ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
"ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ" ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ (ᠲᠣᠰᠬᠣᠨ) ᠍ ᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠦ᠃

ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠍ ᠢ [1] ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1257-1266 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠢᠫᠴᠠᠺ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠍ ᠢ [2] ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠍ ᠤᠨ (ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ) ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠢ "ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ"[3] ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠮᠠᠮᠤᠯᠶᠤᠶᠢᠺ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠶᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯᠤᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠢᠯ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠷ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠢ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ ᠬᠥᠪᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠴᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 1235 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ᠂ ᠰᠢᠩᠺᠦ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠱᠢᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠯᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠴᠡᠢ᠃ 150000 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠪᠢᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠵᠦ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠤᠷᠠᠺᠢᠫᠴᠠᠺ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ 1237 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠷᠢᠵᠠᠨᠢᠰᠤᠵᠠᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠷᠤ ᠴᠥᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠍ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠢᠰᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠬᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠴᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠥᠪᠡᠭᠦᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠷᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠰ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠷᠤ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠵᠠᠭᠠᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠥᠭᠥᠳᠡᠢ᠂ ᠵᠦᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠺᠢᠫᠴᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠯᠢᠭ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠷᠤ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ (ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢ ᠷᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ). ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠢᠫᠴᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠯᠢᠭ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠡᠬᠢᠵᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠦᠶᠡᠯᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠡᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠺᠢᠫᠴᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠠᠲᠤ 1255 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠰᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭ ᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1257 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠳᠥᠩᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠨᠢᠯᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠮᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠵᠤ᠂ 1259 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠯᠢᠲ᠋ᠤᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠩᠳᠠᠢᠨᠣᠭᠠᠢ (ᠯᠦᠪᠯᠢᠨ᠂ ᠵᠠᠪᠢᠬᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠰᠠᠨᠮᠢᠶᠡᠷᠵᠡ᠂ ᠺᠷᠠᠺᠣᠸ᠂ ᠪᠢᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠦᠢᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1258 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠨᠣᠨ ᠰᠦᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭᠦ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠯᠢᠲ᠋ᠸᠠ᠂ ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢ ᠷᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠰᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭ ᠮᠥᠨ 1265 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠹᠷᠠᠺ ᠍ ᠢ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ᠂ ᠴᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠵᠢᠭᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠴᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠹ ᠠᠯᠢ-ᠮᠦᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠽᠢᠮᠡᠶᠢᠭ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠷᠢ᠂ ᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠶᠤᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢᠲ᠋ᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠫᠠᠯᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠮᠠᠮᠤᠯᠶᠤᠶᠢᠺ ᠤᠳ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠠᠶᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯᠤᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠢᠲ᠋ᠪᠤᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠪᠠ᠃ ᠫᠠᠯᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠰᠢᠷᠢᠢ ᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠮᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠲᠢᠭᠷ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠬᠦᠯᠦᠭᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠰ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭᠦ 1262 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠭ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠵᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠪᠳᠡᠨ ᠰᠦᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭᠦᠭ ᠵᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠨᠳᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢ ᠷᠠᠰᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠳᠠ-ᠳ᠋ᠢᠩ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠨ (ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ) ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳ᠋ ᠷᠤ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ "ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠨᠣᠨ ᠰᠦᠢᠳᠬᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠹ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠡᠮ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠢᠰᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠭ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃" (ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠷᠠᠰᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠳᠠ-ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ The Mongol Warlords ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠦ; ᠡᠨᠡ ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ) -- ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠴᠢᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ 1262 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠶᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯᠤᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠭ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠮᠠᠮᠤᠯᠶᠤᠶᠢᠺ ᠤᠳ ᠷᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠴᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠮᠠᠮᠤᠯᠶᠤᠶᠢᠺ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠵᠦ (ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠮᠠᠮᠤᠯᠶᠤᠶᠢᠺᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠡᠶᠢᠪᠠᠷᠰᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠷᠤ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠤᠷᠬᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠠᠪᠠᠴᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠯᠡ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ 1262 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭᠦ ᠬᠠᠨ 1263 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠸᠬᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠨᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠺ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠨᠢᠷᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠤᠬᠤᠷᠢᠭᠠᠴᠠᠢ᠃ 1265 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭᠦ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠠᠪᠠᠬᠠ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ 1266 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠦᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠮᠤᠯᠶᠤᠶᠢᠺ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠢᠯ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠭᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠧᠺᠺᠠ᠂ ᠢᠶᠡᠷᠤᠰᠠᠯᠧᠮ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠰᠦᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. ᠬᠥᠬᠡ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠳᠤᠯᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃
  2. ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠴᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ : ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ — ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ᠂ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ — ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ — ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ — ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ᠂ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ (ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ) — ᠲᠥᠪ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃
  3. Devin De Weese, Devin A, ( DeWeese. "Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde", Penn State Press, Sep 1, 1994, ISBN 0-271-01073-8 pg.3

ᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • Amitai-Preiss, Reuven. The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1998
  • Chambers, James, The Devil's Horsemen: The Mongol Invasion of Europe
  • Hildinger, Eric, Warriors of the Steppe: A Military History of Central Asia, 500 B.C. to A.D. 1700
  • Morgan, David -- The Mongols, ISBN 0-631-17563-6
  • Nicolle, David, -- The Mongol Warlords Brockhampton Press, 1998
  • Reagan, Geoffry, The Guinness Book of Decisive Battles , Canopy Books, NY (1992)
  • Saunders, J.J. -- The History of the Mongol Conquests, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1971, ISBN 0-8122-1766-7
  • Soucek, Svatopluk -- A History of Inner Asia, Cambridge, 2000
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