ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ Bagabagai.PNG
ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ
ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ
ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ: ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠡᠣᠼᠧᠨ - ᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ
ᠫᠢᠷᠧᠨᠧᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠫᠠᠷᠺ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ᠃
ᠫᠢᠷᠧᠨᠧᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠫᠠᠷᠺ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ᠃
ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠯ
ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ: ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ
ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ: ᠬᠥᠪᠴᠢᠲᠡᠨ
ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ: ᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠲᠠᠨ
ᠠᠩᠭᠢ: ᠬᠥᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ
ᠪᠠᠭ: ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠳᠡᠰᠢᠲᠡᠨ
ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠠᠭ: ᠨᠣᠬᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ (Caniformia)
ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ: Ursoidea
ᠣᠪᠤᠭ: ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ
ᠢᠣᠬᠣᠨ ᠹᠢᠱᠧᠷ ᠹᠣᠨ ᠸᠠᠯᠳᠠᠬᠠᠶᠢᠮ᠂ 1817
ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ
  • Ailuropoda
  • Helarctos
  • Melursus
  • Ursus
  • Tremarctos
  • Agriarctos (ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ)
  • Amphicticeps (ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ)
  • Amphicynodon (ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ)
  • Arctodus (ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ)
  • Indarctos (ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ)
  • Parictis (ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ)
  • Plionarctos (ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ)
  • Ursavus (ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ)
  • Kolponomos (ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ)

ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠣᠬᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ ᠮᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠢᠳᠡᠰᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠡᠯᠢᠭᠦᠷ ᠬᠥᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠳᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠬᠢᠮ ᠬᠥᠯ᠂ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠩᠰᠢᠶᠠᠷ᠂ ᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠰᠦ᠂ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠵᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠲᠠᠪᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ᠂ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠬᠤᠯᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢ ᠬᠤᠯᠤᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠢᠳᠡᠰᠢᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ᠂ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠮᠪᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠡᠪᠰᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠰᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠳᠡᠰᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠰᠥᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠦᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠦᠷᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠢᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠰᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠢ᠃ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠢᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠮᠢᠰ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃[1]ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠢ᠂ ᠨᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠡᠪᠦᠯ ᠢᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠪᠠᠯᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠦᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠮᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡ᠂ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ (ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ) ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ IUCN ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠮᠵᠡᠭ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠩ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠧᠣᠣᠯᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠼ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠭᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ (Ursus spelaeus) ᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠶᠠᠰᠤ

ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠳᠡᠰᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠣᠬᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ᠃ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠯᠢᠭᠦᠷ ᠬᠥᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ Odobenidae (ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠷᠢ), Otariidae (ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠠ᠂ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠰᠯᠠᠨ)᠂ Phocidae (ᠵᠢᠩᠬᠢᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠴᠢᠬᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠣᠬᠠᠢ)᠃ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ: Ailuropodinae (ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠬᠤᠯᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ)᠂ Tremarctinae (ᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ)᠂ Ursinae (ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ)᠃

ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ᠂ ᠬᠡᠭᠡᠨᠴᠢᠷ Parictis ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠥᠩᠭᠡᠵᠢ 7 ᠰᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ Parictis ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠡᠣᠼᠧᠨᠢᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ (38 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ) ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠮᠢᠣᠼᠧᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢ᠂ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃[2] ᠵᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠨᠣᠬᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ Cephalogale ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠯᠪᠡᠭ᠃ Cephalogale ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠣᠯᠢᠭᠣᠼᠧᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠢᠣᠼᠧᠨ ᠦ (20–30 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ) ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠡᠢ᠃ Cephalogale Ursavus ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 5 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠩᠬᠢᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ (Ursus ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ) ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠢᠭ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ C. minor ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠳᠦᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ M2 postprotocrista ᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠤᠷᠲᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ m2 ᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠩ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠮᠠᠯᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠤᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠳᠡᠰᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ Cephalogale ᠨᠢ mesocarnivore ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠳᠡᠰᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃[3] ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ArctodusAgriarctosPlionarctosIndarctos ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠡᠣᠼᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ 37 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ Parictis ᠍ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ Parictis ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠯᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠣᠯᠢᠭᠣᠼᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ (Amphicynodontinae, Hemicyoninae) ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠣᠯᠢᠭᠣᠼᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ: AmphicticepsAmphicynodonPachycynodonCephalogaleAmphicticeps ᠨᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ᠂ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ᠂ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠢᠭᠣᠼᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠣᠯᠢᠭᠣᠼᠧᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠢᠣᠼᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Amphicticeps ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠷᠹᠣᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ Allocyon ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ Kolponomos ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ Cephalogale ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠢᠣᠼᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ HaplomysPseudotheridomys (ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠣᠯᠢᠭᠣᠼᠧᠨ)᠂ PlesiosminthusPalaeocastor (ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠢᠣᠼᠧᠨ) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠮᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠣᠯᠢᠭᠣᠼᠧᠨ᠂ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠢᠣᠼᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[4] ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠮᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠳᠡᠰᠢᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ (21–18 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ) AmphicynodonCephalogaleUrsavus ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ 7-8 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠪᠡᠷ Agriotherium ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠣᠶᠢᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠫᠯᠢᠣᠼᠧᠨᠢᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 4 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ Ursus ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ᠃[5]

ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠬᠤᠯᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠺᠰᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠠᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 1869 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ Ursus ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ 1870 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠹᠣᠨᠰ ᠮᠢᠯᠤᠨ-ᠡᠳ᠋ᠪᠠᠷᠳᠠᠰ ᠵᠢᠭᠡᠬᠡᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃[6] ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨᠳᠧᠽᠣᠺᠰᠢᠷᠢᠪᠨᠢᠺᠯᠧᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠬᠤᠯᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠣᠭᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[7] ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠯᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠸᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠷᠢᠳᠧᠷ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠣᠭᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ Ailuridae ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠯᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ᠂ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ᠂ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠮᠠᠭ ᠡᠷᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠯᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠵᠢᠯᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠢᠰᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠢᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠩ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠠᠯᠢᠰᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠡᠷᠪᠩᠺᠰ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠵᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠳᠡᠰ᠂ ᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠪᠣ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠧᠽᠣᠺᠰᠢᠷᠢᠪᠨᠢᠺᠯᠧᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠧᠽᠣᠺᠰᠢᠷᠢᠪᠨᠢᠺᠯᠧᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠩ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠠᠯᠢᠰᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠢᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[8] ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠨᠡᠩ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠯᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

ᠤᠭᠤᠲᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠺᠣᠯᠠᠭ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠤᠭᠤᠲᠠᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠠᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠣᠰᠺᠸᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠩ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ Ursus arctos
ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠸᠷᠣᠴᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠩ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ Ursus thibetanus
ᠺᠣᠯᠤᠮᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠩ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ Helarctos malayanus
ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠬᠤᠯᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ Ailuropoda melanoleuca "ᠲᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠶᠠᠨ"

Melursus, Helarctos ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ Ursus ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ Selenarctos ᠪᠠ Thalarctos ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠨ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠷᠯᠢᠵᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ (ᠡᠷᠯᠢᠵᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠦᠵᠡ)᠃

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. ᠰᠯᠣᠸᠠᠺ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠮᠴᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠣᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ. 2008-11-11 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  2. Kemp, T.S. (2005). The Origin and Evolution of Mammals. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198507607. 
  3. Wang, Xiaoming, Malcolm C. McKenna, and Demberelyin Dashzeveg (2005). "Amphicticeps and Amphicynodon (Arctoidea, Carnivora) from Hsanda Gol Formation, Central Mongolia and Phylogeny of Basal Arctoids with Comments on Zoogeography". American Museum Novitates (3483): 57.
  4. Wang Banyue and Qiu Zhanxiang (2005). "Notes on Early Oligocene Ursids (Carnivora, Mammalia) from Saint Jacques, Nei Mongol, China" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 279 (279): 116–124. DOI:<0116:C>2.0.CO;2 10.1206/0003-0090(2003)279<0116:C>2.0.CO;2.
  5. Qiu Zhanxiang (2003). "Dispersals of Neogene Carnivorans between Asia and North America" (PDF). Bulletin American Museum of Natural History 279 (279): 18–31. DOI:<0018:C>2.0.CO;2 10.1206/0003-0090(2003)279<0018:C>2.0.CO;2.
  6. Lindburg, Donald G. (2004). Giant Pandas: Biology and Conservation, pp. 7–9. University of California Press
  7. Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds. "Phylogenetic Position of the Giant Panda". In Lindburg, Donald G. (2004) Giant Pandas: Biology and Conservation, pp. 11–35. University of California Press
  8. ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠩ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ: ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠦ᠋?, ᠠᠯᠢᠰᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠹᠣᠷᠣᠮ

ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠬᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • Bears of the World, Terry Domico, Photographs by Terry Domico and Mark Newman, Facts on File, Inc, 1988, hardcover, ISBN 0-8160-1536-8
  • The Bear by William Faulkner
  • Brunner, Bernd: Bears — A Brief History. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2007

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • The Bears Project ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠩ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ᠂ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ
  • Grizzly Bear Outreach Project ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠷᠢᠰᠵᠣᠯ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ᠂ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ