ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠢᠨᠰᠤᠶᠢᠯᠢᠩᠢᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠰᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ

ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ 《ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ᠂ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠂ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠢ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃[1] ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠡᠮᠨᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ᠂ ХАА, ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠮ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[2] ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷ ᠺᠠᠷᠯ ᠡᠷᠧᠺ 1919 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ 20 ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠪᠠ 21 ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ᠂ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭᠷᠧᠺᠣᠮᠪᠢᠨᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠮᠤᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ (ᠳᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ᠂ ᠣᠨᠣᠰᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[3]

ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠴᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ (ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ) ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠷᠯᠢᠵᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠧᠯᠧᠺᠼᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠤᠳᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠡᠰ ᠢ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ᠂ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ᠂ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠤᠳ ᠢ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠡᠮ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[4] ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ᠂ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ᠂ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ (ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢᠮᠣᠯᠧᠺᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢᠪᠢᠣᠬᠢᠮᠢᠡᠮᠪᠷᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ) ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨᠠᠬᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ:

 ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠴᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠪᠢᠣ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠢᠣᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ᠂ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ/ ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠢᠣᠮᠠᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ/ ᠍ ᠢ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ᠂ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[5][6][7]

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠰᠬᠡᠯᠲᠡ (ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠫᠢᠸᠣ᠋, ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ) ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ

ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ᠂ 《ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ》 ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠᠳ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠦᠨᠡᠬᠡᠷ᠂ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠨᠧᠣᠯᠢᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠹᠧᠷᠮᠧᠷᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡ᠂ ᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠷᠳᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠠᠽᠣᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠵᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠹᠧᠷᠮᠧᠷᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡ᠂ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠷᠯᠢᠰᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠭ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠹᠧᠷᠮᠧᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠼ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ [8] ᠪᠠ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠧᠰᠣᠫᠣᠲ᠋ᠠᠮᠢᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠬᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠢᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ (ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠪᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ), ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯ ᠍ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠷᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠳᠷᠣᠵᠵ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠢᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠷᠣᠵᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ᠂ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠤᠰᠤᠲᠥᠶᠢᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠫᠢᠷᠲ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ (ᠡᠲᠡᠨᠣᠯ) ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠯ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠹᠧᠷᠮᠧᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ᠂ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠷᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠤᠤ ᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠦ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠹᠧᠷᠮᠧᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠼᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠹᠧᠷᠮᠧᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠼᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠰᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠯᠤᠢ ᠫᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠸᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠹᠧᠷᠮᠧᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ (1857 ᠤᠨ) ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠹᠧᠷᠮᠧᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ᠂ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠮᠥᠨ᠃

ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠰᠧᠯᠧᠺᠼᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠰᠧᠯᠧᠺᠼ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢᠡᠶᠢᠭ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

20 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1917 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠮ ᠸᠡᠶᠢᠴᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠯ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠷᠣᠼᠧᠰᠰᠣᠳ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ᠂ ᠺᠯᠣᠰᠲᠷᠢᠳᠢᠦ᠋ᠮ ᠠᠼᠧᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠢᠯᠢᠭᠺᠦ᠋ᠮ ᠍ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠼᠧᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ᠂ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠰᠦᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠠᠼᠧᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠮᠰᠠᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[9]

ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠩᠲ᠋ᠢᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1928 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠹᠯᠧᠮᠢᠩ ᠢ ''ᠫᠧᠨᠢᠼᠢᠯᠢᠤᠮ'' ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠥᠭᠦᠴᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠥᠭᠥ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠪᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠹᠯᠣᠷᠡᠢ᠂ ᠡᠷᠨᠰᠲ ᠪᠣᠷᠢᠰ ᠴᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠨᠣᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠶᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠧᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ᠂ ᠬᠥᠭᠦᠴᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠥᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠩᠲ᠋ᠢᠪᠢᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠢ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ᠂ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠫᠧᠨᠢᠼᠢᠯᠢᠨᠢᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1940 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠫᠧᠨᠢᠼᠢᠯᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠮᠨᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠨᠢᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠢ ᠡᠮᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ᠂ ᠫᠣᠯ ᠪᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ (ᠰᠲᠡᠨᠹᠣᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ) ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 1971 ᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ 1972 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠧᠷᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠸ᠃ᠪᠧᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠯᠧᠢ ᠨ᠃ᠺᠣᠬᠧᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠢᠮᠫᠤᠷᠲᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠮᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[10]


ᠪᠢᠣ ᠲᠦᠯᠡᠰᠢᠨᠢᠭᠢ ᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠡᠷᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠠᠮᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠨᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠡᠲᠡᠨᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠯᠡᠰᠢ ᠨᠢ᠂ 2030 ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠦᠯᠡᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ 30 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠪᠢᠣ ᠲᠦᠯᠡᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠷᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠵᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠣ ᠲᠦᠯᠡᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠪᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[11]

ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠰ ᠢ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠷᠨᠠᠢ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭ

ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ 4 ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ᠂ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ХАА, ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ (ᠪᠢᠣᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠠᠨᠴᠠᠷ᠂ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ᠂ ᠪᠢᠣ ᠲᠦᠯᠡᠰᠢ ᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠦ) ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠯ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ(ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ). ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠨᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠢᠣᠱᠦᠯᠲᠦᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ᠂ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠰᠤ (ᠪᠣᠬᠢᠷ ᠤᠰᠤ) ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠬᠢᠷᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ (ᠪᠢᠣᠷᠧᠮᠧᠳᠢᠶᠠᠴᠠ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ:

  • ᠪᠢᠣᠢᠨᠹᠣᠷᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠪᠢᠣ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ (ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ) ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠮᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠮ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠭᠭᠥᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ (ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ) ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠳᠦᠩ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠮ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ "ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠮᠣᠯᠧᠺᠤᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ (ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠵᠤ), ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠮ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠯᠧᠺᠤᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[12] ᠪᠢᠣᠢᠨᠹᠣᠷᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ (ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠹᠦᠨᠺᠼᠢᠤᠨᠠᠯ ᠭᠧᠨᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠣᠮᠢᠺ)ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠮ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃
  • ᠴᠡᠩᠬᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ᠃
  • ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ᠂ ᠸᠧᠭᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠮᠠᠯᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ᠂ ᠲᠷᠠᠨᠰᠭᠧᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ (ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠡᠢ) ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩᠭᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠫᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠼᠢ ᠳᠤ (ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠣᠷ) ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠫᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠼᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠨᠤᠬᠤᠴᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃
  • ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠠᠩᠲ᠋ᠢᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠮᠴᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠰᠡ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠯ᠃
  • ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ (ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ) ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠍ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠶᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ/ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ (ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠮᠠᠭᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ) ᠢᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠰᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ [ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ] http://www.bio-entrepreneur.net/Advance-definition-biotech.pdf}

ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠪᠢᠣᠧᠺᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠪᠢᠣᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ:

ᠹᠠᠷᠮᠠᠭᠧᠨᠣᠮᠢᠺ ᠲᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠧᠽᠣᠺᠰᠢᠷᠢᠪᠨᠢᠺᠯᠧᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠫ – ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠴᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ

ᠹᠠᠷᠮᠠᠭᠧᠨᠣᠮᠢᠺ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠹᠠᠷᠮᠠᠺᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠧᠨᠣᠮᠢᠺᠰ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[13] ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠮ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠹᠠᠷᠮᠠᠭᠧᠨᠣᠮᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤᠶᠢᠴᠠ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠹᠠᠷᠮᠠᠭᠧᠨᠣᠮᠢᠺ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ:

  1. ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠮᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ (tailor-made) ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ᠃ ᠹᠠᠷᠮᠠᠭᠧᠨᠣᠮᠢᠺ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠢᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠷᠢᠪᠨᠢᠺᠯᠧᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠣᠯᠧᠺᠤᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠮ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠮ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠡᠮᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠥᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠡᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ (ᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦᠯ ᠢ) ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  2. ᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠩ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠪᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠃ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ᠂ ᠡᠮᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠩ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢᠲᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠩ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  3. ᠡᠮ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ᠃ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ᠂ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠭᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠢ (ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤᠨ) ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠡᠮ᠂ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠰᠬᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  4. ᠸᠠᠺᠼᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ᠃ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ᠂ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠸᠠᠺᠼᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠸᠠᠺᠼᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠬᠢᠮᠳᠠ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠫᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠭᠧᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠲᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠹᠠᠷᠮᠠᠼᠧᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠩᠰᠢᠯᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠧᠺᠰᠠᠮᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠬᠡᠮ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠳᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦᠯᠡᠯ᠃ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠤᠨ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠳ᠋ᠨᠢᠢ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠬᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

 ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠡᠮ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠮᠣᠯᠧᠺᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠮᠣᠯᠧᠺᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠮᠣᠯᠧᠺᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠪᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠤᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ᠂ ᠪᠢᠣᠹᠠᠷᠮᠠᠼᠧᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠯᠧᠺᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠮᠣᠯᠧᠺᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠪᠢᠣᠹᠠᠷᠮᠠᠼᠧᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠨᠹᠯᠢᠺᠰᠢᠮᠠᠪ (ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲᠠᠳᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠮᠣᠨᠣᠺᠯᠣᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ), ᠡᠳᠠᠨᠧᠷᠰᠧᠫ ᠲᠦ (ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲᠠᠳᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠮᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠤᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠷᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠦᠶᠢᠺᠰᠢᠮᠠᠪ ᠢ (ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠢᠮᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠣᠨᠣᠺᠯᠣᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ) ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠳᠣᠭᠣᠳᠣ᠂ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠯᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠢᠣᠹᠠᠷᠮᠠᠼᠧᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ E.coli ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠳᠷᠣᠵᠵᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭ ᠢᠨᠰᠤᠶᠢᠯᠢᠩ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠩᠲ᠋ᠢᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠷᠠᠨᠰᠭᠧᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠷᠠᠨᠰᠭᠧᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ (ᠪᠢᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ) ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠰ ᠦᠳ (ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ: ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠤᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠡᠭᠡᠪᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰ) ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠦᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠧᠫᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠲ B, ᠭᠧᠫᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠲ C, ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠷᠠᠷᠲᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠭᠧᠮᠣᠹᠢᠯᠢᠢ᠂ ᠶᠠᠰᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠰᠺᠯᠧᠷᠣᠽ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠢᠷᠦᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠮᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠹᠠᠷᠮᠠᠼᠧᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ᠂ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ (ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ) ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠮᠣᠯᠧᠺᠤᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠬᠦᠭᠡᠷᠦᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠭᠧᠷᠼᠧᠫᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠶᠢᠴᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰ ᠨᠢ ХЕР 2 ᠤᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠡᠮᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠮ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠢᠮᠳᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠢᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠨᠵᠢᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ 1978 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠨ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠺ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭ ᠢᠨᠰᠤᠶᠢᠯᠢᠩ ᠍ ᠢ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠧᠨᠢᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠪᠬᠠᠨᠴᠢᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠫᠯᠠᠽᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠸᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠲᠣᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠢᠬᠢᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠵᠢᠩ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢᠩᠰᠢᠯᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ (ᠦᠬᠡᠷ᠂ ᠭᠠᠬᠠᠢ) ᠨᠣᠶᠢᠷ ᠪᠤᠯᠴᠢᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭ ᠢᠩᠰᠢᠯᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ᠂ ᠭᠧᠮᠣᠹᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠩᠨᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠹᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ᠂ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠳ᠂ ᠡᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠡᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠮᠳᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠢᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠩᠬᠢ ᠡᠮ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ 500 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠪᠠᠢ ᠮᠣᠯᠧᠺᠤᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠷᠲᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ᠂ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ (ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ) ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠯᠠ ᠲᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠣᠨᠣᠰᠢᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ (ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠡᠬᠡ) ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠾᠷᠣᠮᠣᠰᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠢᠣᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠤᠲᠠᠴᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠧᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠾᠷᠣᠮᠣᠰᠤᠮ᠎ᠠᠭᠧᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃[14] ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠮᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠᠲᠠᠢ (ᠭᠠᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ) ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠡᠵᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠰᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠭᠠᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ) ᠨᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠨ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠤᠭ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠤᠮᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 2011 ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[15][16] ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠷᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ᠂ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ᠂ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠮᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠧᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ (ГӨУ) ᠨᠢ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ (ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ) ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠪᠠᠯ᠂ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠵᠢ[17], ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ[18], ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ[19], ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠍ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ[20]), ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠷᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠬᠤ[21], ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ[22] ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠹᠠᠷᠮᠠᠼᠧᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ[23], ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠥᠯᠡᠰᠢ[24] ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ[25] ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠢᠣᠷᠧᠮᠧᠳᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[26][27]

ᠹᠧᠷᠮᠧᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ГӨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1996᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ 2011 ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ГӨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ 17000 km2 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ 1600000 km2 ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ 94 ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[28] ГӨ ᠲᠧᠺᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ 2010 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 10% ᠍ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[28] 2011 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ 11 ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠷᠠᠨᠰᠭᠧᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠪᠷᠠᠽᠢᠯAᠷᠭᠧᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠨᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳᠫᠠᠷᠠᠭᠪᠠᠢᠫᠠᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠᠦᠷᠤᠭᠤᠸᠠᠢᠪᠣᠯᠢᠪᠠAᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠹᠢᠯᠢᠫᠠᠨᠮᠢᠶᠠᠩᠮᠠᠷᠪᠦᠦᠺᠢᠨᠠ ᠹᠠᠰᠣᠮᠸᠺᠰᠢᠺᠣᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ 160 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠾᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[28]

ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠧᠽᠣᠺᠰᠢᠷᠢᠪᠨᠢᠺᠯᠧᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ГӨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠸᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[29] ГӨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ 1994 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ Flavr Savr ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠯᠣᠣᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[30] ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ГӨ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠷᠴᠠᠭᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢᠷᠠᠫᠰᠬᠥᠪᠥᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠫᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠭᠧᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠧᠷᠪᠢᠼᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠨᠵᠢᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ГӨ ᠍ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ 2013 ᠤᠨ ᠤ 11 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[31]

ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ГӨ ХАА ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠨᠰᠤᠶᠢᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[32][33][33][34][35][36] ГӨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠡᠺᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[37] ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠤ ГӨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ᠂ ГӨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠬᠡᠷ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠤ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ГӨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠤ᠂ ГӨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠮᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠤ?

ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ (ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ) ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠹᠧᠷᠮᠧᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠼᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠡᠰ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠢᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦᠷ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ᠂ ᠤᠭᠢᠶᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ᠂ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ᠂ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠥᠯᠡᠰᠢᠨᠢᠭᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[38] ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[39]

ᠮᠥᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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