ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
(ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ)
ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠤᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ: ᠡᠪ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ:
(ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠲᠤ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ)
ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ
ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯBG Sofia coa.svg ᠰᠣᠹᠢ
ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠰᠣᠹᠢ᠂ ᠫᠯᠣᠪᠠᠳᠢᠪ
ᠸᠠᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠠᠰᠤ
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ 
(2011 ᠤᠨ)
ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ →
84.8% – ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
8.8% – ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
4.9% – ᠽᠢᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ
1.5% – ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ
 -  ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ
(ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ)
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ
᠂ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨ᠋ᠲ ᠤᠨ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠷᠣᠰᠧᠨ ᠫᠯᠧᠸᠨᠧᠯ ᠢᠶᠧᠸ (2012)
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠫᠠᠯᠮᠧᠨ ᠣᠷᠧᠱᠠᠷᠰᠺᠢ (2013)
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠭ᠃ "ᠨᠠᠷᠣᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠪᠷᠠᠨᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ"
(«ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ»)
ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ
 -  ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ 110,993.6 km2 
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 0.3
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (2011) 7,364,570 [1] 
GDP (ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $54.271 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ  ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ75 ᠳᠦ
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $7,243 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ74]])
Gini (2007) 45.3[2] (ᠶᠡᠬᠡ
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠯᠸᠶᠸᠪ (BGN)
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ (GMT+2)
 -  ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ  (GMT+3)
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠳᠣᠮᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ +359 / .bg1
ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ BG, BGR / БНБолУ
1ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ .eu ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ

ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 保加利亚︶  ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ  ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠯᠠᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠭᠷᠧᠺ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ  ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠠᠨᠰᠧᠷᠪ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ ᠮᠥᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ᠃ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠤᠨᠠᠢ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠢᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ 105 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ 110.9 ᠮᠢᠩ᠋ᠭᠠᠨ ᠺᠦᠸᠠᠳ᠋ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 681 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ 1393 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 500 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠣᠰᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ-ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ  ᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠤ 1878 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1946 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ 1990 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨ᠋ᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ 98 ᠍ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ 7.4 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠽᠢᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 18 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠯᠠᠸ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ᠂ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ᠃ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠬᠥᠭ᠍ᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠃ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣ᠋ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠤ 15,933 ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ᠂ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭ᠍ᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ (65) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

811 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠷᠤᠮ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠺᠦᠽᠠᠷᠨᠢᠺᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃[3] ᠣᠳᠣ ᠠᠴᠠ 6000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠨᠵᠢᠸᠢᠨᠴᠠᠸᠠᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[4][5] ᠸᠠᠷᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠭᠣᠰ᠂ ᠭᠣᠶᠣᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠢ᠃[6] ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠹᠷᠠᠺ[7] ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠣᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠧᠷᠧᠰ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠣᠳᠣᠷᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ᠂ 46 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 5 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠸᠢᠰᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠹᠠᠨᠠᠰᠦ ᠭᠡᠭ᠍ᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[8] ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠯᠠᠸᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[9]

7 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠫᠠᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠤᠷᠠ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠨᠧᠫᠷᠳᠤᠨᠠᠢ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠸᠢᠽᠠᠨᠲ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠺᠢᠹ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠫᠯᠢᠰᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (681—1018) ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤᠳ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠰᠯᠠᠸ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ᠃[10]

ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ
ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 681—1018 ᠣᠨ
ᠸᠢᠰᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ 1018—1185 ᠣᠨ
ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1185—1396 ᠣᠨ
ᠸᠢᠳᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1396—1422 ᠣᠨ
ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ 1396—1878 ᠣᠨ
ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠦᠩᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1878—1908 ᠣᠨ
ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1908—1946 ᠣᠨ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1946—1990 ᠣᠨ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1990 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ
ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ 1877 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠱᠢᠫᠺᠠ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ[11]
1971 ᠣᠨ᠃ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠣ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠ ᠵᠢᠪᠺᠣᠸ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠦ᠃ᠼᠡᠳᠡᠨᠪᠠᠯ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ

811 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠷᠤᠮ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠸᠢᠰᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢᠺᠢᠹᠣᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠵᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠴᠠᠢ᠃ 864 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠷᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠢ (ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ) ᠍ ᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ «ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠦᠦ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ» ᠭᠡᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠮᠧᠣᠨ ᠬᠠᠨ (893–927) ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ[12][13] ᠺᠦᠷᠦᠠᠴᠢᠶ ᠠᠮᠠᠵᠠᠷᠫᠧᠴᠧᠨᠧᠭᠰᠧᠷᠪᠲᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠰ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠷᠦᠰᠢ᠂ ᠸᠢᠰᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠫᠷᠧᠰᠯᠠᠸᠠ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠮᠤᠢᠯ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠧᠷᠪ ᠬᠣᠷᠸᠠᠲ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠸᠠᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠵᠡᠢ᠃[14]

ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠸᠠᠰᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠫᠶᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠳᠧᠯᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠋ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ 1185 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠠᠰᠧᠨᠢᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠫᠶᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠵᠦ ᠲᠤᠷᠨᠤᠪᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[15] ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ II ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠠᠰᠧᠨ ᠦ (1218–1241) ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ᠍ᠵᠢᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ᠂ ᠸᠢᠽᠠᠨᠲ᠂ ᠬᠠᠩᠭ᠋ᠠᠷᠢ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠮᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠸᠢᠳᠢᠨ᠂ ᠲᠤᠷᠨᠤᠪᠠ᠂ ᠳᠣᠪᠠᠷᠤᠵᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠴᠢᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠴᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[16]

1396 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠺᠣᠫᠣᠯᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠤᠨᠠᠶ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠰᠮᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠰᠴᠠᠢ᠂[17] ᠥᠪ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[18] 1598 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠨᠤᠪᠠ᠂ 1686 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠨᠤᠪᠠ᠂ ᠴᠢᠫᠷᠣᠪᠴᠢ ᠂ 1689 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠷᠫᠤᠱ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠳᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠪᠠ᠃[19] 18 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠮᠰᠠᠷ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ[18] 1876 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠᠣᠷᠣ ᠲᠡᠰᠦᠷᠡᠭ᠌ᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 30,000 ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠴᠣᠴᠢᠨ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠵᠠᠢ[20] 1877 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠣᠰᠮᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠦᠩᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1885 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠷᠦᠮᠧᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠵᠦ᠂ 1908 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[21] ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠷᠠᠵᠤ «ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠫᠷᠦᠰ»[22] ᠭᠡᠭ᠍ᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ 1912-1929 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠷᠢᠰ (1918–1943) ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ II ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

1944 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠠᠬᠠᠯ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ 1946 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠩᠯᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠣ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ᠂ ᠰᠣᠽᠢᠶᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠭ᠍ᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃[23] ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠵᠢᠵᠦ᠂ 1950 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠠ ᠲᠤᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠ ᠵᠢᠪᠺᠣᠸ ᠍ ᠤᠨ (1954–1989) ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃[24] 1979 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠣᠷᠭᠢ ᠢᠸᠠᠨᠨᠣᠸ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠢᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1984 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠬᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ 300,000 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠳᠴᠠᠢ᠃[25]

1989 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠮᠤᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠᠪᠡᠷ 11 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 10 ᠍ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠭᠴᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ (ᠳᠧᠮᠣᠺᠷᠠᠲ) ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠵᠦ 1990 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠷᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠶᠢᠳᠠᠵᠤ[26] 1997 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠢᠭ᠍ᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 2001 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠰᠡᠬᠢ᠍ᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[27] 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ North Atlantic Treaty Organization,[28] 2007 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃[29]

ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠫᠢᠷᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ

110,994 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ2 ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 105 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠭᠷᠧᠺᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠠᠨᠰᠧᠷᠪᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ 1,808 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠲᠤ 354 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[30] ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ᠃ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠮᠥᠰᠥᠶᠢᠯᠠ (2925 ᠮᠸᠲ᠋ᠷ) ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠷᠣᠳᠣᠫ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠹᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ᠂ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠰ᠂ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠳᠤᠨᠠᠢ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠫᠢᠷᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠸᠢᠬᠡᠷᠧᠨ (2914 ᠮᠸᠲ᠋ᠷ)᠂ ᠷᠢᠯᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠯᠺᠠ ᠮᠥᠰᠥᠶᠢᠯᠠ (2902 ᠮᠸᠲ᠋ᠷ) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠭᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠸ (2376 ᠮᠸᠲ᠋ᠷ) ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ 540 ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠭᠤᠷᠤᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠠᠩ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠢᠰᠺᠤᠷ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ 340 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠴᠤ ᠳᠤᠨᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠬᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ +10.5 °C᠂ ᠡᠪᠦᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ -2+2 °C᠂ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ +20 °C—25 °C᠂ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 698 ᠮᠢᠯᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠤᠨᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃[31]

ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ 3000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ 30 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠨᠭ᠌ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠵᠢᠭᠦᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠪᠣᠷᠣ ᠭᠥᠷᠦᠭᠡᠰᠦᠪᠤᠭᠤᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢᠳᠣᠷᠣᠭᠣᠲᠠᠤᠯᠠᠢᠭᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[31]

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠪᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠴᠠᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠵᠢᠭ᠍ᠴᠢᠨ
ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠲᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

2011 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 7,364,570 ᠍ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ 51.3 % ᠨᠢ ᠡᠮ᠎ᠡ᠂ 48.7 % ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ᠃ 72.5 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠳ᠂ 27.5 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ [32] 1985 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 8,948,649 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳ 1990 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠲᠡᠢ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ 1950 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠢ (7,250,500) ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠤ 937,000-1,200,000 ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ [33]

 ·· 
ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ<center/>
  ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ     ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
1 ᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠰᠣᠹᠢ 1,270,284 ᠰᠣᠹᠢ</br>ᠰᠣᠹᠢ 7 ᠫᠯᠸᠧᠨ ᠫᠯᠸᠧᠨ 106,011
2 ᠫᠯᠣᠪᠠᠳᠢᠪ ᠫᠯᠣᠪᠠᠳᠢᠪ 331,796 8 ᠰᠯᠢᠸᠧᠨ ᠰᠯᠢᠸᠧᠨ 89,848
3 ᠸᠠᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠸᠠᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ 330,486 9 ᠳᠣᠪᠷᠢᠴ ᠳᠣᠪᠷᠢᠴ 89,472
4 ᠪᠤᠷᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠭᠠᠰᠤ 197,301 10 ᠰᠢᠮᠧᠨ ᠰᠢᠮᠧᠨ 82,557
5 ᠷᠦᠰᠧ ᠷᠦᠰᠧ 146,609 11 ᠫᠧᠷᠨᠢᠺ ᠫᠧᠷᠨᠢᠺ 81,052
6 ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠠ-ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠠ-ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠ 136,363 12 ᠬᠠᠰᠺᠣᠪᠣ ᠬᠠᠰᠺᠣᠪᠣ 74,843
ᠡᠬᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ: ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠭᠡᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ

ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ - 84.8 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠯᠠᠸ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ᠂ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠽᠢᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ 8.8%, 4.9% ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠥᠭᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠢᠢᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 98.6 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃


ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠃ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠦᠨᠦᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠋᠋.ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠷᠠᠨᠠᠢᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠢᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠦᠮ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠰᠣᠹᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠼ
ᠳᠣᠪᠠᠷᠤᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ

ᠥᠪ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠤ United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭ᠍ᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪ 7᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪ 2 ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ
  2. Distribution of family income – Gini index. The World Factbook. CIA.
  3. "Early human marks are 'symbols'".
  4. Slavchev, Vladimir (2004-2005). "Monuments of the final phase of Cultures Hamangia and Savia on the territory of Bulgaria".
  5. Chapman, John (2000). Fragmentation in Archaeology: People, Places, and Broken Objects. Routledge. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-415-15803-9.
  6. Grande, Lance (2009). [Gems and gemstones: Timeless natural beauty of the mineral world].
  7. Boardman, John; Edwards, I.E.S.; Sollberger, E. (1982). The Cambridge Ancient History - part1: The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries BC.
  8. "The monastery in the village of Zlatna Livada - the oldest in Europe".
  9. D. Angelov (1971). "The Formation of the Bulgarian Nation".
  10. Ivanov, Lyubomir (2007). ESSENTIAL HISTORY OF BULGARIA IN SEVEN PAGES
  11. "Reminiscence from Days of Liberation*".
  12. "Reign of Simeon I"
  13. The First Golden Age.
  14. "The plots of 'master Presian the Bulgarian'".
  15. The second Bulgarian empire
  16. [James David Bourchier (1911) "History of Bulgaria"]
  17. Conversion to Islam in the Balkans: Kisve Bahası - Petitions and Ottoman Social Life, 1670–1730.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Detrez, Raymond (2008). Europe and the Historical Legacies in the Balkans.
  19. "Bulgaria – Ottoman rule".
  20. The Final Move to Independence.
  21. Crampton, R.J. (2007). Bulgaria. Oxford University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-19-954158-4.
  22. Dillon, Emile Joseph (February 1920). "XV". The Inside Story of the Peace Conference. Harper. ISBN 978-3-8424-7594-6. Retrieved 20 December 2011. "The territorial changes which the Prussia of the Balkans was condemned to undergo are neither very considerable nor unjust."
  23. Crampton, R. J. (2005). A concise history of Bulgaria.
  24. The Economy.
  25. Bohlen, Celestine (17 October 1991). "Vote Gives Key Role to Ethnic Turks".
  26. "The destructive Bulgarian transition".
  27. Library of Congress 2006, p. 16.
  28. march/e0329a.htm "NATO Update: Seven new members join NATO".
  29. "Bulgaria, Romania Join European Union".
  30. "Country Profile: Bulgaria".
  31. 31.0 31.1 ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ᠃ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠲᠢ᠃ «ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ» (1988)᠂ 85-88 ᠍ ᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ
  32. "2011 census of Bulgaria".
  33. "Will EU Entry Shrink Bulgaria's Population Even More?".

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