
  12. ᠮ᠃ᠨ᠃ ᠮᠧᠯᠬᠧᠸ᠂ ᠭᠧᠣᠭᠷᠠᠹᠢᠴᠧᠰᠺᠧ ᠨᠠᠵᠠᠪᠠᠨᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠸᠣᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠴᠢᠨᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠪᠢᠷᠢ᠂ 1969

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