ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
— «ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ» ᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠪᠠ —
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ
ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ

ᠹᠠᠢᠢᠯ:ᠬᠪᠨᠠᠪᠤ ᠮᠪ᠃png
सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल </small></span></br>ᠰᠠᠨᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠯᠬᠤᠲᠠᠨᠲᠷᠢᠺ ᠭᠠᠨᠠᠲᠤᠨᠲᠷᠠ ᠨᠧᠫᠠᠯ
ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠤᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ: जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी →
«ᠡᠬᠡ᠂ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠵᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠮ»
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ:
«ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠲᠤᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠫᠤᠯᠭ ᠠ» / सयौं थुँगा फूलका
(ᠵᠤᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ)
ᠹᠠᠢᠢᠯ:Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka.ogg

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ
ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤ
ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤ᠂ ᠪᠢᠷᠲᠤᠨᠠᠭᠠᠷ
ᠫᠣᠺᡀᠠᠷᠠᠫᠠᠲᠠᠨ (ᠯᠠᠯᠤᠲ᠋ᠫᠦᠷ)
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ 
(2001 ᠤᠨ)
ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ →
15.5% – ᠴᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ
12.5% – ᠪᠠᠬᠤᠩ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ
7.1% – ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ
64.9% – ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ
 -  ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ
(ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ)
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠲᠠᠢ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠷᠠᠮ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠪᠠ (2008)
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠰᠤᠰᠢᠯ ᠺᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯ (2014)
 -  ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ
ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ
 -  1768-12-21 ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ [ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ] ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ 
 -  2008-05-28 ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ 
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ
 -  ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ 147,181 km2 (94)
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 2.8
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (2011) 26,494,504[1] (40)
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ 199.3 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km2 
GDP (ХАЧТ) 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $35.813 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ[2] 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $1,270[2] 
GDP (ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $15.836 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ[2] 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $562[2] 
Gini (2003) 47.2 (ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ) 
ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠧᠺᠰ (2007) 0.553[3] (ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ) (144)
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠷᠦᠶᠢᠢ (NPR)
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ (GMT+05:45)
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠳᠣᠮᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ +977 / .np
ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ NP, NPL / ХБНАБУ
2002 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 10 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ
2002 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 10 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ
ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠯ
ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ [4]
ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ
ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠳᠤ
ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠢᠢ
ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ
ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ
ᠴᠢᠢᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ

ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠭᠢᠮᠠᠯᠢᠶ ᠠᠨ ᠥᠪᠥᠷ ᠪᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠤᠷᠲᠤᠭᠠᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ 800 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠭᠡᠰᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ 200 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 147,181 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ2 ᠰᠤᠨᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠦᠨ 1955 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ᠂ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ (ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ «ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ» → balba, ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ नेपाल → [ᠨᠧᠪᠠᠯ], ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠧᠫᠠᠯ) ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ 26 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤ.

ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠤᠷᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠳᠦ 1768 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠫᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠸᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠷᠴᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ 1788-1792 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠩ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ 1815–1816 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 1846 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠪᠠᠬᠠᠳᠤᠤᠷ (ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ) ᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠷ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠵᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠ᠃ 1940 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ᠂ ᠨᠠᠮ᠂ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠡᠳ 1951 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠷᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠢ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[5] ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠸᠠᠩ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠵᠦ 1959 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (1768–2008) 1990 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ 1996 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠢᠰᠲ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ 18 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ 2008 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂[6] ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ХБНАБУ) ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ (ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ), ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ (601 ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ), ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ 2008 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠷᠠᠮ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠪᠠ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠯᠫ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤ᠂ ᠨᠢᠴᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠳᠠ᠂ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠴᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠰᠤᠨᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ-ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠤᠷᠪᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠴᠢᠨᠵᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤᠴᠡᠮᠠᠺᠠᠯᠤᠴᠣ ᠣᠭᠶᠤᠳᠬᠠᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠴᠦᠮᠦᠯᠠᠩᠮᠠ (ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ 8000 ᠮ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠠᠤᠯᠠᠯᠠᠰ ᠰᠦᠨᠳᠡᠷᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠨᠠᠪᠴᠢᠲᠤᠰᠢᠯᠮᠦᠦᠰᠦᠲᠦ ᠣᠢᠲᠣᠢ ᠠᠤᠯᠠᠯᠠᠰ᠂ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠳ᠃ᠲ᠃ᠳ 800-4000 ᠮ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠤᠷᠪᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠷᠣᠫᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 2000 ᠮᠢᠯᠯᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠤᠨᠠᠵᠤ᠂ I ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ +15°ᠰ᠂ VII ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ +30°ᠰ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[5] ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ 14 ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ (अञ्चल - ᠠᠨᠴᠠᠯ), ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ 75 ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ (जिल्ला - ᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠ) ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠴᠠᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳᠵᠦᠭ ᠴᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠶᠢᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ 5 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ (ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ) ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠳᠤᠮᠵᠢ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ

ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠹᠧᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ 70 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠰᠢᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠠᠷᠪᠠᠢᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠲᠷᠣᠫᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠬᠢᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠰᠢᠩᠭᠦᠵᠢᠲᠲᠣᠰᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠢᠴᠠᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭ᠎ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠮᠢᠰᠨᠢᠭᠢ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠣᠳᠣᠰᠰᠠᠷᠯᠤᠭᠬᠣᠨᠢᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠎ᠠᠭᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠥᠰᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠢ᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷᠳᠣᠭᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠰᠢᠬᠢᠷ᠂ ᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠢ᠂ ᠬᠥᠪᠥᠩᠪᠥᠰ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠤ᠂ ᠵᠢᠲ᠂ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠹᠠᠪᠷᠢᠺ᠂ ᠵᠠᠪᠤᠳ᠋ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠢᠲ᠂ ᠵᠦ᠋ᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠰᠢᠬᠢᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠰᠢᠩᠭᠦ᠂ ᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠢ᠂ ᠨᠣᠣᠰᠣᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃[5]

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1950 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 9 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 26,494,504 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃[1] ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ — 1.35%.[7] ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠃ 14 ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠴᠤᠳ 35 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ᠂ 15-60 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ 54 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ᠂ 60 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 8 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ — 66.2 ᠵᠢᠯ᠃ ᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ —0.96. ᠬᠣᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ᠂ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠩ ᠳᠦ-ᠭᠠᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠰᠢᠭᠢᠭᠦᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤ ᠳᠤ 975 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ᠂ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ 2.5 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠥᠴᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠢᠷᠲᠤᠨᠠᠭᠠᠷ (700 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ), ᠫᠣᠺᡀᠠᠷᠠ (260 ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ), ᠯᠠᠯᠤᠲ᠋ᠫᠦᠷᠪᠬᠠᠫᠦᠷᠪᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨᠵᠢ (135,904) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠂ ᠣᠲᠣᠭ ᠶᠠᠰᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ᠃ ᠺᠠᠰᠤᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃[8] 15.5% ᠨᠢ ᠴᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ᠂ 12.5% ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠬᠤᠩ᠂ 7.1% ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠴᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 44.6% ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ. ᠰᠠᠮᠭᠠᠷᠳᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ᠂ ᠮᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠬᠢᠢᠯᠢ (11.7%), ᠪ ᠠᠴᠤᠷᠦᠶᠢᠢ (6.0%) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠠᠷᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠠᠮᠤᠨ ᠢᠨᠸᠠᠷ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠪᠢᠷᠮ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠠᠳ 80% ᠬᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠂ 10% ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ᠂ 4% ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭ᠃[9] ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 563 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠱᠠᠭᠵᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠢ᠂ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠯᠤᠮᠪᠢᠨᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1997 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠯᠢᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠠᠷᠪᠢᠨ᠃ «ᠳᠠᠯᠤ ᠪᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ» ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠱᠥᠯᠥ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ «ᠮᠣᠮᠣ» ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠤᠤᠵᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡᠺᠷᠢᠺᠧᠲ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠵᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 1988 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠢᠳᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠪᠣᠨᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠮᠧᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠸᠢᠭᠮᠧᠳᠢᠶᠠ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ:
«ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ [ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ]»
  1. 1.0 1.1 ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦᠩ
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Nepal. International Monetary Fund.
  3. Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G. The United Nations.
  4. ᠠ) ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ-ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ᠂ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ᠃ «ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ» (2011) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ (ᠪᠠᠯᠪᠠ) ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠰ ᠲᠤᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠸᠫᠠᠯ (ᠨᠧᠫᠠᠯ) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃
    ᠪ) "Chrome", "Firefox" ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ MVS, FVS ᠺᠣᠮᠠᠨᠳ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠴᠢᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠷᠠᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭᠯᠠᠪᠠ᠃
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ - III ᠪᠣᠲᠢ (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ)
  6. 17,800 people died during conflict period, says Ministry of Peace.
  7. "National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report)".
  8. Nepal — Caste and Ethnicity".
  9. "Nepal — Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures Project".

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