ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ
ᠠᠷᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ

ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠥᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠤᠴᠢᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ[1]

ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠮᠥᠰᠥᠨᠢᠭᠢ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠯᠳᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[2]᠃ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠢᠳᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠡᠩᠭᠡᠭ ᠤᠰᠤ᠂ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠵᠤᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠬᠦᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ 50% ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[1].

ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ᠂ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ᠂ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ᠂ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ ᠤᠭ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠥᠪ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃
  • ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠰᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ (International Hydrographic Organization, IHO) "ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠠᠷᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ[3]

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ 1.5 ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 14,056,000 ᠺᠦᠸᠠᠳ᠋ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ[4], ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ 45,389 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ[4]. ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠᠭᠷᠧᠨᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠨᠣᠷᠪ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠧᠨᠼ ᠤᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠺᠠᠷᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠯᠠᠫᠲ᠋ᠧᠪ ᠦᠨ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ-ᠰᠢᠪᠸᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠴᠢᠺᠣᠲ᠋ᠺ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠭᠷᠧᠨᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠪᠣᠹᠣᠷᠲ ᠤᠨᠪᠠᠹᠹᠢᠨ ᠤ᠂ ᠭᠤᠳᠽᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠧᠷᠢᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ᠂ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠷᠧᠨᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ[1] ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠯᠠᠪᠷᠠᠳᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺ ᠢᠶᠠᠷᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ: 90°00′N 0°00′E

ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠫᠣᠽᠤᠷᠤᠭ

ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠯᠣᠮᠣᠨᠣᠰᠣᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠨᠢ 4,000 - 4,500 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠭᠦᠨ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠠᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠨᠢ 4,000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ 1,038 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ[5], ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ 5,450 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠮᠥᠰᠥ ᠪᠦᠷᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ᠂ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠭ ᠮᠥᠰᠥ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠷᠮᠠᠭᠲᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠡᠺᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠᠴᠠᠰᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠨ᠎ᠡxᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠪᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ᠂ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠴᠡᠯᠮᠡᠭ ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠴᠢᠭᠢᠭᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠮᠠᠨᠠᠨᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠳᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ᠂ 0 ᠬᠡᠮ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠳᠣᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ 10 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠴᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠴᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠴᠠᠰᠤ 3 ᠪᠠ 4 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠴᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠤᠵᠠᠭᠠᠨ 20-50 ᠰᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠢᠫᠣᠯᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠤᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ᠂ ᠡᠯᠡᠰᠦ᠂ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠭᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠯᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠤᠭ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠣᠷᠣᠰᠺᠠᠨᠠᠳᠠᠨᠤᠷᠸᠸᠢᠳ᠋ᠠᠨᠮᠠᠷᠺ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ [6] ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠭ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ[7]


ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ

ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠠ [8] ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠭ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠺᠣᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠡᠪᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ[8].

ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠹᠢᠲ᠋ᠣᠫᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠢᠳᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ᠂ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠹᠢᠲ᠋ᠣᠫᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ[9]᠃ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠷᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠹᠢᠲ᠋ᠣᠫᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ[9].

ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠬᠦᠭᠦᠯ ᠨᠢᠮᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠣᠽᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠣᠭᠣᠷᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠬᠦᠭᠦᠯ ᠨᠢᠮᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ [10]᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠰᠥ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠂ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠢ (ᠲᠧᠷᠮᠣᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠡ - thermohaline circulation) ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠠᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠍ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ[10].

ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠴᠤᠷᠠᠭ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠭᠦᠢ ᠪᠣᠬᠢᠷᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ [11] [12] ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠣᠪᠣᠰᠢᠪᠢᠷᠢᠰᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠼ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠥᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠨᠢ᠂ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠨᠳᠢ᠂ ᠨᠣᠷᠸᠧᠭᠢ᠂ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠺᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ 6 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠪᠡᠬᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠮᠥᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Michael Pidwirny (2006). Introduction to the Oceans. www.physicalgeography.net. 2006-12-07 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  2. Some Thoughts on the Freezing and Melting of Sea Ice and Their Effects on the Ocean K. Aagaard and R. A. Woodgate, Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington, January 2001. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  3. Tomczak, Matthias & J. Stuart Godfrey (2003), Regional Oceanography: an Introduction (2 ed.), Delhi: Daya Publishing House, ISBN 81-7035-306-8, <http://www.es.flinders.edu.au/~mattom/regoc/>
  4. 4.0 4.1 Wright, John W. (ed.); Editors and reporters of The New York Times (2006). The New York Times Almanac, 2007, New York, New York: Penguin Books, 455. ISBN 0-14-303820-6. 
  5. The Mariana Trench - Oceanography. www.marianatrench.com (2003-04-04). 2006-12-02 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  6. The Arctic's New Gold Rush - BBC
  7. The Battle for the Next Energy Frontier: The Russian Polar Expedition and the Future of Arctic Hydrocarbons, by Shamil Midkhatovich Yenikeyeff and Timothy Fenton Krysiek, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, August 2007
  8. ᠣᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠄ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ <ref> ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠄ name ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ CIA ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠬᠠᠨᠭᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
  9. 9.0 9.1 Physical Nutrients and Primary Productivity Professor Terry Whiteledge. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Earth - melting in the heat? Richard Black, 7 October 2005. BBC News. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  11. 400 million cubic meters of radioactive waste threaten the Arctic area Thomas Nilsen, Bellona, 24 August 2001. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  12. Plutonium in the Russian Arctic, or How We Learned to Love the Bomb Bradley Moran, John N. Smith. Retrieved 7 December 2006.

ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠬᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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