ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
— «ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ» ᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠪᠠ —
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ
ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ

조선민주주의인민공화국 (ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ)
ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠤᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ: ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 강성대국 → ᠺᠠᠩᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠺ
«ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ᠂ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ»
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ:
ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 애국가 → ᠡᠭᠦᠭ
«ᠡᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠨᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤ»

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ
ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯᠫᠬᠡᠨᠢᠶᠠᠨ (ᠫᠶᠣᠨᠢᠶᠠᠨ)
ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠬᠡᠨᠴᠣᠩᠵᠢᠨᠢ
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ  ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ:
100% – ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
 -  ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ 100% – ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ
(≈ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰᠴᠤᠳ)
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ
᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠠᠮ᠂
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ
 -  ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠢᠮ ᠢᠷ ᠰᠧᠨ
 -  ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠢᠮ ᠵᠣᠩ ᠥᠨᠢ
 -  ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠢᠮ ᠶᠣᠩ ᠨᠠᠮ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠴᠣᠶᠢ ᠶᠣᠩ ᠢᠯᠡ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ «ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ»
ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 2333-10-03 ᠺᠦᠷᠡᠦᠰᠣᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ 
 -  1945-08-15 ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨᠣ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 
 -  1948-09-09 ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ
 -  ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ 120,540 km2 (98)
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 4.87
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (2011) 24,554,000 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ[1] (48)
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (2008) 24,052,231 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ[2] 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ 198.3 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km2 
GDP (ХАЧТ) 2008[3] ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $400 ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠰᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ 94  ᠳᠦ
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $1,900 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ154 ᠳᠦ
GDP (ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) 2009 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $28.2 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ  ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ88 ᠳᠦ
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $1,244[4] ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ139]])
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠣᠨᠢ (₩) (KPW)
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ (GMT+9)
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠳᠣᠮᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ +850 / .kp
ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ KP, PRK / ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ (ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ) ᠍ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ "ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠵᠢᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠳᠠᠳᠣ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ (ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ)᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ (ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠬᠠᠨ)᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ(38 ᠱᠣᠭᠣᠮ) ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ᠂ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠺᠦᠷᠡᠦᠰᠣᠨᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 8 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1910 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠢᠪᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠢᠶᠠᠯᠴᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1948 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1950 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ  ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠦᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ 1953 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1991 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮᠲᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠺᠢᠮ ᠢᠷ ᠰᠧᠨ ᠢᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠣᠮᠪᠣᠯᠣ ᠬᠥᠪᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠺᠢᠮ ᠵᠣᠩ ᠥᠨᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠥᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

122762 ᠺᠦᠸᠠᠲ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ (98 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ) ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠂ 2515.5 ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ (48 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ) ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ(2015ᠣᠨ)᠃

ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (조선민주주의인민공화국) ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠤᠭᠲᠤᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ «ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ» ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠭᠡ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ «ᠴᠢᠰᠣᠨᠢ» (조선)᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ «ᠬᠠᠨᠢ» (한) ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ122762 ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠸᠸᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 98 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠂ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ  (ᠠᠩᠭᠯ᠃)

ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ 37° — 43°᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ 124° —131° ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ᠂ ᠫᠡᠩᠳᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ᠂ ᠶᠠᠯᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1416 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠵᠤᠷᠪᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 238 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 17.5 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠵᠤᠷᠪᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ — 1671.5 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠃

ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ (ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ)᠂ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠᠯ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ(ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ) ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ 2495 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠃ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠲᠦ 92.6 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠲᠦ 370.4 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 400 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ᠃ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ 80 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ᠃ 50 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠭᠣᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ᠂ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ 2744 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠫᠡᠩᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ᠃ ᠬᠥᠪᠴᠢ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠢᠪᠠᠯ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠶᠣᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠩᠨᠢᠮ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠮ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠪᠡᠭ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠥᠮᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ (1638 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ) ᠦᠵᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃[5] ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠮᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠪ ᠰᠠᠨᠢ (2205 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ) ᠂ ᠮᠶᠬᠬᠢᠩ ᠰᠠᠨᠢ (1909 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ) ᠂ ᠮᠠᠲᠡ ᠰᠠᠨᠢ (1745 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ) ᠂ ᠮᠢᠪᠤ ᠰᠠᠨᠢ (1578 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠰ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

40 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠳᠠᠭ 138 ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠭᠣᠷᠣᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ 790 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠯᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[6] ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ 521 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠫᠶᠣᠨᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠡᠳᠤᠨ 397 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠮᠵᠢᠨᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ 273 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃

ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠫᠶᠣᠨᠢᠶᠠᠨ᠂ ᠴᠡᠶᠣᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠩ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ᠃

ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ 14.4 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠣᠢ ᠮᠣᠳᠣ 61 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠷᠠᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ  124 ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ᠂ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠤᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ I ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ −3 — −13 °C᠂ 8 ᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ 20 °C — 29 °C ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠨᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ 60 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ 6—9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠨᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠯᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠᠭᠢᠨᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠳᠴᠠᠶᠢᠷᠪᠠᠯᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷᠵᠡᠰᠠᠯᠲᠠᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠵᠦᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺ ᠤᠮᠰᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠪᠬᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠳ
ᠡᠮᠨᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠳᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠷᠥᠭᠡ

ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 24,451,285 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 194 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 48 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠭᠴᠣᠮ ᠥᠰᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠰᠢᠷᠠᠵᠤ 2014 ᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ 0.5% ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠮ ᠳᠤ 15 ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠵᠦ᠂ 9 ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠦᠭᠴᠢᠳᠡᠩ᠃ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠥᠯᠥᠰᠬᠦᠯᠡᠩ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠡᠷᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠭᠡᠷᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠴᠤᠴᠠᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 22 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ 0–14 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠴᠤᠳ᠂ 69% ᠨᠢ 15–64 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠨ᠂ 9% ᠨᠢ 65 ᠍ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ — 198.3 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km²᠂ ᠬᠦᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠭᠳᠡ᠂ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ — 99%, ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ — 63 ᠵᠢᠯ᠃

ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ 100 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠬᠤ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠥᠨᠥᠴᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ (ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠴᠢᠰᠣᠨᠢ ᠭ ᠤᠯ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ) ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠶᠣᠨ᠂ ᠫᠶᠣᠨᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠫᠶᠣᠨᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ «ᠮᠦᠨᠢᠬᠤ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ» (ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ) ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠢᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠰ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠴᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠮᠤᠨᠢᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 64 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ 16 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡᠨ᠂ 13.5% ᠴᠣᠨᠢᠳ ᠢᠶᠤ (ᠺᠥᠩᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ)᠂ 4.5% ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠂ 1.7% ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠰᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠺᠥᠩᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠪ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃

ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1987 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 59 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ (2008 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ):

ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠰᠦ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠢᠭᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃

ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ᠂ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ᠂ ᠺᠢᠨᠣ᠋ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠣ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ᠂ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠺᠢᠮ ᠢᠷ ᠰᠧᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷ ᠴᠤᠤ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠺᠢᠨᠣᠭ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠪᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠴᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠠᠩᠭᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 1) ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠬᠢᠴᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ (ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠲᠤ ᠬᠥᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠴᠦᠴᠡ ᠴᠠᠮᠬᠠᠭ)᠃ 2) ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷ ᠲᠡᠢ (ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠰᠬᠦᠯᠡᠩ)᠃ 3) ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠬᠢᠴᠡ ᠭᠦᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠷᠶ ᠢᠶᠣᠨ ᠵᠣᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠢᠮᠨᠡᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠦᠨ «ᠠᠷᠠᠷᠢᠨ» ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠮ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠦᠵᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠭᠢᠨᠢᠨ᠋ᠧᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠫᠶᠣᠨᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 150,000 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠡᠩᠭᠡᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠩ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

1964–2014 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠮᠢᠷᠴᠢᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠤᠤᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠᠪᠣᠺᠰᠭᠢᠮᠨᠡᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠺᠪᠥᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡᠵᠢᠦ᠋ᠳᠣ᠋, ᠲᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠷᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠧᠨᠨᠢᠰ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 14 ᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠂ 13 ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥ᠂ 22 ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠯ ᠮᠧᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠥᠯᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠰᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ 1966 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺᠦᠶᠢᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠬᠤ
ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠽᠥᠰᠥᠶᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠦᠨᠢ ᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 2333 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃[7] ᠺᠦᠷᠡᠦᠰᠣᠨᠢ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠺᠦᠷᠡᠦᠰᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠪᠳᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯᠳᠦᠵᠦ ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠫᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠤᠭᠵᠣᠲᠤᠩ-ᠶᠡᠰᠠᠮᠬᠠᠨᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠫᠧᠺᠴᠡᠰᠢᠯᠠᠯ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠺᠦᠶᠢᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠥᠬᠥᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ 676 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠩ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠪᠡ᠃ ᠰᠢᠯᠠᠯ (ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ) - ᠲᠠᠨ (ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ) ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 10 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠺᠦᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠪ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 926 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠬᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠵᠤ ᠸᠠᠩ 936 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠴᠢᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮ ᠰᠡᠬᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠯᠠᠪᠰᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ 1377 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠺᠴᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃[8] 13 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠬᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 30 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳᠣ᠂ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠨᠡᠨᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠣᠴᠣᠷᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠶ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯᠳᠦᠵᠦ᠂ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ 1392 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢ ᠰᠣᠨ ᠭᠧ ᠵᠠᠩᠵᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠰᠣᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠴᠢᠰᠣᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠶᠣᠨᠪᠦᠺ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ
ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ 200 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠺ ᠢᠶᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠨᠢᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ (ᠥᠨᠥ ᠰᠤᠤᠯ) ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠵᠢᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠮᠤᠭᠤᠯᠠᠩ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠡᠵᠤᠩ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠺᠥᠩᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1592-1598 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠶᠣᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠢ ᠬᠢᠳᠶᠰᠢ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠥᠷᠦᠨᠡᠰᠢ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠬᠣ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠦᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠩᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ "ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠤ ᠮᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ"᠂ ᠮᠢᠩ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠢᠩ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠰᠣᠨᠢ 1627᠂ 1636 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷᠠᠨᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠢᠩ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ) ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪ ᠢ ᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠵᠢᠮᠡᠷ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭᠤᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

1870 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠠᠬᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠯᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ 1895 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠰᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠣᠷᠯᠠᠵᠤ [9]᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 1905 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠪᠡᠭᠡᠯᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠪᠡ᠃[10] 1910-1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ

20 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠣ (ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ) ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠮᠨᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠰᠴᠢ᠂ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠺᠣᠮᠮᠤᠨᠢᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠰᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠮᠨᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠤᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠍ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠢ 38 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠲᠤ 1948 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠮᠤᠨᠢᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠮᠨᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

«ᠮᠠᠨᠢᠰᠦᠲᠡ»᠃ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ

ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ (ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ) ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 3 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ (ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠺᠢᠮ ᠵᠣᠩ ᠥᠨᠢ 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠠᠨᠳᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠺᠢᠮ ᠢᠷ ᠰᠧᠨ ᠨᠢ 1994 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ «ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ» ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ᠂ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠺᠢᠮ ᠴᠧᠨ ᠢᠷ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ «ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ» ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ 687 ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ (ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ) ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 1998 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠺᠢᠮ ᠶᠣᠩ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠫᠠᠭ ᠪᠤᠨ ᠵᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ 30 ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ᠂ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ᠂ ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠂ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢ (ᠬᠦᠰᠦᠨᠦᠭᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ)
ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ
ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ
ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ
(ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ)
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
(2008 ᠣᠨ)
ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ
ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ
ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ — (직할시 ᠴᠢᠺᠠᠯ ᠱᠢ)
1 ᠫᠶᠣᠨᠢᠶᠠᠨ (ᠫᠬᠡᠨᠢᠶᠠᠨ) 2,581,076 평양직할시
ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ — (특별시 ᠲ ᠤᠺᠪᠶ᠋ᠢᠯ ᠱᠢ)
2 ᠷᠠᠰᠣᠨᠢ 196,954 라선특별시
— ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ —
3 ᠺ ᠡᠴᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ 개성공업지구
4 ᠺ ᠤᠮᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ 금강산관광지구
5 ᠰᠢᠩᠢᠵᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ 신의주특별행정구
ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ / ᠮᠤᠵᠢ — (도 ᠲᠤ/ᠳᠤ)
6 ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ 1,299,830 자강도
7 ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠫᠶᠣᠨᠢᠠᠨᠢ (ᠫᠶᠣᠩᠨᠠᠮ) 4,051,696 평안남도
8 ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠫᠶᠣᠨᠢᠠᠨᠢ (ᠫᠶᠣᠨᠪᠦᠭ) 2,728,662 평안북도
9 ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠤᠸᠠᠩᠭᠡ (ᠬᠤᠸᠠᠨᠠᠮ) 2,310,485 황해남도
10 ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠸᠠᠩᠭᠡ (ᠬᠤᠸᠠᠨᠪᠦᠭ) 2,113,672 황해북도
11 ᠺᠠᠨᠸᠣᠨᠢ 1,477,582 강원도
12 ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠶᠣᠨ (ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠨᠠᠮ) 3,066,013 함경남도
13 ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠶᠣᠨ (ᠬᠠᠮᠪᠦᠭ) 2,327,362 함경북도
14 ᠶᠠᠩᠭᠠᠨ 719,269 량강도
ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ

ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ (ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ) ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ 1,106,000, ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ 8,389,000 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ 17–54 ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠴᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ 20% ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃[11] ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ᠂ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ᠂ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ᠂ ᠫᠤᠤᠵᠢᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠠᠪᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠳᠤ 3700 ᠲᠠᠩᠺ᠂ 2100 ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠭᠲᠤ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ᠂ 17900 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠤ᠂ 11000 ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠤᠤ᠂ 1600 ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ᠂ 1000 ᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃[12] ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠱᠤᠩᠪᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠹᠯᠣᠲ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠩᠭᠣᠰ ᠴᠥᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠴᠢᠷᠮᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ 3000 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠤᠬᠤ ᠫᠤᠤᠵᠢᠩ 1000–ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[13]

ᠮᠥᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠯᠠᠪᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Ko UNFPA (2009-10-01). "한반도 인구 7천400만명 시대 임박". Retrieved on 21 November 2012.
  2. DPR Korea 2008 Population Census National Report. DPRK Central Bureau of Statistics (2009). 2011-02-19 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  3. Country Profile: North Korea. Foreign and Commonwealth Office, UK (2009-06-25). the original on 2011-05-01 ᠍ ᠰ ᠠᠷᠬᠢᠸᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 2010-02-10 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  4. GDP (official exchange rate), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, last updated on April 26, 2010; accessed on May 17, 2010. Population data obtained from Total Midyear Population, U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base, accessed on May 17, 2010. Note: Per capita values were obtained by dividing the GDP (official exchange rate) data by the Population data.
  5. ᠣᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠄ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ <ref> ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠄ name ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ Topography ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠬᠠᠨᠭᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
  6. Caraway, Bill (2007). Korea Geography. The Korean History Project. 2007-08-01 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  7. Korea's History (Ko-Choson, Three Kingdoms, Parhae Kingdom, Unified Shilla, Koryo Dynasty, Colonial Period, Independence Struggle, Provisional Government of Korea, Independence Army, Republic of Korea,)
  8. URL_ID=3946&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html World's oldest printed Doc
  9. Murder of Empress Myeongseong
  10. Forced Annexation
  11. International Institute for Strategic Studies (2010-02-03). Hackett, James, ed. The Military Balance 2010. London: Routledge. ISBN 1-85743-557-5.
  12. Country Study 2009, p. 248.
  13. "North Korea has 1,000 missiles, South says". Reuters. 2010.

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