ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ / ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

745–840[1]
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

 
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ
ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠮᠠᠨᠢᠾᠧᠢ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ
ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ
 - 744–747 ᠺᠦ᠋ᠲᠯᠤᠭ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭᠡ ᠺᠦᠯ
 - 841–847 ᠥᠭᠭᠦ ᠬᠠᠨ
ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ
 - ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ 745 ᠣᠨ
 - ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ 840 ᠣᠨ
ᠡᠵᠡᠩᠨᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ
 - 800 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ[2] 3,100,000 km2
Uigur uls.gif

ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

600 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠶᠢᠳᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ 10000 ᠭᠡᠷ ᠡᠷᠦᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ (ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡ) ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 611 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰ ᠤᠷ ᠲᠠᠠᠳᠤᠰᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ (ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ 2 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ) ᠲᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠨ 630 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠ᠃ 646 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠵᠣᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠢᠯᠡᠳᠲᠡᠪᠦᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠣᠯᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠲᠦᠨ ᠰ ᠤᠷ ᠲᠠᠠᠳᠤᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ 683 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠠᠢ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠯᠡᠩᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠾᠦᠩᠨᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠩᠯᠢᠩᠢᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠭᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠣᠺᠦ᠋ᠽ ᠣᠭᠤᠵᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠡ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠾᠦᠩᠨᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠨᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠬᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃ ᠵᠢᠦᠷᠠᠨᠢ/ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠭᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ (ᠴᠢᠯᠡ᠂ ᠲᠡᠯᠡ᠂ ᠭᠠᠴᠡ᠂ ᠭᠠ ᠠᠦᠢ) ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠣ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠭᠦᠨᠵᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠣᠭᠤᠵᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠣᠺᠦ᠋ᠽ ᠣᠭᠤᠵᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠭᠣᠪᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠯᠢᠮᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠨ 625 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠭᠤᠵᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠧᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ (ᠰᠧᠷᠢᠩᠳᠠ) ᠮᠠᠩᠯᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠤᠤᠤᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠭᠤᠵᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠬᠠᠪᠰᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠰᠧᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢ 647 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠲ᠋ᠧᠪᠧᠷ ᠲᠤᠮᠢᠳᠤ 647 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ 660-70 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠰᠠᠭ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠦᠷᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ 689-691 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠴᠤᠭᠠᠢ ᠭᠤᠵᠠ᠂ ᠺᠠᠷᠠᠺᠦᠶᠢᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠬᠤ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠭᠢᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠃ (745-840 ᠣᠨ)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦII ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ 9 ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠴᠦ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠫᠡᠶᠢᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠨ МЭ 745 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠲᠠ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

742 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠯᠤᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ dᠠᠰᠠᠮ ᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠨ 2 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠰᠴᠢ 744 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠰᠠᠮ ᠤᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠯᠵᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠯᠤᠭ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠮᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠰᠠᠮ ᠤᠯᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠺᠦᠲᠡᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠺᠡᠯ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠣᠯᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠯᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃ᠡᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠯ ᠢᠺ (ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠳ) ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 747 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠣᠳᠬᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠪᠤᠶᠠᠨᠴᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠲᠦᠮᠥᠰ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠰᠡᠯᠡᠩᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠢᠺ (ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ) ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ᠃

ᠫᠡᠶᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠮᠣᠠᠨᠴᠤᠷ (747-759) ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠲєᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠰᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲєᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠣᠠᠨᠴᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ МЭ 751 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠣᠠᠨᠴᠤᠷ ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬєᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠢᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭ (ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ) ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ єᠮᠨє ᠵᠦᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠂ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ єᠷᠨє ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ МЭ 755 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠨᠢ ᠯᠤ᠋ ᠍ ᠱᠠᠩᠢ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠭᠤᠶᠤᠵᠤ ᠡᠯᠴᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠣᠠᠨᠴᠤᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ 4000 ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ єᠳᠡᠢ ᠲєᠳᠡᠢ ᠬᠤᠢ ᠲᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠮᠣᠠᠨᠴᠤᠷ ᠢ ᠱᠠᠩᠨᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠦᠨᠵᠡ ᠨᠢᠩ ᠢᠶᠠ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠨєᠯᠠєє ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠮᠣᠠᠨᠴᠤᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠨ ᠣᠭᠤᠵᠠ᠂ ᠶᠢᠰᠦєᠨ ᠲᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠷ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠷᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮєᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠰᠢᠮᠡᠳ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠢᠶᠠᠯᠴᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠬᠤᠷᠴᠠᠳᠠᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠠᠨᠴᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨᠢ(759-779) ᠍ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠤᠨᠢᠮᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ 742 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠰᠮᠢᠯ᠂ ᠺᠠᠷᠯᠤᠤᠶᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠰᠮᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠪᠠ᠃ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ yᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠦᠶᠢᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠰᠮᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠧᠭᠤ ᠴᠣᠯᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠷᠯᠤᠤᠶᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠤᠤᠪᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠰᠮᠢᠯ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠣᠭᠤᠵᠠ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠺᠦ᠋ᠽ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠷ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠦᠴᠢ ᠺᠠᠷᠯᠤᠤᠶᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ᠂ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠪᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠦᠶᠢᠯᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠ 744 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠣ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨᠴᠢᠷ 747 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠢ ᠤᠦᠺᠦ᠋, ᠲᠣᠺᠦ᠋ᠽ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠷ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠢ ᠤᠦᠺᠦ᠋ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠺ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ 747-749 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃

756 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠡᠨᠢᠰᠧᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠷᠭᠢᠽᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠ᠃ 759 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠠᠨᠴᠤᠷ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠡᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠠᠷᠢᠬᠢ ᠤᠤᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭ ᠳᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠩᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠪᠡ᠃ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠬᠢ 762 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠮᠦᠦᠶᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠪᠰᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠨᠢᠬᠧᠢᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠯᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠨ ᠤᠭ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

779 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠬᠢ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠭᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠳᠬᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠷᠤ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠨᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠤ ᠠᠶᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ 2000 ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠫ ᠺᠦᠲᠡᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠤ ᠴᠢᠩᠳᠠ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠺᠢᠷᠭᠢᠽᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 795 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠥᠷᠨᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠵᠠᠨᠤᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠷᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠺᠦᠲᠡᠯᠦᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠩᠵᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠢ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠮ ᠤᠰ ᠠᠯᠫ ᠺᠦᠲᠡᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠧᠳᠢᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠤ ᠴᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠢᠳᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 808 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠮ ᠤᠰ ᠠᠯᠫ ᠺᠢᠰᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠷᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠭᠳᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ 821 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢᠴᠤᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠭᠯᠠᠺᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨᠴᠢᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ 750 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 750-760 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠣᠷᠭᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠷᠴᠢ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠥᠷᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠭᠯᠠᠺᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ 789 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠳ᠋ᠢᠽ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ Iᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨ ᠡᠴᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠬᠥᠷᠰᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠡᠷᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ 840 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠮᠥᠬᠥh ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠨᠢᠵᠢᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠠ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠩᠭᠣᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 840 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠨᠢᠰᠧᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠷᠭᠢᠰᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠦᠺᠧᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠴᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ 745 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠫᠢᠯᠣ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠫᠢᠯᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠠᠨᠴᠤᠷ (747-759) ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭᠵᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 751 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠶᠢᠳᠡ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ᠂ ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠩ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠣᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠯᠬ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ 755 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠤᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ 766 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ 12 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠭᠤᠪᠴᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠰᠣᠭᠳᠠ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠥᠪᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠳᠤᠨᠢᠮᠬᠡ (779-789) ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲєᠷєᠯᠠ ᠰєᠳєᠨ 2000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ XI ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠂ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ᠂ ᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠮᠰᠢᠭ᠂ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠽєᠷᠴᠢᠯ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃

824 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠥᠷᠨᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠺᠠᠰᠠᠷ 832 ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ 839 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠥᠷᠥᠪᠢᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠢᠶᠠᠪᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠮᠰᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠮᠠᠯ ᠰᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠬᠦᠵᠦ ᠦᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠥᠯᠥᠰᠦᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤᠳ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠶᠢᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 840 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ 9 ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠺᠥᠷᠥᠪᠢᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠰᠲᠦ ᠺᠢᠷᠭᠢᠽ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠰᠠᠨ 80000 ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠲᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠢ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠺᠢᠷᠭᠢᠽᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠨᠣᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠮᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠦᠢᠳᠯᠡᠨ᠂ ᠺᠥᠷᠥᠪᠢᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

820 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠡᠨᠢᠰᠧᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠷᠭᠢᠽ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠺᠢᠷᠭᠢᠽ᠂ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ 840 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠡᠨᠢᠰᠧᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠷᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠦᠺᠧᠰᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠴᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠴᠢᠨ 841 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠩᠰᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ 6 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠺᠢᠷᠭᠢᠽᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ᠂ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠺᠥᠷᠥᠪᠢᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠮᠤᠵᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ 847 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠺᠢᠷᠭᠢᠽᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 13 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠣᠷᠣᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠰᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ "ᠬᠥᠵᠢ ᠬᠥᠵᠢ" (ᠶᠠᠪᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤ) ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ 10 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ (ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ) ᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. britannica.com
  2. (December 2006) "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research 12 (2): 219–229. Retrieved on 09 January 2012.

ᠮᠥᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ