ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ
ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ нүүрс
ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ нүүрсн
ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ)

ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠩ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠦ ᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠩ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢᠤᠰᠤᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯᠲᠥᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷᠠᠽᠣᠲ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠴᠦ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠢᠰᠦᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ СО2 ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠮᠪᠦᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[1]᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ᠂ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ СО2 ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[2]

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠢ 1520 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

 ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰᠢᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠤ "Coal" ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠭᠡ (ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ Kohleᠰᠸᠸᠳᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ kol[3]) ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ("carbon") ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠰᠤ᠂ ᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠮᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ (ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ 85-95 %)᠂ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠬᠥᠩᠭᠡᠨ᠂ ᠨᠦᠬᠡ ᠰᠦᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡᠭ᠂ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠮᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ 《ᠮᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ》 ("Charcoal") ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

 ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

 ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ᠄ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠤᠤᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 70 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ 75% ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ 2 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ 17 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠣᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 2025 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ 27 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ [4]᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ 3 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 25% ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠦᠭᠦᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ 40% ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ [5] ᠪᠠ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ 49% ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[6]

ᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺᠣᠺᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ 1000 oC ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠨᠦᠬᠡ ᠰᠦᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠢᠯᠴᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ᠂ 29.6 ᠮᠢᠯᠢ ᠵᠤᠤᠯ/ᠺᠯᠤᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ᠃ ᠺᠣᠺᠰ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠯᠡᠰᠢ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠣᠺᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠷᠬᠠᠢ (coal tar) ᠂ ᠬᠥᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠬᠡᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣᠰᠢᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ (ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ) ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃  ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠲᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠂ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ) ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ᠄ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠶᠦᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠤᠴᠠᠢᠶᠦᠦ ᠲᠦᠯᠡᠰᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ᠂ ᠹᠢᠱᠧᠷ ᠲᠷᠣᠫᠰ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠰᠤᠯ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠤᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠤᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠶᠦᠦ᠂ ᠴᠠᠢᠶᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠯᠡᠰᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠰᠤᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ (liquefaction by hydrogenation) 《ᠪᠧᠷᠭᠢᠭᠤᠰ》 ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ[7] ᠪᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ I ᠪᠠ II ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠯᠹ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ SRC-I and SRC-II (Solvent Refined Coal) ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ[8]1976 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠸᠢᠯᠢᠪᠦᠷᠨ ᠱᠷᠣᠶᠧᠳᠡᠷ (Wilburn C. Schroeder) ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠫᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠨᠲᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ NUS ᠺᠣᠷᠫᠣᠷᠠᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

NUS ᠺᠣᠷᠫᠣᠷᠠᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠲᠥᠶᠢᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ᠂ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠤᠨᠲᠠᠭᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ 1% ᠮᠣᠯᠢᠪᠳᠧᠨ‍(钼) ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠳᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ᠂ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠢ (C3/C4)᠂ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠨ (C5-C10) - ᠪᠧᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠹᠷᠠᠺᠼᠢ᠂ NH3᠂ ᠪᠠ CO2 ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ [9]᠃  ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ (450 and 700 °C) ᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠢᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠷᠬᠠᠶ ᠠᠴᠠ (800 to 1000 °C ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠯ) ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠤᠲᠥᠶᠢᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠶᠦᠦ᠂ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠶᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠯᠡᠰᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠯᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠢᠶᠦᠦ᠂ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠶᠦᠦ ᠲᠦᠯᠡᠰᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠢᠰᠦᠯ (CO2) ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠴᠠᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠤᠭ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠤᠷᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠽᠣᠲ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃  ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ᠂ ᠣᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠤᠨ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ᠂ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ 35 ᠠᠮᠸᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ/ᠲᠦᠩᠰᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ (ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠧᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[10]᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ 35 ᠠᠮᠸᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ/ᠲᠦᠩᠰᠠ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠤ᠂ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠸᠢᠯᠢᠮᠠᠰ᠂ ᠯᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠨ (Williams and Larson ᠂ 2003) ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠷᠲᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ 25-35 ᠠᠮᠸᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ/ᠲᠦᠩᠰᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

 ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ᠂ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠩ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠰᠥ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠫᠢᠷᠲᠤ (ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷ) ᠨᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯᠲᠥᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠷᠪᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠱᠦᠭᠦᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢ ᠫᠢᠷᠲᠤ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠷᠪᠠᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠳᠠ᠂ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠰᠥᠬᠥᠷᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠪᠴᠢᠨ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ PH ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ PH  ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1930 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ 230 ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 1960 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠣᠭ ᠠᠣ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠳᠤ (the Ohio River) ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ 1200 ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ 140 ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

 ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠯᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠢᠰᠦᠯ (CO2)᠂ ᠠᠽᠣᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠰᠦᠯ ᠨᠦ᠋ᠭᠦᠳ (NOx)᠂ ᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠢᠰᠦᠯ (SO2) ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠢᠰᠦᠯ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯᠲᠥᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠷᠪᠠᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠴᠢ ᠢᠰᠦᠯ (SO3)᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠦᠬᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯᠯᠢᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠳᠡᠮᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠯᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠬᠣᠣᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃  ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠦᠯᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ (CO2) ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[11]᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠣᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠴᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[12]᠃ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠣᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ CO2 ᠢ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠂ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ (ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ)᠃  ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ (ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ) ᠠᠷᠰᠧᠨᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠢᠨᠢᠺᠧᠯᠸᠠᠨᠠᠳᠢᠪᠧᠷᠢᠯᠺᠠᠳ᠋ᠮᠢᠪᠠᠷᠢᠾᠷᠣᠮᠵᠡᠰᠮᠣᠯᠢᠪᠳᠧᠨᠴᠠᠶᠢᠷᠰᠧᠯᠧᠨᠷᠠᠳᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠷᠠᠨᠲᠣᠷᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ [13][14] ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ᠂ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠷᠨᠢᠮᠠᠯ᠂ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠴᠤ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠮᠳᠤᠨ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠪᠤᠢ [15]᠃  ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠬᠢᠷᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠰᠤᠯᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠂ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠰᠦᠷᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠄ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 24 ᠮᠢᠯᠢ ᠵᠤᠤᠯ/ᠺᠯᠤᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ [16] ᠂ ᠬᠡᠷᠪᠡ kW ᠍ᠴᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠪᠡᠯ 6.67 kW ᠴᠠᠭ/ᠺᠯᠤᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠷ ᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠨᠢ 30% ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ 1 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ 6.67 kW ᠍ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 30% ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 2.0 kW ᠍ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ᠂ 100W ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ 876 kW ᠍ ᠴᠠᠭ (100 W × 24 ᠴᠠᠭ × 365 {ᠡᠳᠦᠷ} = 876000 W ᠍ ᠴᠠᠭ = 876 kW ᠍ ᠴᠠᠭ) ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ : 876 kW ᠍ ᠴᠠᠭ/2.0 kW ᠍ ᠴᠠᠭ = 438 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ[17]᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ (5 - 10%) ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ (ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ) ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃  ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠄ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ 50% ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 1 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ 0.5 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ  ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 0.5kg/12kg kmol<suᠷ>-1</suᠷ> = 1/24kmol᠂ 1 mol NA ᠍ ᠲᠡᠢ (ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠᠳ᠋᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ) ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯᠲᠥᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠢᠰᠦᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ (12 + 16 × 2 = ᠵᠢᠩ(CO2) = 44 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ/ᠺᠮᠣᠯᠢ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ᠂ 1/24 kmol CO2 ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ 1/24 kmol× 44 kg/kmol = 11/6 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 1.83 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ CO2 ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

1 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ 29.9% ᠨᠢ 2 kW ᠍ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠢᠳᠡ 1 kW ᠍ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠳᠤ 0.915 kg(CO2) ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[18]᠃  ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠄ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠢ᠂ ᠬᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠢᠮᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠂ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ [19] [20][21]᠃ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ 1.09 ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠵᠤ᠂ 2ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠢᠰᠦᠯ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠯᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ CO2 ᠶᠢᠨ 2-3% ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠧᠨᠰᠢᠯᠪᠠᠨᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠭ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ 1962 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷᠠᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠦ᠋ᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ "ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ" ᠍ ᠢ (Burning Mountain) ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ 5500 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ [22]

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠺᠠᠷᠺᠠᠨᠳ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ 10% ᠪᠠᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

1996 ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠣᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠡᠺᠰᠶᠡᠭᠷᠠᠮ (1 × 1015ᠺᠢᠯᠤ᠋ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 1 ᠲᠷᠢᠯᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠨ) ᠍ ᠪᠠᠷ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ 290 ᠽᠧᠲ᠋ᠳᠠ ᠵᠤᠤᠯ [23], ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ 15 ᠲᠧᠷᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ [24]᠂ 600 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠯᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠷᠢᠲᠡᠰᠢ ᠫᠧᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠯᠧᠤᠮ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 2005 ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ 9090.64 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠠᠦ᠋ᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ᠂ 1999 ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ (ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠨ)[25]
ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠢᠲᠡᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ (ᠠᠨᠲᠷᠠᠼᠢᠲ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ) ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠪᠢᠲᠡᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠩ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ
ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 115891 101021 33082 249994
ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 49088 97472 10450 157010
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 62200 33700 18600 114500
ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ 82396 2000 84396
ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ 42550 1840 37700 82090
ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ 23000 43000 66000
ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 49520 49520
ᠦᠺᠷᠠᠶᠢᠨ 16274 15946 1933 34153
ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ 31000 3000 34000
ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢ 20300 1860 22160

 ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ (ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠨ)[26]
ᠣᠷᠣᠨ 2003 2004
ᠠᠦ᠋ᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ 238.1 247.6
ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 43.0 48.0
ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 78.7 74.9
ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 41.0 55.7
ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢ 16.4 16.3
ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠ 27.7 28.8
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 103.4 95.5
ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ 57.8 65.9
ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ 107.8 131.4
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ 713.9 764.0

ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠦᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. "Human Impacts on Climate" American Geophysical Union. Retrieved on Sept 23rd 2008
  2. The EIA reports the following emissions in million metric tons of carbon dioxide:
    • Nat gas: 5,840.07
    • Petroleum: 10,995.47
    • Coal: 11,357.19
    For 2005 as the official energy statistics of the US Government.[1]
  3. Oxford English Dictionary 1989 edition
  4. International Energy Outlook. September 9, 2005 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  5. http://www.worldcoal.org/pages/content/index.asp?PageID=188
  6. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/figes1.html
  7. Robert Haul: Friedrich Bergius (1884-1949) ᠂ p. 62 in 'Chemie in unserer Zeit' ᠂ VCH-Verlagsgesellschaft mbH ᠂ 19. Jahrgang ᠂ April 1985 ᠂ Weinheim Germany
  8. Cleaner Coal Technology Programme (October 1999). "Technology Status Report 010: Coal Liquefaction" (PDF). Department of Trade and Industry (UK). Retrieved on 2006-11-23.
  9. Phillip A. Lowe, Wilburn C. Schroeder, Anthony L. Liccardi (1976). "Technical Economies, Synfuels and Coal Energy Symposium, Solid-Phase Catalytic Coal Liquefaction Process". The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
  10. Diesel Fuel News: Ultra-clean fuels from coal liquefaction: China about to launch big projects - Brief Article. September 9, 2005 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  11. http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/2007/IowaCoal_20071105.pdf
  12. Deadly power plants? Study fuels debate. September 4, 2006 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  13. Coal Combustion. September 9, 2005 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  14. Radioactive Elements in Coal and Fly Ash, USGS Factsheet 163-97. September 9, 2005 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  15. Coal Combustion: Nuclear Resource or Danger. October 16, 2006 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  16. Fisher, Juliya. Energy Density of Coal. The Physics Factbook. 2006-08-25 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  17. A similar result, using a lightbulb instead, see
    How much coal is required to run a 100-watt light bulb 24 hours a day for a year?. Howstuffworks. 2006-08-25 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  18. CO2 Emissions Report
  19. Sino German Coal fire project. September 9, 2005 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  20. Committee on Resources-Index. September 9, 2005 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  21. http://www.fire.blm.gov/textdocuments/6-27-03.pdf. September 9, 2005 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  22. Burning Mountain Nature Reserve. September 9, 2005 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  23. Sustainable Energy" 2005 page 303 The MIT Press by Jefferson W. Tester et al. ISBN 0-262-20153-4
  24. BP2006 energy report, and US EIA 2006 overview
  25. http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/publications/reports/ser/coal/coal.asp
  26. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/supplement/pdf/suptab_114.pdf

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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