ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
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ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ
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ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
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ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 26 (ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ)
ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠨᠶᠤ-ᠢᠣᠷᠺ
ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ 192
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠺᠢ ᠮᠤᠩ (2007 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ)
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ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ) ᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ᠂ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠯᠪᠤᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠯᠪᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠨ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷᠰᠢᠯ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 10 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 24 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠹᠣᠷᠨᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ-ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢᠰᠺᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ 51 ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ
    • ᠡᠩᠬᠡᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ᠂ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ (ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ)
    • ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ
  • ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1943 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 10 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠰᠺᠸᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠣᠩ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ "ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢ 4 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ" ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠩᠬᠡᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠨ 1944 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8-10 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠸᠠᠰᠢᠩᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠠᠮᠪᠦᠷᠲᠤᠨ ᠣᠦᠺᠰᠲ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠯ ("ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ") ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 4 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 25 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ 50 ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠰᠠᠨ-ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢᠰᠺᠣ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠷᠠᠨ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠰᠠᠨ-ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢᠰᠺᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠮᠪᠦᠷᠲᠤᠨ ᠥᠺᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ[1]

ᠨᠶᠤ-ᠢᠣᠷᠺ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ

United Nations ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 1942 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 1 ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 ᠍ ᠳᠦ "ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭ (ᠸᠠᠰᠢᠩᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ)"[1] ᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠮᠪᠦᠷᠲᠤᠨ ᠣᠦᠺᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ[2]᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠺᠯᠢᠨ ᠷᠦᠽᠸᠧᠯᠲ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠰᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠨ-ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢᠰᠺᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

1919 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 1946 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ᠂ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠯᠪᠤᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 7 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 14 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ 193 ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ[3]

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ </br>ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠳ᠋ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ; ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠷᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ; ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ ( ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ) ᠪᠠ ᠺᠣᠰᠪᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠧᠷᠪᠢ ᠶᠢᠨᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠢᠪᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ 2006 ᠣᠨ[4]
ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ (ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ) ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠢᠪ (ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ %)
ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ 22.00%
ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ 16.624%
ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ 8.66%
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) 6.13%
ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ 6.03%
Flag of Italy.svg ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ 4.89%
Flag of Canada.svg ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ 2.81%
Flag of Spain.svg ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ 2.52%
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 2.667%
Flag of Mexico.svg ᠮᠸᠺᠰᠢᠺᠣ 1.88%
Flag of Australia.svg ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ 1.59%
ᠪᠷᠠᠽᠢᠯ ᠪᠷᠠᠽᠢᠯ 1.52%

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ 4.19 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ[5] (ᠬᠦᠰᠦᠨᠦᠭᠲᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠵᠡ) ᠪᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠢᠪ᠂ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠵᠢᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

  • ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ

ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨᠢᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠨ 2 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ[5]᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠰᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ[5]

  • ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠢᠪ

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ (UNICEF), ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯᠪᠦᠷᠢ (UNDP), ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠨ (UNFPA), ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (WFP) ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠢᠪ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠵᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 2005-2006 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 70,000 ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ᠂ 17 ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ 5 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠠᠮᠠ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ (ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ 1.5 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠠᠮᠠ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ) ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[6]᠃ 2008 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 1 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ 10 ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ: ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ[7]

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ 6 ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ[8][9]᠃ ᠠᠨᠭᠭᠯᠢ᠂ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ᠂ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ 2 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ 1946 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ[2], ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ 1973 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 30 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[3]. ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠺᠣᠯ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ 5 ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ (ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ 6 ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠹᠣᠨᠳ᠋ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ 1994 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ[10]). ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ: ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ (ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ - the Secretariat), ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠠᠰᠰᠠᠮᠪᠯᠧᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠠᠰᠰᠠᠮᠪᠯᠧᠢ

ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠬᠦ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠠᠰᠰᠠᠮᠪᠯᠧᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠦᠷ 1 ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠩᠭᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠯᠪᠤᠭ᠎ ᠠᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠠᠰᠰᠠᠮᠪᠯᠧᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ᠂ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠠᠰᠰᠠᠮᠪᠯᠧᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ 5 ᠣᠷᠣᠨ (ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠩ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ[11] ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ АЗ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠡᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ᠂ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ᠂ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠴᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (ILO) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃

  • ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ: 53 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ 3 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
    • ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ
    • ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ
      • ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ
      1947 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ(ESCAP)
    • ᠺᠣᠮᠢᠰᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ
      • ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠢᠰᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ
      1948 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠲᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠥᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ  ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ 1946 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠮᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠮᠣᠷᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ[12]

ᠠᠰᠠᠷᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1994 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠷ ᠴᠡᠩᠬᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠪᠡ

ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠦ "ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠩ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠭᠠᠬᠤ" ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠰᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠬᠤ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ (1946 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 1 ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 24) ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ "ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠯᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠷᠮᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ 1 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ 1 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ 7 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠡᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠡᠯᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 7 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠤᠭ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠵᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠪ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

1988 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ("ᠴᠡᠩᠬᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ), 2001 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠣᠹᠢ ᠠᠨᠠᠨ ᠨᠣᠪᠧᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠩᠬᠡᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠩᠨᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[13]

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 2 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠭᠢᠰᠯᠠᠯ᠂ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦᠷᠬᠡᠦ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ "ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠵᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷᠲ" ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ 1948 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ (Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC) ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ (UN Human Rights Commission, UNHRC) ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠺᠣᠮᠢᠰᠰᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠡᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠡᠶᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠷᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠶᠢᠴᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠦᠷᠭᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠷᠠᠽᠢᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠢ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠣᠭᠲᠣ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠩᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠣ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠭᠡᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠠᠰᠰᠠᠮᠪᠯᠧᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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  3. United Nations Member States. United Nations. 2007-05-05 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  4. UN Budget: [Report of the Committee on Contributions (2006)]. United Nations (2006-06-30).
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Fifth Committee Approves Assessment Scale for Regular, Peacekeeping Budgets, Texts on Common System, Pension Fund, as it Concludes Session (Press Release). United Nations (2006-12-22).
  6. United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. United Nations (2007-12-31). 2008-03-24 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  7. Financing of UN Peacekeeping Operations
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  9. What are the official languages of the United Nations?. United Nations (December 2002). 2008-04-14 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  10. Membership of Principal United Nations Organs in 2005. United Nations (2005-03-15).
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  13. Nobel Peace Prize Laureates. The Norwegian Nobel Institute. 2007-05-05 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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