ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠸᠠ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠸᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠤᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ: En Dios Confiamos (ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ)
"ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ"
[1]
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠠ (FSLN)
 -  ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠵᠡᠢᠮ ᠮᠣᠷᠠᠯᠧᠰ ᠺᠠᠷᠠᠰᠣ
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 7.14
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ () 5,891,199 
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ () 5,148,098 
ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠧᠺᠰ  0.565[2] (115)
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠺᠣᠷᠳᠣᠪᠠ )
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ -6
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ 505

ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠸᠠ (ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Nicaragua), ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠸᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ República de Nicaragua) ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 130,373 km2 ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠨᠳᠤᠤᠰ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠺᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭᠲ᠂ ᠡᠺᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠣ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ 11-14 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠸᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠷᠣᠫᠢᠺ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠸᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ᠂ ᠰᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠡᠺᠣᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠧᠽᠣᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠵᠡᠰᠬᠦᠯᠡᠩ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠮᠠᠨᠠᠭᠤᠸᠠᠳ᠋ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠮᠠᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 2 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ 16 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠬᠠᠨᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ ᠭᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢᠴᠤᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠨᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠬᠠᠨᠯᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠢᠴᠤᠤᠳ 17 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠪᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢᠶᠠᠮᠠᠶᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠷᠧᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠲᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠺᠠᠷᠢᠪ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1821 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠸᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠤ᠂ 1823 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠠᠳ 1838 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ[3]᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠯᠬᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠮᠵᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ[4]᠃ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠫᠠᠨᠠᠮᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠩᠭᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠭ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ 185 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠥᠷᠨᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[5][6][7][8]᠃ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠸᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠩᠭᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠣᠮᠣᠽᠠᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠥᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠩᠭᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠸᠠ ᠨᠢ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ[9]᠃ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠸᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨ᠂ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ 1972 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠮᠦᠷᠢᠴᠢ ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠸᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠢ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1990 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠸᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠸᠢᠣᠯᠧᠲ᠋ᠠ ᠴᠢᠮᠣᠷᠷᠣ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ[10]

ᠨᠢᠺᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 6 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠢᠨᠳᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠣᠰᠺᠢᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠴᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ᠃ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠮᠢᠰᠺᠢᠲ᠋ᠣ᠂ ᠰᠦᠮᠣ᠋ ᠪᠠ ᠷᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠺᠷᠧᠣᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. ᠺᠣᠷᠳᠣᠪᠠ (ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠲᠦ) ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠳᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ; ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ: Banco Central de Nicaragua
  2. Human Development Report 2010. ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (2010). 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 11 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 5 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  3. The Federal Republic of Central America (1823-1840). Latinamericanhistory.about.com (2010-06-16). 2010-06-26 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  4. TED CASE: Nicaragua Canal Proposal. .american.edu. 2010-06-26 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  5. An 'Eco-Canal' Across Nicaragua
  6. Puerto Monkey Point
  7. Companies from six countries interested in Monkey Point
  8. Monkey Point Port Will Be Constructed
  9. "The United States and the Founding of the United Nations...", U.S. Department of State, October 2005. 2007-05-09 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Archived from the original on 2005-10-23. 
  10. Women in Leadership. Treasures of Wonderment. 2010-06-26 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

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