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ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ

ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ 11 ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ Na ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠨ᠂ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠯᠢᠭ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠪᠠᠯᠵᠢ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠱᠦᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠤ ᠢᠽᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠫ ᠨᠢ 23Na ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡᠰᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠾᠯᠣᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢᠳ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠠᠩ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠯᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠂ᠰᠠᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠳ᠋ᠷᠣᠺᠰᠢ ᠳᠤ(ᠦᠨᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠱᠦᠯᠲᠦ),ᠰᠢᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠾᠯᠣᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ᠃ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠪᠠᠯ ᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠸᠠᠮᠪᠷᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠨᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠡᠷᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠡᠨᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠷᠨᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠂ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠭ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠮᠠᠺᠷᠣ ᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡᠰᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠩ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 1807 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠹᠷᠢ ᠳᠡᠪᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠳ᠋ᠷᠣᠺᠰᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠤᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠲᠷᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠯ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷᠲ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠢᠲᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠰᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠯᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠷ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠯᠢᠭ ᠭᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠢᠰᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠦᠷᠡᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ:1.5 ᠮᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠂ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ 1.9 ᠮᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠤᠩᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ 3.0 ᠮᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠤᠩᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠢᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠯ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳᠣᠭ ᠭᠠᠯ ᠷᠤ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠷ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠸᠠᠯᠧᠨᠲ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ 3s ᠣᠷᠪᠢᠲᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ 3p ᠣᠷᠪᠢᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠂ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ 3s ᠣᠷᠪᠢᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠷᠤ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠢᠭ 589.3 ᠳᠠᠬᠤ D ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠳᠣᠯᠭᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠹᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 3p ᠣᠷᠪᠢᠲᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠯᠧᠨᠲ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ D ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠢ D1(589.6) D2(589.0) ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠪᠢᠲᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ D ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠯᠠᠽᠧᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠯᠠᠽᠧᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠧᠯᠧᠰᠺᠣᠫ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

'ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨᠠᠬᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠬᠦᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠷᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ -2.71 ᠸᠣᠯᠲ᠋ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠱᠦᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠾᠯᠣᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠷᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠺᠠᠯᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠯᠢᠲᠢᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠱᠦᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠷᠪᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠷᠪᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠬᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠳ᠋ᠷᠣᠺᠰᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠧᠨ ᠭᠠᠰ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ Na2O2 ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ Na2O ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠴᠢᠭᠢᠭᠯᠢᠭ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠳ᠋ᠷᠣᠺᠰᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠢᠽᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠫ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ 20 ᠢᠽᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠫ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ 23Na ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠺᠣᠰᠮᠠᠭᠧᠨ ᠢᠽᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠫ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠶᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠥᠮ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠽᠣᠮᠧᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ 20,2 ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣ᠋ ᠰᠧᠺᠦᠶᠢᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ 24mNa ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠧᠢᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠰᠣᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠤ 23Na –ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ 24Na ᠷᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠳᠡᠭ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ᠃ 23Na ᠨᠢ 2 ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ 600 ᠮᠸᠭᠠᠺᠧᠯᠸᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠷᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠢ 2,6 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠩ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ 6 ᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠳᠠᠭ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤ᠂ ᠠᠮᠹᠢᠪᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠧᠣᠯᠢᠲ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠪᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ D ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠷᠢᠨᠧᠷ 10 ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠾᠷᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠰᠢᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠬᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠃ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠰᠣᠳᠠ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠳᠠ 3 ᠬᠣᠣᠰᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠹᠣᠰᠹᠠᠲ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠪᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠠᠨᠢᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠶᠢᠵᠦ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠦᠯᠢᠹᠠᠲ ᠨᠢᠲᠷᠠᠲ ᠺᠠᠷᠪᠶᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ Na(H2O).ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯᠲᠥᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠹᠢᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯᠲᠥᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠦᠯᠢᠹᠠᠲ ᠨᠢᠲᠷᠠᠲ ᠺᠠᠷᠪᠶᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠢᠯ᠃ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠨᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠦᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠪᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠥᠬᠡ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠭᠦᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠳᠠᠭ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨᠢᠭ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ 5-15 ᠳ᠋ᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠯᠢᠩ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠴᠠᠯᠢᠩ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠢ ᠴᠠᠯᠢᠩ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠣᠳᠣᠨᠤᠮ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠮᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠠ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ Na ᠍ ᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨᠰ ᠵᠧᠺᠣᠪ ᠪᠧᠷᠽᠧᠯᠢᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠴᠤᠭ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠴᠢᠭᠢᠭᠯᠢᠭ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠲᠥ᠋ᠷᠥᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠠᠶᠢᠯ ᠡᠷᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠵᠢᠩᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1807 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠹᠷᠢ ᠳᠡᠪᠢ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠯᠢᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠳᠡᠮᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠣᠳᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ 100,000 ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ 1855 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠧᠸᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ: Na2CO3 + 2 C → 2 Na + 3 CO ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠢᠪᠴᠤᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ 1886 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠷ 1924 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠫᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠶᠠᠨᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠯᠢᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠪᠣᠨᠰ ᠰᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠾᠯᠣᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠼᠧᠯᠰ ᠦᠨ 700 ᠭᠷᠠᠳᠦᠶᠢᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢᠬᠢ ᠺᠠᠯᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠾᠯᠣᠷᠢᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠳ᠋ᠷᠣᠺᠰᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠯᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠯᠢᠰᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠢᠮᠳᠠ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠷᠧᠶᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ 2009 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 1,5 ᠠᠮᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠮᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢ ᠭᠦᠢ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡᠰᠦᠲᠦ ᠲᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ᠃ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠦᠨᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠭ᠍ᠷᠠᠮ ᠨᠢ 165 ᠠᠮᠠ᠃ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠶᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

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ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠨ ᠷᠧᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠧᠢᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠧᠢᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠯᠬᠤ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠷᠧᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠩ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠷᠠᠳᠢᠣ᠋ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠧᠢᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠴᠥᠬᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠯᠠ ᠷᠧᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠷᠠᠳᠢᠣ᠋ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠬᠡᠷᠪᠡ ᠷᠧᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠭᠢᠭᠦᠶᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠺᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠺᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠯ ᠠᠪᠤᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠣᠣᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠪᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠴᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠰᠮᠣᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠢᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠣ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠦ 500 ᠮᠢᠯᠯᠢᠭᠷᠠᠮ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠾᠯᠣᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠤᠮᠳᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠲᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠰᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠷᠴᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ᠃ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠦ 1,5 ᠭᠷᠠᠮ ᠢ᠂ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ 2,3 ᠭᠷᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠷᠧᠨᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠨ᠋ᠽᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠢᠷᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠰᠬᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠦᠶᠢᠷᠧᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠫᠧᠫᠲ᠋ᠢᠳ᠋ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠩ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠴᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠷᠧᠨᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠲᠣᠷᠯᠣᠭ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠰᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠣᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠧᠭᠦᠦᠶᠠᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠰ 4 ᠪᠣᠮᠪᠣ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠯ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠹᠣᠰᠹᠣᠡᠭᠢᠯᠫᠢᠷᠤᠪᠡᠢᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠯᠪᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠾᠯᠣᠷᠣᠹᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨᠡᠭᠲᠡ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠂ᠲᠤᠷᠭᠤᠷ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠠᠲᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ᠃ᠬᠥᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠳᠴᠤ ᠭᠠᠩᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠰᠥ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠸᠠᠺᠣᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ᠃ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ᠂ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡᠳ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠤᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠣᠮᠵᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠰᠦᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠮᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠲᠥᠶᠢᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠯᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠢᠳᠡᠮᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠳ᠋ᠷᠣᠺᠰᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠭ᠃ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠭᠠᠷᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠥᠷᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠢᠳ᠋ᠷᠣᠯᠢᠽ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠣᠮᠵᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ᠃ᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠨᠲᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠠᠲᠷᠢᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠦᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠤᠨᠲᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠨᠤᠨᠲᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠡᠯᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠯᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠮᠧᠨᠧᠵᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 2 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠶᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠪ᠃ᠪᠠᠲᠤ-ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠴᠠ

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